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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_3 - Jun 1998
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_2 - Apr 1998
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5_1 - Feb 1998
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Volume 21, Issue 5 - 00 1998
Selecting the target year
Vegetational Changes of Mt. Nam Park, Seoul
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 589~602
Mt. Nam (265m), a city park of Seoul, was originally covered with a typical deciduous broad-leaved forests in Central Korea. However, the park forests have been changed the development for various purpose such as the construction of castle wall, road way, broadcasting station, theater, hotel and apartments, in addition, to thoughtless plantation or alien plant introduction. Human population growth from ca. 100 thousands persons less in that time established Seoul as the capital of choseon dynasty in 1394 to ten millions over persons at present, accelerated the vegetational changes of the park. mt. Nam boundary in those days of sunjong (1908) also was much shrinked as much the range of 300 m distance in the northern most to 700 or 800m distance in some places. The actual vegetation of Mt. Nam largely can be classified by floristic composition into two plant communities of Quercus mongolica community and Pinus densiflora community, four plantations of Pinus rigida, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Populus tomentiglandulosa and other tree species, and on mixed forest with native and alien tree species in secondary succession stage (Yim et al. 1987). The restoration movement of Mt. Nam toward to the natural condition of forest or biodiversity is moving now. However, in the movement there are some problems such as the lack of ecological consideration and the undesirable decision of priority in the practice. A warning should be given, especially, on the undesirable plantation of non-native tree species restricting the forest succession, as in the case of southern slope of Mt. Nam. First of all, the most importance in Mt. Nam management is that the restoration for natural forest and biodiversity should be carried on the basis of integrated ecological principles based on the site evaluation.
Flora and Distribution of Mt. nam Park, Seoul
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 603~631
Flora and distribution of vascular plants included introduced species of Mt. Nam park in Seoul were investigated from 1997 to 1998. The flora was composed of 112 families, 338 genera, 487 species, 1 subspecies, 60 varieties, 11 forma or 559 taca. Whole taxa of Mt. Nam calculated with the other reports were recorded 125 families, 461 genera, 832 species, 2 subspecies, 115 varieties, 14 forma or 963 taxa. Mt. nam area has lost its properties because of road and promenade construction, several park reclaimation, introduction of foreign species and exotic plants, and so on. The urbanized index (UI) was comparatively high at 18.3%. Eupatorium rugosum which shown high shade tolerance comparatively was occupied dominantly in road sides. The natural ecosystem and biodiversity of Mt. Nam were under threatened by introduced species. DBH mode of Pinus densiflora community was shown bell shape but that of Quercus mongolica was shown reverse J shape, therefore, it will be occupied in the future this area dominantly by Q. mongolica community. However the vegetation of Mt. nam park area are repressing by superior position in their growth of introduced species included R. pseudo-acacia, Ailanthus altissima and E. rugosum, etc.
Syntaxonomy and Soil Condition of Mt. Nam nature park
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 633~648
The forest vegetation of Mt. Nam Nature Park was investigated according to the phytosociological method. The vegetation in this study area was classified into 5 communities Quercus mongolica (Acer pseudo-sieboldianum subcommunity, Prunus sargentii subcommunity), P. sargentii, Pinus densiflora (Q. mongolica subcommunity, Stephanandra incisa subcommunity) and 5 afforestations Robinia pseudo-acacia, Populus tomentoglandulosa, P. koraiensis, P. rigida, Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Generally, were P. densiflora forest at the Southern slope and Q. mongolica forest at Northern slope dominant species from the top zone standing in Namsan tower. The dominance sequences on each stratum determined by the R-NCD (Relative net Contribution Degree) showed Q. mongolica and P. densiflora in tree-1 layer, Styrax japonica and Corbus alnifolia in tree-2 layer, S. incisa, S. japonica and rhododendron schlipenbachii in shrub layer, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, Eupatorium rugosum, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Disporum smilacinum in herb layer. The soil was analyzed to investigate the soil conditions and fertility. The pHs of soil collected in each sites appeared strongly acidic with the range of 4.34 to 5.01 each community and especially, was the lowest value 4.34 in P. rigida afforestation. And Q. mongolica-P. sargentii subcommunity was distributed at the area with relative mesic conditions and high organic matters. Nitrogen was highest at P. sargentii community, phosphate at P. densiflora-S. incisa subcommunity, calcium, potasium and magnesium of exchangeble cation at R. pseudo-acacia afforestation. Especially, the level of calcium in R. pseudo-acacia afforestation, P. koraiensis afforestation and P. densiflora community was shown the highest (0.38-1.48 mg/100g) compared to other communities, because of the influence of lime fertilization used to improve acidic soil.
