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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Regeneration Process in Gap of Quercus mongolica Forest
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~8
The pattern of gap regeneration and vegetational changes were carried out in gaps with different ages and in an intact forest in a Quercus mongolica (mongolian oak) stand located at Munsubong of Mt. Worak. In the early stage of gap formation, Lespedeza maximowiczii, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Tripterygium regelii, Quercus mongolica, and Stephanadra incisa were dominants in shrub layers. The numbers of shrubs with smaller diameters at ground surface were abundant in the early stage of gap formation. On the other hand, as gap age increased, the number of individuals of Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus rhynchophylla forming tall tree layer decreased. However the diameter at ground surface of Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus rhynchophylla increased. There were few young Quercus mongolica, but those over 130 years old appeared in mature Quercus mongolica stands. The last regeneration episode ended about 130 years ago and the new one started 40 years ago in this study site. Considering the presence of Quercus mongolica below 40 years old in gap and the absence of Quercus mongolica from 40 to 130 years old in closed stand, it is concluded that Quercus mongilica forest is maintained by discontinued regeneration.
The Effects of Timber Harvesting on Soil Chemical Ingredients and Stream Water Quality
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 9~15
The effects of clearcutting on soil chemical ingredients and stream water quality have been investigated at a natural deciduous forest catchment within the Seoul National University Research Forest in Mt. Paekun, Chunnam province during the periods of 1993 to 1998. Soil chemical ingredients and stream water qualities were monitored at a 13 ha clearcutting site and a non-treatment site nearby. During the first and second years after harvesting, the levels of total-N, and exchangeable ions (K/sup ＋/, Na/sup ＋/, Ca/sup 2＋/, Mg/sup 2＋/) decreased compared to the values of before harvesting. During the fifth years after harvesting, these levels were significantly higher than those during the first and second years after harvesting. But the chemical characteristics of soil were not changed at all. pH of water in the harvesting area was 6.5 in stream water. Among the nutrients, Cd, Pb, Cu, and phosphate were not found, and the level of BOD reached at the level of the domestic use suitable for drinking. Turbidity, odor, taste, NH/sub 4//sup ＋/ -N, NO/sub 3//sup -/-N, standard plate count, and coliform were also low enough to be used as the domestic use for drinking by the near villagers. During the first and second years after harvesting, BOD increased to about 1 ppm. For that reason, the harvesting planning should be built in the harvesting area in consideration of the control of water quality in the stream.
Three Species Associations with Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis in Community
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 17~23
The spatial distribution of allelic frequencies was studied in the natural population of three species (Ligustrum obtusiflolium, Alnus japonica, and Pinus densflora). The distributional patterns of the crown-cover centers were compared between two populations in forests. L. obtusifolium and p. densiflora showed a significantly positive spatial autocorrelation as measured by Moran's I. In P densiflora, the genetic similarity was shown by individuals within up to a scale of 18 m distance and this is partly due to combination of pollen dispersal and long distance seed dispersal by wind or men. In L. obtusifolium, population structure in the distribution of allelic frequencies is related to mating systems and is consisted of a scale of 12.5 m intervals. No spatial structuring of allele frequencies was found for polymorphic enzyme loci within a natural population of Alnus japonica. The results also in- dicate that positive associations between L. obtusifolium and P densiflora can occur when both select the same habitat or have the same environmental requirements.
