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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
KDICical Characteristics and Microbial Activity of Streams Contaminated by The Abandoned Coal Mine Drainage
Cho, Kyoung-Suk ; Ryu, Hee-Wook ; Chang, Young-Keun ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 365~373
A survey was carried out to investigate the contamination of streams by the acid mine drainage originated from the abandoned coal mines and coal refuse piles. The physico-KDICical characteristics such as pH, sulfate and elements concentrations in the water and sediment in streams were analyzed. Microbial activity in the sediment was evaluated by measuring dehydrogenase activities. At sites contaminated by acid mine drainage, the pH of the water and sediment declined to acidic range from neutral due to the accumulation of sulfate. The dehydrogenase activity ranged from 12 to
at the contaminated sites, whereas uncontaminated sites had activities of 1,176~4,259
. The dehydrogenase activity was significantly affected by low pH of the sediment, indicating that high concentration of sulfate inhibited microbial activity. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb and Fe in contaminated sdeiment (37~46 ppm Pb; 46,000~464,000 ppm Fe) were much higher than those in the uncontaminated sediment. The concentration of Al in the contaminated water acidfied by coal mine drainage was in the range of 11 to 42 ppm. Compared with those in the uncontaminated sediment, the concentrations of Mn, Mg and Ca in contaminated sediment were low because of the leaching from soil to water by the acidfied stream water.
Effects of Forest Fire on Soil Nutrients in Pine Forests in Kosong Kangwon Province
Mun, Hyeong-Tae ; Choung, Yeon-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 375~383
Effects of forest fire on soil nutrients in pine forests were studied in Dosong, Kangwon Province in Korea. Soil samples were collected from burned sites and unburned sites (control) at Kusungri, Sampori and Wunbongri. Soil pH in burned sites was higher than that in unburned sites. Soil organic matter did not differ significantly between the burned and unburned sites. Concentrations of available phosphorus in burned soils were about 3 times higher than those in unburned sites. Also, concentrations of ammonium nitrogen were markedly increased in burned sites contrary to those of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen, however, showed no significant difference between the sites. Concentrations of cations, calcium and magnesium, in burned sites were also significantly increased. Thus, even though forest fire removed the aboveground biomass of pine forests, inorganic nutrients added from ash may play a great role for growth of sprouts and seedlings after forest fire.
Effect of Ferulic Acid on Polyamine Titers and Enzyme Activities during the Radicle Growth of Glycine max
Kim, Yong-Ok ; Ho-Joon Lee ; Young-Dong Cho ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 385~392
Changes in polyamine titers and enzyme activities during radicle growth of Glycine max were studied in order to investigate the effect of ferulic acid in regulation of polyamine biosynthesis. Among eight compounds used, gallic acid stimulated the radicle growth and ferulic acid inhibited it significantly. During the radicle growth of Glycine max, the content of putrescine was shown the highest level at the second day, while at the fourth day spermidine was the highest and spermine followed. Ornithine decarboxylass (ODC, EC 22.214.171.124) seems to be responsible for biosynthesis of putrescine. As the concentration of ferulic acid (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mM) treated increased, the content of spermine was gradually enhanced and putrescine was increased at 0.001~0.01 mM, decreased after 0.1 mM concentration but spermidine was not affected. Ferulic acid elevated ODC and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylass (SAMDC, EC 126.96.36.199) activity. ODC activity was increased more than 120% and SAMDC activity was increased about 50% more than that of the control. Diamine oxidase (DAO EC, 188.8.131.52) activity was enhanced about 20% at low concentration, decreased after then.
Seasonal Abundance and Vertical Distribution of Soil Microarthropods at the Piagol Mt Chiri
Hong, Yong ; Tae-Heung Kim ; Young-Chol Oh ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 393~402
Density fluctuations of soil microarthropods at the Piagol, Mt. Chiri was assessed on the basis of 113, 096 individuals collected from March 1993 to February 1994. Of 6 classes, and 18 orders, the Arachnida and Insecta were the most numerous members with abundance of 51.4% and 46.3%, respectively. The mean density of the Acari was
of microarthropods. The Acari were abundant in autumn and less found in winter and the density fluctuation of the Collembola followed a similar trend. The vertical distribution of the mesofauna revealed from the soil samples taken from the surface to 5 and from 5 to 10 cm in depths was as follows. In 5~10 cm layer. Collembola was numerous with abundance of 54.7%, followed by 40.1% fo Acari and the soil microarthropods reached the highest density peak in spring, while the lowest in winter. Populations concentrated in the 0~5 cm layer as much as 62.2% throughtout the season and 82.4% throughtout the altitudes. The Acari / Collembola (A/C) ratio in the 0~5 cm layer was higher than that in the 5~10 cm.
