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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Ecology
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
The Topographical Factors Affecting the Water Quality of Iwonchon Basin
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 101~108
This survey was performed from March 1993 to March 1998, in order to clarify the relationships between water quality and topographical factor. The study sites were two reservoir basins; Kaesim and Jangchan in Iwon-myon, Okchon-gun, Chungcho'ngbukdo Province. Basin shape factors of Kaesim reservoir were at 0.030∼0.210 (mean value 0.090), those of Jangchan reservoir were at 0.217∼0.452 (mean value 0.325). The mean basin shape factor of Jangchan reservoir was 3.61 times larger than that of Kaesim reservoir because its stream width was narrower and mean stream length was shorter. In the correlation between distance from the source of stream (L) and basin area (A), Iwonchon basin was calculated as L=1.44A/sup 0.6/. Circularity ratio was 17.114 in Kaesim (22% of Kum River), and 7.444 in Jangchan. Elongation ratio was 0.357 in Kaesim, 0.636 in Jangchan and 0.282 in Kum River. Precipitation summation period of Jangchan was 1.54 times slower than that of Kaesim. Rainfall reaching time in each small basin was 337.53 min. in A'(Jangchan-ri) basin of Jangchan and 49.26 min in H (Iwon-ri) basin of Kaesim. In the relationship between watershed frequency (Df) and drainage density (Dd), the regression equation was Df=0.023Dd² in Kaesim and Df=0.189Dd² in Jangchan reservoir. As slope degree increased, DO became higher (Y/sub DO/=0.19X＋6.5927, r=0.8l), but COD(Y/sub COD/=-0.2092X＋9.7104, r=0.52) became lower. Total nitrogen was increased with the increase of basin shape factor and circularity ratio. Ratio of B/sub OD/ to COD was 1/1.2(Y/sub BOD/ = 1.2984 X/sub COD/-3.2004, r=0.9l).
Free Amino Acid and Nitrogen Contents of the Coastal Plants in Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 109~117
Thirty two species of coastal plants (mainly halophytes) were investigated for their free amino acids and the total and water-soluble nitrogen contents in leaves. All plants except some species (e.g. Scutellaria and Linaria) contained proline, but only Ageratum. Tetragonia and Raphanus in rather high amounts, that it can be thought to serve as a cytoplasmic osmolyte. In some plant species (Euphorbia. Glehnia. Peucedanum. Raphanus and monocotyledonous Carex and Zoysia), however, hydroxyproline. (OH-Pro) rather than proline were accumulated to a considerable extent. The concentrations of total free amino acids were low in Aster tripolium, Linaria. Lysimachia. Plantago. Rumex, Vitex and especially in the members of the Chenopodiaceae and Crassulaceae. Marked differences also occurred in the nitrogen levels. Aizoaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cruciferae, Euphorbiaceae and Leguminosae usually showed high values of total and soluble amino nitrogen, while the opposite was true for most of the Cyperaceae, Gramineae, Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scophuriaceae, and Verbenaceae. The free amino acids in the investigated plant species contributed very little to the nitrogen content, but in plants of Euphorbia, Messerschmidia and Orostachys. their amino acid-N made up for 25∼30% of the total nitrogen. In conclusion, only a few cases did proline known as compatible solute constitute a significant proportion of the free amino acid pool in coastal plants.
Numerical Syntaxonomy of the Bryophyte Communities of the Coniferous Forests in the Taebaek Range
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 119~129
The bryophyte communities on the forest floor of the mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaf forest and the evergreen coniferous forest of cool temperate and subalpine zones in Mts. Taebaek, Odae and Sulak of Tabaek Range were investigated from. the numerical and phytosociological viewpoints. As a result, four bryophyte communities were recognized there, considering the species composition of vascular vegetation; A. Thuja koraiensis-Abies nephrolepis/Taxus caespitosa-Pinus pumila/Hylocomium splendens-Pleurozium schreberi community, B: Sasamorpha borealis-Abies nephrolepis/Plagiomnium cuspidatum- Aulacomnium heterostichum community, C. Abies holophylla-Abies nephrolepis/Thuidium recognitum-Trachycystis immarginata cristatus community, D. Meehania urticifolia-Abies nephrolepis/Hylocomiopsis ovicarpa-Taxiphyllum aomoriense community. Among these, the community A was distributed in higher altitudes and characterized by the species group of the holarctic elements, e.g. Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Dicranum majus, etc. limited in subarctic; subalpine and arctic; alpine zones and was confirmed as synusies of the Thujo-Abietetum nephrolepidis Song 1991 and Taxo-Pinetum pumilae Song 1985 belonging the Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. 1939. In contrast the communities B, C and D were distributed in the mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaf forest of lower altitudes and characterized by the elements of the cool temperate; montane zone. They were confirmed as synusies belonging to the Corylo-Quercetum mongolicae Song 1988. By the result of the numerical syntaxonomical analysis such as cluster analysis, interspecific association, PCA, the communities were largely divided into the two types. The two types coincided with the community units or the diagnostic species of the bryophyte communities of the subalpine zone and the montane zone, respectively. Also the analysis revealed that the division of the above two forest zones are justifiable. Up to date many investigator have described the coniferous forest distibuted above 1000m in Taebaek mountains as the forest vegetation of subalpine zone. However, from the results of the present study, the boundary of the mixed forest and the true subalpine coniferous forest was elucidated to be ca. 1,500 m phytosociologically. Species richness was the highest in the community A, and the other four communities showed a similar species richness.
