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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_3 - Jun 1998
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_2 - Apr 1998
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_1 - Feb 1998
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5 - 00 1998
Selecting the target year
Chemical Properties of Soils in the Vicinity of Yoch의on Industrial Complex
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~6
Effects of air pollutants on the chemical properties of soil in Yoch'on inductrial complex were investigated. Soil pH showed severe acidity with average value of 4.3$\pm$0.13. Soil pH decreaed along the increase in altitute of Mt. Jeseok. Soil organic matter and total N was 19.2$\pm$3.6% and 4.7$\pm$0.25mg/g, respectively, which were higher than those of unpolluted area, Kongju. Available P was 41.2$\pm$3.7 $\mu$g/g, which was 4 times greater than that of unpolluted area, Kongju. Average content of total-S was 283.5$\pm$14.1 $\mu$g/g, which was 10 times greater than that of unpolluted area. Content of available Al was o.43$\pm$0.03 mg/g, which was 2 times greater than that of unpolluted area. Available Al increased as the soil pH decrease. Contents of exchangeable K, Ca and Mg were significantly lower than those in unpolluted area, because of severe leaching in acid soil.
Distributional Characteristics of Mantle Communities
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 7~13
The distributional characteristics about 8 syntaxa of mantle communitly (Mantelgesellschaften) in South Korea was studied. This study was carried out by geographic and bioclimatic analysis on 326 phytosociological releves on the basis of syntaxonomy and hierarchical system of mantle community already obtained from Zurich-Montpellier School's method, which involves direct analysis on the latitude, altitude, annual mean temperature and the lowest temperature of each site. The distributional characteristics of mantle communities in South Korea appeared from South to North in the order of Mallotetum japonicae, Clerodendretum trichotomae, Akebietum quinatae, Lonicero-Puerarietum lobatae, Spiraetum salicifoliae. Dioscoreo-Actinidietum argutae, Sorbarietum stellipilae and Tripterygietum regelii. It is suggested that the information (syntaxonomical, floral, geographic and bioclimatic data) of Japan, North Korea and China is essential to determine the distributional characteristics of mantle community in Korean Peninsula.
Arthropod Community in Small Rice Fields Managed by Different Fertilization Rate and Pesticide Application in Suwon
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 15~26
This study was conducted to analyze arthropod community patterns in smallrice fields managed by different cultural methods [Conventional and Low Input Sustainable Agriculture(LISA)] in Suwon in 1995 and 1996. A half of nitrogen fertilizers and a quarter of pesticides were applied in the LISA field compared to in the conventional field. Total 15 orders and 43 families of arthropods were collected in two years. No differences were found in arthropod abundance and arthropod species composition between two differently practiced fields. The arthropod community was analyzed using guild categories. The arthropods were found in the order of 'pest(phytophag)>natural enemy>non-pest' in their densities. The pest species were mainly Homoptera and dominated by Delphacidae (Nilaparvata lugens Stal and Sogatella furcifera Horvath). They constituted > 80% of pest abundance. The spider was the most dominant group in the natural enemy and constituted > 90% of natural enemy abundance. Hunting spiders constituted > 60% of spider abundance and were dominated by Pirata subpiraticus Bos. et Str.(Lycosidae). Pachygnatha clerki Sundevall(Tetragnathidae), Gnathonarium dentatum Weider and Ummeliata angulituberis Oi(Erigonidae) were the dominant species in webbing spiders.
Population Dynamics of Arisaema robustum
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 27~33
Arisaema robustum, which has the ability to change sex, was studied in a temperate broadleaf forest of Sanseong-ri, Joongbu-myeon, Gwangju-gun, Kyonggi Province, Korea. \ulcornerThe study, carried out from 1993 to 1997, focused on population dynamics energy budget among organs, size distribution, mortality, the relationships between sex and size, seed production and germination rate. In terms of energy budget among the organs, the ratio of aboveground to belowground biomass was 36.6 : 63.4 in non-female plants, and 81.4 : 18.6 in female plants. Also, in female plants, the ration of leaf to sexual organ biomass was 39.5 : 41.9. Therefore, the belowground ratio of female plants was lower than that of non-female plants. Plants were classified into 8 levels relative to the amount of leaf area by
. The rates of the smallest and the largest classes were 49% and 1%, respectively, and population distribution by size was relatively stable. The mortality averaged 13.1% per year and decreased in inverse proportion to leaf size (6.6% in the smallest and 0.0% in the largest size classes). Leaf areas were
in non-flowering plants,
in males and
in females. The increase rates of leaf area per year varied from 1.9% in plants changing from female tomale, to 152.4% in plants changing from non-flowering to female. But plants which remained female for 2 years showed a decrease of 34.7%. >From this result, it is thought that the female plants invest more energy to reproduction than to vegetative organs. The correlation coefficient (CC) value between plant size and the number of seeds produced (0.55) was larger than the CC value between plant size and total seed weight (0.73). That is, the larger the plant size, the heavier the seed produced. The germination rate increased along with seed weight, and it was 95% in plants which were over 60mg fresh weight/seed.