Development of Global Natural Vegetation Mapping System for Estimating Potential Forest Area
Cha, Gyung Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 403~416
Global natural vegetation mapping (GNVM) system was developed for estimating potential forest area of the globe. With input of monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation observed at weather stations, the system spherically interpolates them into 1°×1°grid points on a blobe, converts them into vegetation types, and produces a potential vegetation map and a potenital vegetation area. The spherical interpolation was based on negative exponential function fed from the constant radius stations with oval weighing method which is latitudinally elongated weighing in temperature and longitudinally elongated weighing in precipitation. The temperature values were corrected for altitude by applying a linear lapse-rate (0.65℃ / 100m) with reference to a built-in digital terrain map of the globe. The vegetation classification was based upon Koppen’s sKDICe. The potential forest area is estimated for 6.96 Gha (46.24％) of the global land area (15.05 Gha).
Dynamics of the Plant Community Structure and Soil Properties in the Burned and Unburned Areas of the Mt. Ch’olye-san
Sim, Hak-Bo ; Woen Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 417~430
This study was conducted to investigate the developmental process of plant community during the secondary succession and the dynamics of soil properties in the burned and unburned areas of Mt. Ch’oly-san. Owing to the forest fire occurred on April, 1989, the red pine(Pinus densiflora) forest and its floor vegetation were burned down. The floristic composition of burned and unburned areas were composed of 53 and 49 species of vascular plants, respectively. The dominant species based on SDR4 of the burned sites were lespedeza cyrtobotrya (89.62), Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (62.50), and Carex humilis (58.73), Quercus serrata (43.33). In contrast, Pinus densiflora (83.56), Lespedeza cyrtobotrya (55.57), Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (51.88) and Carex humilis (50.41) were dominant in the unburned area. The biological spectra showed the
type in both the burned and unburned areas. The indices of similarity (
) between the two areas were 0.74. Degree of succession (DS) was 604 in the burned area and 802 in the unburned area. From these facts, it is assumed that the succession is rapidly progressing because of the recovery of vegetation. The species diversity (
) and evenness index(C) in the burned and unburned areas were 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Red pine tree did not resprout after scorch by the forest fire, but Lespedeza, Quercus, Rhododendron, Albizzia, and Zanthoxylum resprouted from the roots and trunks after the forest fire. It seems that these species are the fire-resistant species. Soil properties such as soil pH, content of organic matter, available phosphous, total nitrogen, tatal carbon, exchangeable potssium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium increased due to forest fire. These results suggest the intensity of forest fire in the study area was relatively weak. Monthly changes of soil properties were of little significance except for some cases.
A Phytosociological Study on the Riverside Vegetation around Hanchon an Upper Stream of Nak-tong River
Song, Jong-Suk ; Seung-Dal Song ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 431~451
The present studwas undertaken to classify and describe the riverside vegetation around Hanchon (36°27’-36°51’N, 128°15’-128°37’E), a tributary in the upper stream area of Nak-tong River, South Korea by methods of the ZM school of phytosociology. As a result the vegetation was divided into twenty three associations and communities belonging to ten classes. Reflecting various human impacts in the past, the associations and communities of the Artemisietea principis were most plentiful there. The vegetation units obtained in the present study were as follows: A. forest vegetation A-1 Fagetea crenatae:Zelkova serrata community, Larix leptolepis community; B. Shrub vegetation B-1 Salicetea sachalinensis:Salicetum gracilistylae, Salicetum graciliglandis assoc. nov., B-2 Rosetea sachalinensis:Salicetum gracilistylae, Salicetum graciliglandis assoc. nov., B-2 Rosetea multiflorae:Stephanandra incisa community, Lycium chinense community; C. Grassland vegetation C-1 Lemnetea minoris:Spirodela polyrhiza-Lemna paucicostata community, C-2 Bidentetea tripartiti:Polygonetum thunbergii, Polygonetum sieboldii-hydropiperis, Panico Polygonetum hydropiperis, Pharagmitetea :Oenantho- Phalaridetum arundinaceae, Phragmitetum japonicae, Miscanthetum sacchariflori, Phragmites australis community, C-4 Artemisietea principis:Artemisia princeps community, Impatiens textori community, Lactuco indicae-Humuletum japonicae, Pueraria lobata-Humulus japonicus community, Pennisetum alopecuroides community, C-5 chenopodietea:Echinochloa crus-galli var. orizicola community, Digitaria adsecendens community, Polygonum nodosum community, C-6 Miscanthetea sinensis: Miscanthus sinensis community, C-7 Plantaginetea:Eragrotis multicaulis-Plantago asiatica community. It is inferred that the endemic vegetation units in the riverside vegetation of Korea are very rare, because most of the vegetation units obtained in the present study are common with those of Japan. Among the above vegetation units, the Salicetum graciliglandis was established as a n
Diurnal changes of Tissue Water Relations in Two Allopatric Tree Species
Park, Yong-Mok ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 453~463
Diurnal changes of microclimatic conditions and tissue water relations were measured at two sites where Carpinus laxiflora and C. cordata were allopatrically distributed. The microclimatic conditions at a site where C. laxiflora was distributed produced severe water stress condition during summer months. Daily maximum temperature reached
and the highest vapor pressure deficit was 1.31 KPa when 13 rainless days were continued. During this period soil water content decreased to below the field capacity even at a depth of 20 cm and xylem pressure potential also decreased to 2.04 MPa. However, turgor potential was maintained more than 0.4 MPa. Patterns of stomatal conductance were changed with evaporative demand and soil water availability. On the other hand, microclimatic conditions at a site where C. cordata was distributed were moderate water strees condition compared with those at a site C. laxiflora was distributed. Though soil water content was maintained above field capacity C. cordata showed a remarkable decrease in turgor potential and stomatal conductance throughout the experiment. These results indicate that there is a difference in habitat characteristics between the two species and C. laxiflora is more resistant than C. cordata to water stress.