Changes of Nitrogen Fixation Activity and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Vicia amoena Community from Kumho Riverside
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 131~137
This study was carried out to investigate the activity of nitrogen fixation and accumulation of heavy metal and inorganic matter in Vicia amoena community at lower region in Kumho riverside, including Youngchon, Chimsangyo, Paldalgyo, Talseochon and Kumhogyo. The contents of inorganic matter and heavy metal of Kumho riverside soil increased in the down stream in each organ of the plant growing in the riverside. Generally, V. amoena community showed rapid growth of shoot and high value of Top/Root ratio. V. amoena community showed higher water content of shoot at late growth stage and higher chlorophyll content. The root nodule of V. amoena community appeared in April and increased by 0.30, 0.27, 0.24, 0.06 and 0.14 g/plant, and nitrogen fixation activity of nodule attained 20.1, 16.8, 15.4, 8.5 and 5.3 μmol·C₂H₄·g fw nodule/sup -1/·h/sup -1/ for non-contaminated area Youngchon, Chimsangyo, Paldalgyo, Talseochon and Kumhogyo, respectively, in June:. Nodule formation and nitrogen fixation activity were reduced in the down stream by the soil contamination and heavy metal accumulation and showed minimum values. at Talseochon and Paldalgyo. V. amoena showed growth adaptation against heavy metal toxicity by restricting heavy metal such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe from transport, and by accumulating high Ca ion in shoot, nitrogen and phosphorus in root at late growth stage than those at early one, respectively, but total heavy metal per plant showed higher values in shoot than those in root by high T/R ratio of plant growth.
Variation of Heavy Metal Accumulation and Inorganic Matter of Rumex crispus Community from Kumho Riverside
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 139~144
In order to clarify ecological survival strategy of Rumex crispus community dominating under contaminated area of lower region of Kumho riverside including Chimsangyo (CS), Paldalgyo (PD), Talseochon (TS) and Kumhogyo (KH), we analyzed the content of heavy metals and inorganic matter and vegetative growth. R. crispus showed rapid formation of community by high growth rate, high T/R ratio and showed maximum T/R ratio at the contaminated area Talseochon. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents in R. crispus showed high value in shoot than that of root. T/R ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus showed 3.1∼3.6 and 1.5∼4.5 for the early growth stage, and 6.7∼17.3 and 3.9∼8.3 for the late one, respectively. The absorbed heavy metals by riot were translocated to shoot, the heavy metal content in shoot higher than those in root of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Pb for 3.6, 1.7, 1.5 and 4.8 times, respectively. Distribution ratio of the heavy metals in each organ showed 61∼85% and 15∼39% for shoot and root, respectively. R. crispus accumulated heavy metals in the order of Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb in shoot, and showed maximum values of Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb for 89.7, 376.6, 2946.1 and 13.2 ㎍/g dw, respectively at Talseochon in April. A physiological and morphological characteristics of R. crispus showed thickened leaf, increased water content above 80% and rapid growth of shoot. R. crispus showed ecological adaptation to the contaminated area by transportation of heavy metals and inorganic matter to shoot, and by accumulation of Ca ion in root.