Identification and Bioassay of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Phytolacca americana
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 35~45
This study was carried out for the identification and bioassay of bioactive compounds which isolated from Phyutolacca americana L. obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. Two biological active compounds were found from crude extracts of P. americana roots, using the systematic solvent fractionations, such as ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction. One biological compound was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction with silicagel column chromatography, which was identified as a
by spectral analysis of IR, H-NMR, C-NMR and MS. The other one is isolated from butanol fraction which was identified as phytolaccoside E by spectral analysis of IR, H-NMR, C-NMR and MS. 2. The
and phytolaccoside E induced necrosis of primary root and resulted in death of the tested plant. These two compounds strongly inhibited to the growth of Mucor racemous and Phytophthora infestants but did not inhibited the growth of Colletotricum lagenarium and Fusarium oxisporum. 3. Cytotoxicity of the two biological active compound was exammined to the two different animal cancer cell lines (L1210, K562). The phytolaccoside E has some cytotoxical activity to the growth of cancer cell lines (L1210, K562) but
-spinasterol has not cytotoxical effect.
Ecophysiological characteristcs of Plant Taxon-Specific Calcium Metabolism
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 47~63
In order to compare species-specific calcium metabolism, we collected 127 species belonging to 40 different families grown on various habitats including saline, limestone, wetland during the 1996 vegetation period, and analyzed their inorganic ion contents. Plants investigated were divided into 5 groups according to their physiological properties: 1) Chenopodiaceae, Aizoaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Portulacaceae and Phytolaccaceae of Centrospermales and Polygonaceae (Polygonales had a little water-soluble
but contained high contents of insoluble
particularly as Ca-oxalate (Chenopodiaceae type), 2) Some plant species such as Rosaceae produced oxalate in amounts insufficient to precipitate all incoming
and thus contained a surplus of dissolved
(Rosaceae type), 3) The contents of water-soluble
in plant species of Crassulaceae. Plantaginaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Zygophyllaceae were equal to or greater than those of K (
; Crassulaceae type), and 4) K/Ca ratios of Compositae were significantly fluctuated depending on species and soil
level of their habitats (Compositae type). 5) Certain monocots (Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae), in contrast to the dicotyledonous plant families mentioned above, showed a very distinct type of calcium metabolism, that is, the K/Ca ratios of 8~10 were maintained indifferently in the species and their habitat types (Graminae type). These results plants within the same taxon have similar physiological aspects as weel as morphological attributes. To understand calcium metabolism of certain plant species, therefore, it is desirable to approach on the basis of physiological concept (calciotroph or calciophobe) rather than the ecological one (calcicole or calcifuge).
Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth and Nitrogen fixation of melilotus suaveolens
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 65~72
Various effects of simulated acid rain by
with pH 3.2, 4.2 and 5.6 were investigated in Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, a biennial legume dominating the disturbed and poor soil vegetations. The nitric acid treatment of pH 3.2 resulted in 121% increase of the plant height compared to that of pH 5.6 during early growth, although 17% decrease was detected with the sulfuric acids. During 14 days of treatment, leaf biomass and chlorophyll content increased 168% and 133% with pH 3.2 nitric acid rain but decreased 20% and 38%, respectively, with sulfuric acid rain. Nitrogen content in various organs was also determined after 42 days of nitric acid treatment. It increased 480% and 387% by pH 3.2 and 4.2 in leaves, 212% and 214% in stems and 247% and 249% in roots. However, the same treatment with the sulfuric acid showed a considerable reduction in this content, indicating that the nitric acid was a nitrogen source. Nodule formation assayed revealed 15% decrease with pH 3.2 in contrast to 157% increase in pH 4.2, further suggesting an enhancement effect by the additional nitrogen source. Contrary to this, the nodule formation was reduced up to 43-71% by sulfuric acid rains. Specific nitrogen fixation activities of nodules estimated at pH 3.2, 4.2 and 5.6 nitric acid rain were 36.7, 42.8 and 47.3
, while those of sulfuric acid rain exhibited 1 nmol
with pH 3.2, 177 with pH 4.2 and 179 with pH 5.6, yet it increased 2, 115 and 286 respectively corresponding to the three sulfuric acid concentrations. Further implications of the simulated acied rain were also discussed in the study.
characteristics of Peroxidase from the Earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus and Degradation of Phenoxyherbicides
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 73~80
Peroxidase has been isolated to apparent homogeneity from earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-2000 gel filtration, CM-cellulose cation exchange chromatography and native-PAGE elution. Some of its enzymatic characteristics were examined. The optimum pH for gruaiacol oxidation of earthworm peroxidase was determined to be 6.0, and the
values against guaiacol and
were 1.25 mM and 3.4mM, respectively. When various compounds were tested as the possible substrates of the enzyme, o-dianisidine was used as the substrate. However, earthworm peroxidase could not oxidize esculetin and ferulic acid as substrates, suggesting the different characteristics of the enzyme from plant peroxidases. The optimum pH for veratryl alcohol and
oxidation was determined to be 2.5 when lignin peroxidation activity was examined. The
values for veratryl alcohol and
were 0.02 mM and 0.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the earthworm peroxidase could oxidize phenoxyherbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4-DP and MCPA as substrates. The optimum pHs for 2,4-D, 2,4-DP and MCPA were determined to be 4.0, 2.0 and 2.0, respectively. The most available substrate was 2,4-DP, followed by MCPA and 2,4-D when their peroxidation activities were compared.