On the Population Dynamics and Interspecific Competition of Disporum smilacinum and D. viridescens (Liliaceae) in Mt. Nam Park
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 649~663
The clarify the ecological properties, and to predict change of understory vegetation of mt. Nam Park, population dynamics and interspecific competition of D. smilacinum and D. viridescens, which grow in understory of deciduous broad-leaved forest and pseudo-annuals, were studied from May 20 to May 30 1998. The depth of litter layer, soil moisture content, soil organic matter and soil texture were surveyed in 18 populations (15 D. smilacinum populations and 3 D. viridescens populations). Mean litter layer of d. smilacimum population was thinner than that of D. viridescens populations). Mean litter layer of D. smilacnum population was thinner than that of D. viridescens population. The contents of soil moisture and organic matter of D. smilacinum population were lower than that of D. viridescens population. The D. smilacinum growed in broad range of soil texture but D. viridescens in loamy soil. Because D. smilacinum could tolerate more broad range of soil moisture and soil texture than D. viridescens, the former covered the herb layer in earlier stage and the latter introduced in later stage when rhizome could grow easily. The numbers of individual in two marginal parts were smaller than that in center in same D. smilacinum patch. And the total numbers of individuals grown in (10
10)cm were from 0 to 12. The rhizome (subterranean runner) weight, rhizome length, root weight, shoot weight, lea weight and leaf number per subquadrat (cell) increased along the number of individual, that is, increased from marginal part to center. But rhizome weight and rhizome length per individual were vice versa. Therefore, the individuals in marginal part reproduced longer and stronger asexual propagules than that in center. The distribution pattern of D. smilacinum was contageous and that of D. viridescens was random or regular. Therefore, population growth of former was independent on density and that of latter was dependent on density. The distributions of size-class showed normal curves in two population, but the curves based on data of total dry weight showed positive skewness and those of leaf number showed negative skewness The correlation coefficient (CC) values between the properties of each organ were high in two population and significant at 0.1% level. The CC values of D. viridescens were higher of the two. Therefore, the former allocated the energy to each organ stable. The rhizome depth of d. viridescens was 2 times deeper than that of D. smilacinum. And rhizome length and weight of D. viridescens were longer (2 times) or heavier (4 times) than those of D. smilacinum. The patch size of D. viridescens increased 60 cm per year and that of D. smilacinum 30 cm. On this results, the intrinsic increase velocity of d. viridescens patch was 2 times faster than that of d. smilacinum, therefore, on the competition, the former had an advantage over D. smilacinum. The reason why d. viridescens defeated D. smilacinum resulted from that the leaf area of former was 4 times broader than that of latter. in Mt. Nam Park, it was thought that two disporum Population would change with the 3 thpes of environmental change as followings. First, no human impact and increase of soil moisture content resulted in increase of D. viridescens population. Second, mild human impact and similar condition of soil moisture content resulted in slow increase or no changes of D. smilacinum and d. viridescens population. Third, severe human impact and dry condition resulted in decrease or vanishment of two disporum populations.
Status, Protection, and Management of Bird Community in Mt. Nam Area
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 665~673
This study was conducted to clarified the relationship between bird community and forest structure and present the counterplan for protection and management of bird community from February 1993 to July 1995 at deciduous and coniferous forest within Mt. Nam area, Seoul, Korea. DBH distribution has not significant differences in each study site. Deciduous forest had more foliage coverage in all layers than coniferous forest. Total 41 species of birds, which were 16 species of resident, 14 species of summer visitor, 4 species of winter visitor, and 7 species of passage migrant were recrded in two study sites. Leaf use rate of birds was increased the increase of coverage. The number of breeding species and pairs, breeding density, and diversity index were greater in deciduous forest than coniferous forest. The number of species and pairs on bush-nesting and foraging guild were greater than other guilds. And the nuber of species and pairs on hole nesting guild were the fewest in nesting guild. Use rate of artificial nests for improvement of habitat quality was greater in coniferous forest than deciduous forest. Maintenance of bush layer, increase of coverage and leaf layer diversity, supply of artificial nests, management of large trees, and control of natural enemy were necessary for protection and management of bird community in Mt. nam area.