Effects of Fire on Forest Vegetation in Mt. Samma
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 145~153
Authors report the changes of the community structure and secondary succession after fire in Mt. Samma (333 m). Approximately six ha of the red pine (Pinus densiflora) forest and its floor vegetation were burned and cutted down. The vegetation and soil properties were investigated in the burned and unburned sites from April to October, 1998. The dominant species based on SDR₃ in the burned site were Lespedeza cyrtobotrya (96.87), Quercus serrata (77.90), Cyperus amuricus (46.22) and Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (38.33), whereas the dominant species in the unburned site were Pinus densiflora (100.00) and Q. variabilis (66.10) at the tree layer, Q. serrata (100.00) and Zanthoxylum schinifolium (29.64) at the shrub layer., and Q. serrata (76.30) and M. sinensis var. purpurascens (72.84) at the herb layer. The biological spectra based on SDR₃ were Th-D₁-R/sub 5/-e for the burned and H (M)-D₁-R/sub 5/-e type for the unburned site, respectively. The index of similarity (CCs) between the burned and unburned sites was 0.41. The degree of succession (DS) were 609 for the burned and 1168 for the unburned site, respectively. The species diversity (H) and evenness indices (e) of the burned site were lower than those of the unburned site, but the dominance indices (C) was higher in the burned site. In the analysis of soil properties, pH, the content of NO₃/sup -/-N, available phosphrous, and exchangeable cations (K/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/, Na/sup +/, Mg/sup 2+/) in the burned site were higher than those in the unburned site, whereas the contents of organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen and NH₄/sup +/-N were lower in the burned site. The results show that dominant species in the burned site change from Miscanthus-Lespedeza→Lespedeza→Quercus and finally to Quercus forest, and the changes of soil properties also affect the early vegetational succession after fire.
Variation Monoterpenes during Leaf Development in Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 155~161
The plastochron index (PI) according to leaf development of Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior were estimated. The amount and composition of monoterpenes in the leaves of A. artemisiifolia var. elatior were determined, and the seasonal monoterpene variations in representative of plastochron index were investigated. The total amount of monoterpenes in A. artemisiifolia var. elatior was increased continuously from PI 2.0, the highest amount was in PI 11.89. The major monoterpenes in A. artemisiifolia var. elatior consisted of 29 compounds. The leaf monoterpene fraction of A. artemisiifolia var. elatior were dominated by No.2, octene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, 1,3,6-octatrine, endo-borneol and (-)-bornyl acetate.
Territorial Behaviour of Eightspine Stickleback, Pungitius sinensis kaibarae in Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 163~167
In order to investigate territorial behaviour, Pungitius sinensis kaibarae were collected from Sacheon-river, Kangwon-do, Korea. They are reared in aquarium with designed experimental region from March to May 1996. In this study, territorial behaviour was divided into 1) pre-territorial movements of a shoal under varying water-weeds position 2) individual ranking patterns in connection with total length of fish 3) the change in size of territorial maps during the parental stage. The movements of a shoal tend to prefer regions with water-weeds and the lower half of the aquarium. Competition for territory was fierce, and fish that are longer in total length dominate smaller one in occupying territory. Both males and females developed territorial behaviour as they grew. However, male's territory was enlarged according to the hatching and dispersion of fry. At this time, aggressive tendencies reached their peak.
Synecological Study of the Naturalized Plant Communities in Old-Andong City
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, 1999, Pages 169~179
The present study was undertaken to classify and describe the spring naturalized plant communities in old-Andong city by the methodology of the ZM school of phytosociology. As a result, the vegetation was classified into the six communities and two subcommunities: A. Bromus tectorum community A-a. Bromus japonicus subcommunity, A-b. Melica onoei subcommunity; B. Poa pratensis community; C. Rumex crispus community; D. Oenothera lamarckiana community; E. Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. eiatior community; F. Rumex conglomeratus community. The total taxa of the naturalized plant communities consisted of 31 families, 86 genera, 114 species and 13 varieties. Of which the taxa of the naturalized plant species consisted of 8 families, 21 genera, 25 species and 1 variety. The result of Bray-Curtis ordination revealed that the plots suveyed were arranged according largely to the vegetation units of' the communities. Also the interspecific affinity was examined by an analysis of interspecific association and the main component species in the communities were divided into two groups. The naturalized rate was higher in the communitise affected by strong human impacts, while was lower in the communities affected relatively less by human impacts. On the other hand the seasonal changes of the communities and the naturalized rate between the spring and the autumn were investigated. Many naturalized communities present in Spring were replaced by the other native ruderal communitues in the Autumn. The naturalized rate based on the dominance was largely decreased over from the spring to the Autumn.