A Comparative Study on Mantle Communities in South Korea and Japan
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 81~88
A comparative analysis on mantle communities in South Korea and Japan was carried out. The study was accomplished by using syntaxa and hierarchical system of mantle communities in South Korea and Japan through Zurich-Montpellier School's method, and also achieved comparison on syntaxonomy, synecology, syndynamics and syngeography between two countries. Mantle communities in South Korea and Japan were defined to the Rosetea multilorae representing mantle vegetation in Northeast Asia. Mantle communities in Japan showed much diverse than those in South Korea. Mantle communities in South Korea and Japan considerably corresponded between the two. Results of the current study will make possible to accumulate qualitative $\bullet$quantitative informations on mantle communities in Northeast Asia. And the subsidiary knowledge from this study will provide practical data on comparative analysis about whole mantle communities in Northeast Asia.
The Characteristics of Diurnal Changes in the Tissue-Water Relations of Pueraria thunbergiana
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 89~96
The diurnal changes of the stomatal conductance, transpiration and leaf water potential were measured in order to assess the water relations characteristics of Pueraria thunbergiana in August of 1995 and 1996. The results showed two different responses depending on the duration of rainless days. The microclimatic conditions were highly stressful on 2 August. Daily maximum temperature reached to $
and vapor pressure deficit was 3.55 KPa. During this time the leaf water potential decreased to -1.02 MPa and a marked reduction of stomatal conductance was shown. However, on 15 August the stomatal conductance increased with increment of photon flux density, and transpiration was highly maintained during the day time. Minimum leaf water potential was only -0.47 MPa in spite of high transpiration rate. Furthermore, on 15 August reduced leaf water potential during the day time was recovered rapidly with decrease of photon flux density, whereas recovery of leaf water potential on 2 August was delayed. However, reduced leaf water potential on 2 August was recovered untile the next dawn. Osmotic potential at turgor loss point of Pueraria thunbergiana on 2, 3 and 15 August was -1.79, -1.70 and -1.60 MPa, respectively. The vapor pressure deficit is more contributive to the regulation of stomatal conductance than leaf water potential.
Studies on Community and Seasonal Occurrence of chigger Mites around Yedang lake
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 97~103
Yedang lake has so plentiful pondage and many species of fresh-walter-fish that a large number of people crowd around there all the year round. Most of them are not used to prevent tsutsugamushi disease spreading by chigger(T-mite). Accordingly, this study was carried out in order to obtain basic materials for prevention of this disease and the results are summarized as follows. The number of wild rat that captured in surveyed areas was sixty five(apodemus agrarius: 63, Rattus norvegicus: 2) during the period of a year and ration of captured rats to trap was about 8%. The dominant species of T-mite in all the surveyed areas were Leptotrombidium pallidum and L. palpale and the total number collected was 5782.9 with one family, two genra, eight species. The density of T-mites that collected from rats in three areas(Nodongri, Hatanbangri, Kyochonri) appeared
respectively. On the whole, the number of T-mite that collected from the rats was about three times as much as it in soil. The comparison of individual number of T-mite per a rat collected in three surveyed sites(A,B and C) showed 126.7, 243.1, 258.6 and per
of soil 12.7, 12.7, 54.6, 103.5 respectively. In other word, the number of T-mite at site A and B is smaller than that at area C, thus comparing habitats of three sites each other, C is better living environment of rat and mite than that of A or B. Seasonl occuarance of t-mite that is from rat gradually was increased toward winter and showed the peak to January, and decreased since March but it in soil was inverse proportion to it from rats, because the larvae of T-mite that was hatched in soil was transmited to host in order to suck the body fluid.
Characteristic Species Distribution of the Baekdoo Great Mountain Chain at Kangwon Province, korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 1, 1998, Pages 105~112
Characteristics of species distribution in the Baekdoo Great Mountain Chain of Kangwon Province were discussed. Resulting from Detrending Correspondence Analysis based on the floristic composition of 48 mountains, the mountains of the Baekdoo chain tended to aggregate on DCA axis. it represented that there was the peculiar floristic composition of the Baekdoo chain separated from the other mountains. High altitude, longitude near the East Sea and large number of vascular species were main factors for the distribution pattern. And exponential relationships between endemic rare species and number of species were clarified. Even though the regions of the Baekdoo Great Mountain Chain had been conserved relatively well, many regions have been faced to be disturbed for tourism, agriculture, forestry, livestock industry and mining since the local autonomy. Thusm, the necessity for the establishment of large area network through the connection of scattered protected areas in the Baekdoo Great Mountain Chain was suggested. it would play a role as a core of nature conservation to sustain species diversity in Korea.