The Mycodiversity and Resources of Fungi in Mt. Nam
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 675~685
Many fungal fungi were collected at Mt. Nam areas during 3 days in August 1997 and 1 day in September 1998. They were identified. According to the resulting, they were composed of 2 divisions, 3 subdivisions, 5 classes, 4 subclasses, 15 oders, 30 families, 58 genera and 95 species. Dominant species was Fomiltella fraxinea and dominant family was Tricholomataceae. Among them genera of henningsomyces, Roseoformes and Physarum were newly to Korea. Henningsomyces candidus, Roseoformes subflexibilis, Lentaria micheneri and Physarum mutans were newly to Korea. Resources of fungi were 25 species in edibility, 4 species in clulture, 11 species in toxine, 13 species in medicne, 18 species in anticancer, 15 species in ectomycorrizahe and 50 species in rotten wood.
Occurrence and Distribution of Cellular Slime Molds in Mt. Nam
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 687~694
In this study, the occurrence and distribution of dictyostelid cellular slime molds was investigted from soils of typical forests in Mt. Nam and the effect of soil environmental factor on cellular slime molds was investigated. The fourteen species including two undescribed species were isolated as follows: Dictyostelium brefeldianum, Polysphondylium pallidum, P. violaceum, P. pseudo-candidum in Quercus mongolica-Sorbus alnifolia forests, D. purpureum, D. mucoroides var. stoloniferum, D. dimigraformum, D. brefeldiamum, P. pallidum, P. tenuissimum, P. violoceum, P. candidum, P. pseudo-candidum in Pinus densiflora forests, D. polycephahum, D. capitatum, d. brefeldianun, P. candidum in Robinia pseudo-acacia forests, D. purpureum, D. aureostipes var, aureostipes, D. polycephalum in Quercus acutissima forests, D. minutum, D. implicatum. in the site disturbed by human. The dominant species were P. pallidum, D. brefeldiamum, P. pseudo-candidum and D. dimigraformum were the undescribed species in Korea. Environmental factors such as soil pH, water content, organic content, total nitrogen and total phosphorus made a little effect on total species number, the number of clones.
Studies on the Enzyme Activities and Heavy metals of Forest Soil in Mt. Nam. Seoul
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 695~702
This study was carried out to investigate to determine seasonal variation of dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, adenosine tri-phosphate content and some physicochemical properties, such as soil pH, moisture content, organic matter and several heavy metal concentrations from Apr. 1997 to jan. 1998 in Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica forest in Mt. Nam, to explain a relationship between enzyme activity and the soil factors. There were ranges of 4.03-4.65 in soil pH, 18.65-51.09% in moisture content and 6.69-95.95% in orgainc matter. The organic matter content decreased with soil horizon, showing the higher values in Q. mongolica forest. In comparison to the results of Kawngneung site as control area, there were slightly differences due to a development level of forest ecosystem and microbial degradation of organic matter. The heavy metal concentrations showed 32.50-75.55
in Cu, 69.33-134.84
in Zn, 57.02-150.32
in Pb, and 0.36-1.00
in Mt. Nam. These values are higher than in Kwangneung site because of long-term exposure to air pollutants from central city. On the other hand, ATP contents in Mt. Nam were lower than in Kawngneung site in relation to soil organic matter, moisture content and relatively high heavy metal concentrations. ATP contents per soil weight was largest in F+H layer and in spring time of other seasons. Dehydrogenase activity as an index of soil microbial activity had a ranges of 170.67-1,221.66
TPF/g that showed lower values than in Kawngneung site. However, phophatase activity had a contray tendency due to P fertilization for a continuous management. Those values increased through spring to a maximum in the summer and fall in autumn. This is basically caused by metabolic state of soil on the biological activity and several and several factors, such as aeration, soil temperature, vegetation and microflora.