Classification of Forest Vegetation Zone over Southern Part of Korean Peninsula Using Geographic Information Systems
Lee, Kyu-Sung ; Byong-Chun Lee ; Joon Hwan Shin ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 465~476
There are several environmental variables that may be influential to the spatial distribution of forest vegetation. To create a map of forest vegetation zone over southern part of Korean Peninsula, digital map layers were produced for each of environmental variables that include topography, geographic locations, and climate. In addition, an extensive set of field survey data was collected at relatively undisturbed forests and they were introduced into the GIS database with exact coordinates of survey sites. Preliminary statistical analysis on the survey data showed that the environmental variables were significantly different among the previously defined five forest vegetation zones. Classification of the six layers of digital map representing environmental variables was carried out by a supervised classifier using the training statistics from field survey data and by a clustering algorithm. Although the maps from two classifiers were somewhat different due to the classification procedure applied, they showed overall patterns of vertical and horizontal distribution of forest zones. considering the spatial contents of many ecological studies, GIS can be used as an important tool to manage and analyze spatial data. This study discusses more about the generation of digital map and the analysis procedure rather than the outcome map of forest vegetation zone.
Breeding Habits and Egg Development of the Goby, Micropercops swinhonis
Kim, Ik-Soo ; Byung-Jik Kim ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 477~486
The freshwater goby, Micropercops swinhonis (
) was studied on the spawning behavior and egg develeopment at the two areas of Chollabukdo, Korea from March to May 1995. Egg mass attached to a layer under stones and the inner wall of waterplant, Cyperus. Spawning behavior was divided in to 1) premating stage: selecting spawning sites and formation of territory by male, 2) mating stage: enticement with zigzag-like dance and intermittant shaking of head by male and fertilization, 3) postmating stage: fanning, guarding and cleaning the nest by male. The eggs were transparent and spherical in shape, measuring
with yellowish yolk sac and many oil globules. Hatching began in about ten days after fertilization at water temperature
. The newly hatched larvae were 3.8~4.0 mm in total length with 30 myomeres and their mouths and anuses were opened. Melanophores appeared at the air-bladder and the ventral side of caudal region.gion.
Distribution and Nutrient Removal Capacity of Aquatic Plants in Relation to Pollutant Load from the Watershed of Youngsan River
Ihm, Byung-Sun ; Ha-song Kim ; Jeom-Sook Lee ; KyeHong Suh ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 19, issue 5, 1996, Pages 487~496
This study was conducted to investigate pollutant loading, were quality and plant distribution of 8 streams which are tributaries of the Youngsan River. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and nutrient removall capacity of the most frequently occurring aquatic plants on streamside were also determined. As a result, the pollutant loading appeared to be correlated with the area of watershed, while the water quality was related to the land use pattern of each steam. The aquatic plants were distributed differently among the streams; Hydrilla verticillata - Potamogeton crispus, Numphoides peltata - Hydrocharis dubia and Polygonum thunbergii - Phragmites japonica were dominant at the Orye Chon, Jungan Chon, Whangryong River and Jiseok Chon, while potamogeton crispus - Lemma paucicostata, Zizania latifolia - Phragmites communis were dominant at the Youngam Chon and Munpyeong Chon. Persicaria hydropiper and Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola were dominant at Kwangju Chon which was polluted with domestic wastewater. >From the measurement of leaf NRA for dominant species, the highest value of NRA was shown by the Polygonum thunbergii, followed by Oenanthe javanica > Phragmites communis > Zizania latifolia > Lemma paucicostata. The highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity was found in Phragmites communis.