Analysis of Heterogeneous Tree-Ring Growths of Pinus densiflora with Various Topographical Characteristics in Mt. Worak Using GIS
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 25~32
To analyze the relationship between climatic factors (monthly temperatures and precipitations) and the radial growths or Pinus densiflora with different topographical settings in Worak National Park, Korea, 20 stands were chosen and 10 trees were selected from each stand. After crossdating, each ring-width series was double detrended (standardized) by fitting first a negative exponential or straight regression line and secondly a 60-year cubic spline. The growth patterns coud be categorized by four groups using cluster analysis. Cluster Ⅰ stand has north aspect, but others have south or southwest aspects. Cluster Ⅰ (one), cluster Ⅱ (ten), and cluster Ⅲ (two) stands are located in lower. elevation (305∼580 m), however, cluster Ⅳ (seven) stands are located in higher elevation, mostly in 560～870 m. Cluster Ⅱ and Ⅲ stands are located at similar elevation with the same aspect, however, cluster Ⅱ stands are located on more rocky and stiff slope with shallow soil depth. The response functions were used to examine the difference in the relationships between climatic factors and tree growths among the 4 cluster chronologies. The climatic factors are not limiting the growth in the cluster Ⅰ stand as highly as in other cluster plots because of rather mesic conditions in the north slope. The precipitation in the spring appears to be the main limiting factor in the cluster Ⅱ stands. The topographical characteristics of the sites of cluster Ⅱ, shallow soil depths on the rocky slope in the south aspect at lower elevation, may enhance the sensitivity of growth to moisture stress. In cluster Ⅲ and cluster Ⅳ, winter and spring temperature prior to the growth become more important than for cluster Ⅱ. This pattern is com-mon for Pinus densiflora trees growing in higher. elevation (equation omitted 800 m) in South Korea. It nay be re-lated with preconditioning effects of temperature as the temperature decreases with increasing elevation (cluster Ⅳ) or in the valley (cluster Ⅲ). The results obtained by tree-ring analysis were digitalized by GIS and spatio-temporal information on tree-ring data and topographic setting were analyzed and displayed simultaneously. The results of this study can be used to predict the future change of Pinus densiflora ecosystem to climate change expected in central Korea.
Mass Loss and Changes of Mineral Nutrients During the Decomposition of Lepista nuda
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 33~37
Mass loss and changes of mineral nutrients during decomposition of Lepista nuda for 7 weeks from October 7 to December 28 in 1998 were investigated in an oak stand in Kongju, Korea. Content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium of the fresh L. nuda was 67.8, 4.1, 47.3, 0.4 and 1.5 ㎎/g, respectively. Content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in L. nuda were much higher than those in leaf litter. After 7 weeks, remaining mass was 35%. Nitrogen, phos- phorus and potassium increased till 5 weeks and then decreased rapidly, however, calcium and magnesium steadily increased during the experimental period. Nitrogen and phosphorus showed a short period of immobilization, and calcium showed no immobilization period during decomposition. After 7 weeks, remaining N, P, K, Ca and Mg was 26.6, 37.5, 28.5, 35.0 and 91.0% of the initial content, respectively. Nutrients could be relocated spatially during the formation and decomposition of fruiting body of Basidiomycetes.
Flux of Carbon Dioxide and Deposition Velocity of Ozone over Glycine max Canopy
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 39~43
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) and ozone (O₃) fluxes were measured over Glycine max canopy using the bowen ratio energy balance method at Fuchu - 20 km west of Tokyo, in late July and late September 1996. The CO₂, and O₃, fluxes were influenced by variation in leaf area index (LAI) during the measuring period. When LAI was more than 3.0, the CO₂ flux was found to be positively correlated with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The O₃, flux was always positive with an average deposition velocity for this case of about 0.5 mol m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. A positive correlation existed between the deposition velocity of O₃ and CO₂ during the period of LAI＞2.0.
Salt and NH
-N Tolerance of Emergent Plants for Constructed Wetlands
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 45~49
Tolerances of aquatic plants (emergent plants) of cattail (Typha orientalis), water oats (Zizania latifolia), reed (Phragmites communis), and bulrush (Scirpus nipponicus) to salts and high NH₄/sup ＋/-N cone. of industrial wastewater were evaluated. Evapotranspiration of cattail and water oats plants was not affected when the wastewater containing 130 ppm NH₄/sup ＋/-N with electrical conductivity of 3.0 dS/m was supplied for 5 months. Shoot and root dry wt. of cattail and water oats were rather increased by irrigation of the wastewater while the biomass production of bulrush was greatly reduced. Storage nitrogen concentration in tissues of water oats and reed plants were higher than those in cattail and bulrush. Thus, water oats and reed plants were found to be the better aquatic plants to use in constructed wetlands for treating industrial wastewater of high salt and NH₄/sup ＋/-N.
An Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Onsan Bay Using Biological Indicators
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 51~57
Concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc were determined in three molluscan species including Sacculosiphonaria japonica, Reishia clavigera and Crassostrea gigas to assess heavy metal contamination in the Onsan Bay. The range of cadmium concentrations were 3.83∼39.67 ㎍/g d.w. in S. japonica, 7.47∼103.47 ㎍/g d.w. in R. clavigera, 1.32∼92.17 ㎍/g d.w. in C. gigas. Concentration of cadmium at contaminated site in C. gigas was 70 folds higher than that of reference site. The range of copper concentrations were 22.92∼1287.56 ㎍/g d.w. in S. japonica, 37.53∼656.97 ㎍/g d.w. in R. clavigera, 161.50∼3208.52 ㎍/g d.w. in C. gigas. The concentration of copper at contaminated site in S. japonica was 56 folds higher than that of reference site. The range of zinc concentrations were 93.48∼377.40 ㎍/g d.w. in S. japonica, 423.65∼1075.57 ㎍/g w. in R. clavigera, 2018.13∼22275.00 ㎍/g d.w. in C. gigas. The difference of zinc concentrations between reference site and contaminated site was relatively small than those of cadmium and copper in all the species tested. The largest difference was 11 folds in C. gigas. In the present work, we confirmed that all of these species, S. japonica, R. clavigera and C. gigas, could be used as biological indicators to monitor heavy metal contamination.
Distribution of Heavy Metals in Sediments, Seawater and Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Jinhae Bay
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 59~64
Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments, seawater and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were determined to assess heavy metal contamination in the Jinhae Bay. The ranges of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentration in surface sediments were 0.1∼2.4, 12.6∼14.4, 25.3∼ 92.3, 32.4∼ 93.5, 24. 1∼81.2, 124∼477 ㎍/g, respectively. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc which were influenced by industrial activity were the highest in the inside of Masan Bay. Dissolved concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in seawater were <0.010∼0.043, 0.008∼0.120, 0.31∼0.90, 0.25∼3.10, 0.010∼0.142, 0.27∼9.04 ㎍/L, respectively. The concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in seawater were also the highest inside of Masan Bay, suggesting that Masan Bay is the major source of heavy metal input to the Jinhae Bay. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, cobalt and nickel in C. gigas were 647373, 280861, 145069, 44559, 13524, 2745, respectively, showing C gigas is a stronger accumulator than other bivalves.
Characteristics of Korean Gypsy Moth Populations at Different Phases and Trapping of Males by Disparlure Baited Milk Carton Trap
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2000, Pages 65~70
Field collections were made from six gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Populations in Kyonggy and Cheju areas during the period 1987∼1997. Characteristics of gypsy moth populations at different phases were examined in terms of egg mass density, relative larval density, plant damage, and fecundity. Males captured in pheromone trap were recorded, and we examined if there was a relationship between numbers captured and the population density during the following generation. Egg mass density was closely related with larval density, and furthermore these densities were correlated with the level of plant damage, indicating that larval dispersion was limited in oviposition areas. The gypsy moth population cycle was short in Korea with the period from population development to innocuous level usually lasting 2∼3 years. Male caught by pheromone trap (mean number of males caught per trap per day in peak emergence period) was positively correlated with egg mass densities in the following season (r²=0.93). A low fecundity was detected from outbreak populations which accompanied defoliation. Fecundity of gypsy moth ranged from 538 to 601 at other phases.