Distribution and Properties of Microorganisms in Soil of Representative Vegetation of Mt. Nam
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 703~712
Physicochemical factors, microbial population size and the properties of the bacterial isolates were estimated to find out the nature of soil ecosystem of Mt. Nam. Samples were obtained from the surface layer of soils on which specific plant community is developed. Average content of moisture and organic matter of the soils were 21.6% and 17.3%, respectively. These values were similar to those of developing forest soils, but were slightly lower than those of climax ecosystem such as Piagol in Mt. Chiri. Chiri. Content of phosphate was higher than those of other forest soils. The population size of soil bacteria ranged from 27.4 to 195.8
CFU/g. duy soil, and the size is somewhat dependent on the moisture and oranic matter content of soils. A large number of bacteria were able to decompose macromolecules such as starch, elastin and gelatin. Bacterial species composition of each soil was comparatively simple. Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Flavobacterium and Xanthomonas which are Gram-negative short rods were widely distributed in the forest soils. The endospore forming Bacillus species were also the main constituents of the soil microflroa. Actinomycetes were widely distributed in the forest soils, but the distribution pattern varied in each site. Most of the actinomycetes were also able to decompose organic macromolecules. The rate of resistant actinomycete strains to antibiotics and heavy metals were lower than those from cultivated soils, but higher than those from well-preserved forest soils. Antibiosis pattern of the actinomycete isolates was similiar to the resistance pattern. This means the forest soils of Mt. nam was somewhat interferred by artificial behabiour.
Ecological Diagnosis on Mt. nam in Seoul, Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 713~721
The effects of artificial interference on the vegetation landscape in Mt. Nam of Seoul, Korea were clarified by analysing the distribution of vegetation landscape element and the number and size of patch depicted as a vegetation map in terms of landscape ecological principles. The effects of artificial interference on vegetation were also confirmed from the environmental gradient analysis on plant community extended from the lowland to the peak of that mountain. Vegetation landscape elements were divided into plantation and secondary forest in actual vegtation map. The ratio of plantation to secondary forest was higher in the lowland below mid-slope and the southern slope. Most afforested land were occupied by Robinia pseudoacacia and Populus tomentoglandulosa, Pinus rigida, P. koraiensis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Alnus hirsuta and so on are localy planted. In addition, projects to replace those afforested trees by P. densiflora as a kind of campaign for "Restoration of the one original feature of Mt. Nam" or to replace those tree species by planting young Abies holophylla or P. koraiensis under the mature afforested trees are also carried out in recent years. In cases of secondary forest, the southern slope was dominated by P. densiflora and the northern one by Q. mongolica. But the lowland of the northern slope is dominated by P. densiflora as the same as that in the southern slope. Vegetation landscape elements in Mt. Nam were much simplified comparing with that of suburban area around Seoul. The number of patches, which reflects the degree of diverse artificial interference was more in the lower area than in the upper area and more in the southern slope than in the northern one. On the other hand, the size of patch showed the antagonistic tendency to that of the number of patch. As a result of environmental gradient analysis, vegetation distribution in Mt. Nam was different from that in suburban area around Seoul. For example, Alnus japonica community, Zelkova serrata community, and Carpinus laxiflora community, which is established in mountain comparatively rare in artificial interference disappeared in Mt. Nam. As a result of analysis on vegetational succession in P. densiflora community and Q. mongolica community, both communities showed a tendency of retrogressive succession differently from that in control site located in suburban area around Seoul. In addition, species composition of P. densiflora and Q. mongolica communities in Mt. Nam were also different from those in Mt. Surak located around Seoul. It was interpreted that those results were originated from the environmental pollution and excessive arti ficial interferences.rferences.
Restoration and Landscape Ecological Design to Restore Mt. Nam in Seoul, Korea as an Ecological Park
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 21, issue 5_3, 1998, Pages 723~733
Restoration to improve the ecological quality of Mt. Nam was explored in a viewpoint of restoration in both landscape and ecosystem levels. A restoration plan in landscape level was based on the result on the land-use pattern in Mt. Nam including its surrounding area and that in ecosystem level on the ecological quality of each landscape element. A plant to construct the green network, which extending from Mt. Nam to the Han river through the Yongsan family park and through the Eungbong urban park was prepared as a restoration project in landscape level to improve the ecological quality of Mt. Nam as an ecological park. On the other hand, a plan for restoration and creation of biotop as a restoration project in ecosystem level was also prepared to improve the ecological quality of each green area consisting green network. Green areas composing green network include keystone green area (Mt. Nam), green stations (Yongsan family park, Eungbong urban park, and the han river citizen's park), and green pathway (or ecological corridor) connecting those green areas.