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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Ecology
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
An Overview of the Long-Term Ecological Research(LTER) Activities in Korea
Kim, Eun-Shik ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 75~81
This paper was prepared to have an overview of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER ) activities in Korea in order to facilitate further development of Korea LTER Network in the coming 21th century. After the background for the development of the Korea LTER network was reviewed, the network activities of Korea as well as of the world were introduced for sound management and conservation of ecosystems, which can be ultimately carried out by the long-term ecological researches whose results can secure comparability in the dimension of time and space.
Distinguishing the Effects of Environmental Stress and Forest Succession on Changes in the Forest Floor
Arthur, Mary A. ; Ruth D. Yanai ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 83~88
When interpreting change over time in forest ecosystems, distinguishing the effects of forest succession from the effects of environmental stress can be difficult. The result may be a simplistic interpretation. citing a specific successional or environmental cause of forest change when both types may be occurring. We present two case studies of changes in the forest floor in northern hardwoods. First, the belief that 50% of soil organic matter is lost in the first 20 years after logging was based on a study comparing northern hardwood stands of different ages. We resampled a series of 13 such stands after an interval of 15 years, and found that the young stands were not, in fact. losing organic matter as rapidly as predicted from the original chronosequence study. The pattern of higher organic matter content in the forest floors of older stands compared to young stands could be equally well explained by changes in logging practices over the last century as by the aging of the stand. The observed pattern of forest floor organic matter as a function of stand age was previously interpreted as a successional pattern, ignoring changes in treatment history. In the second case study, observed losses of base cations from the forest floor were attributed to cation depletion caused by acid rain and declining calcium deposition. We found that young stands were gaining base cations in the forest floor; losses of base cations were restricted to older stands. Differences in litter chemistry in stands of different ages may explain some of the pattern in cation gains and losses. In this case, the contribution of successional processes to cation loss had been overlooked in favor of environmental stress as the dominant mechanism behind the observed changes. Studies of environmental stress use repeated measures over time. but often don't consider stand age as a factor. Studies of successional change often assume that environmental factors remain constant. We were able to consider both forest succession and external factors because we repeatedly sampled stands of different ages.
Pattern Recognition of Long-term Ecological Data in Community Changes by Using Artificial Neural Networks: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Chironomids in a Polluted Stream
Chon, Tae-Soo ; Kwak, Inn-Sil ; Park, Young-Seuk ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 89~100
On community data. sampled in regular intervals on a long-term basis. artificial neural networks were implemented to extract information on characterizing patterns of community changes. The Adaptive Resonance Theory and Kohonen Network were both utilized in learning benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the Soktae Stream of the Suyong River collected monthly for three years. Initially, by regarding each monthly collection as a separate sample unit, communities were grouped into similar patterns after training with the networks. Subsequently, changes in communities in a sequence of samplings (e.g., two-month, four-month, etc.) were given as input to the networks. After training, it was possible to recognize new data set in line with the sampling procedure. Through the comparative study on benthic macroinvertebrates with these learning processes, patterns of community changes in chironomids diverged while those of the total benthic macro-invertebrates tended to be more stable.
An Interface between Computing, Ecology and Biodiversity : Environmental Informatics
Stockwell, David ; Arzberger, Peter ; Fountain, Tony ; Helly, John ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 101~106
The grand challenge for the 21
century is to harness knowledge of the earth`s biological and ecological diversity to understand how they shape global environmental systems. This insight benefits both science and society. Biological and ecological data are among the most diverse and complex in the scientific realm. spanning vast temporal and spatial scales, distant localities. and multiple disciplines. Environmental informatics is an emerging discipline applying information science, ecology, and biodiversity to the understanding and solution of environmental problems. In this paper we give an overview of the experiences of the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) with this new multidisciplinary science, discuss the application of computing resources to the study of environmental systems, and outline strategic partnership activities in environmental iformatics that are underway, We hope to foster interactions between ecology, biodiversity, and conservation researchers in East Asia-Pacific Rim and those at SDSC and the Partnership for Biodiversity Informatics.
Comparison of Oribatid Mite (Acari : Oribatida) Communities among City, Suburban, and Natural Forest Ecosystems : Namsan, Kwangreung, and Mt. Jumbong
Lee, Joon-Ho ; Park, Hong-Hyun ; Kang, Bang-Hun ; Jung, Chul-Eui ; Choi, Seong-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 107~112
Comparison of oribatid mite community structures among Namsan, Kwangreung, and Mt, Jumbong, which receive different levels of environmental stress from severe to almost none, was made in coniferous and deciduous forests, respectively. The number of species of oribatid mites was significantly lower in Namsan and Mt. Jumbong than in Kwangreung in the coniferous forest (p<0.05). In the deciduous forests, the number of species of oribatid mites was significantly lower in Namsan than in Kwangreung and Mt. Jumbong. Dominant species in 3 regions were remarkably different. Similarity of the oribatid community between Namsan and Kwangreung was much higher (ca. 2 times) than similarities between Namsan and Mt. Jumbong. and Kwangreung and Mt Jumbong. Diversity index (H
) value of oribatid communities in deciduous forests in Namsan, Kwangreung and Mt. Jumbong was 2.74, 2.78, and 2.87, respectively. Diversity (H
) value of oribatid communities in coniferous forests in Namsan, Kwangreung and Mt. Jumbong was 2.83, 2.62, and 2.38, respectively. Namsan and Kwangreung were characterized as O-type in both coniferous and deciduous forests On the contrary, Mt. Jumbong was characterized as MG-type in MGP-I analysis.
Litter Processing in Tropical Headwater Streams : Potential Importance of Palm Fruit Fall and Frond Fall
Covich, Alan P. ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 113~116
Different phenological patterns of leaf and fruit fall among native and non-native riparian species provide a spatially and temporally heterogeneous series of alternative food resources for detritivores. Relatively little is known about qualitative differences among these different riparian species. Rates of litter inputs, decomposition, and retention for different sources of riparian litter require long-term documentation. Species of freshwater shrimps, crabs. insects. and gastropods are known to consume a wide range of litter inputs but how these dynamic food webs function under changing climatic and land-use conditions is unknown, especially in tropical streams. On-going studies in the Luquillo Experimental Forest. Puerto Rico provide an example of how inputs of fronds and fruits from palms (Prestoea montana) serve as important foods and microhabitat for species of freshwater crabs and shrimp. Native riparian species such as Prestoea montana are commonly distributed in the Luquillo Mountains especially along steep slopes and stream banks. After tropical storms with high winds, the large fronds from these native riparian trees provide important inputs of leaf litter to the stream food web. In some streams, the input of ripe fruit from non-native trees such as Java plum (Syzigium jambos) also provides a major source of detrital food resources, especially during periods when fruit fall from native species of palms may be limited.
Possibility of Climate Change and Simulation of Soil Moisture Content on Mt. Hallasan National Park, Chejudo Island, Korea
Kim, Eun-Shik ; Kim, Young-Sun ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 117~123
Changing patterns and the possibility of climate change in the area of Cheiudo island, the southernmost Island in Korea, were analyzed using daily temperature and Precipitation data observed at the Cheiu Regional Meteorological Office from May 1923 to December 1998. A hydrologic simulation model "BROOK" was used to simulate and analyze the dynamics of daily soil moisture content and soil moisture deficit by applying the daily weather data. During the period, significantly increasing pattern was observed in temperature data of both annual and monthly basis, while no significantly changing pattern was observed in precipitation data. During the last 76 years. mean annual temperature was observed to have risen about 1.4
, which may show the Possibility of the initiation of climate change on the island whose validity should be tested in future studies after long-term studies on temperature. Based on the simulation, due to increased temperature, significant increase was predicted in evapotranspiration. while no significant decrease was detected in simulated soil moisture content during the period. Changing pattern of annual soil moisture content was markedly different from those of precipitation. In some dominant trees, negative effects of the drought of the late season for the previous year were shown to be statistically significant to radial growth of the tree for the current year. As annual variation of radial growth of trees is mainly affected by the soil moisture content. the information on the dynamics of soil moisture deficit possibly provides us with useful information for the interpretation of tree growth decline on the mountain. mountain.
Preliminary Study of the Ecological Impact of Forest Fires in G. Massigit, G. Gede-Pangrango National Park, West Java
Abdulhadi, Rochadi ; Adhikerana, A.S. ; Ubaidillah, R. ; Suharna, N. ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 125~129
Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park is one of the Long-term Ecological Research Site in Indonesia. In the late 1997, the fires have burnt and destroyed nearly 300 ha forest in this park. and G. Masigit was the largest burnt area (250 ha) of nine locations of hot spot recognized. Undergrowth vegetation got the most severe impacts. Almost undergrowth vegetation in various location were totally burnt. However, within three months following burning new seedlings such as Omalanthus populneus, Macaranga, Trema orientalis and Eupatorium appeared in the forest floor- The number of mycoflora recorded in burnt forest was interestingly increased in post forest fires site. Forest fires in G. Masigit had also affected the wild life population and diversity. For example, the number of bird species and the number of soil insects in burnt forest was significantly reduced. The forest fires had also great impact on soil. such as on soil organic contents, bulk density, colour, consistency, permeability and the activity of soil microorganisms.
Long-term Ecological Research Programme in Forestry Research Institute, Korea
Oh, Jeong-Soo ; Shin, Joon-Hwan ; Lim, Jong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 131~134
Forest vegetation in Korea can be largely divided into warm temperate, cool temperate and frigid forest zone. The cool temperate forest zone of them occupies the largest part of the Korean peninsula and it is generally divided into three subdivisions such as northern, central and southern subzone. The Forestry Research Institute established three long-term ecological research sites at Kwangnung Experiment Forest in the central subzone of the cool temperate forest zone, at the Mt. Kyebangsan Forest in the northern subzone of the cool temperate forest zone. and at the Mt. Keumsan Forest in the warm temperate forest zone. The objectives of long-term ecological research in the Forestry Research Institute, Korea are to study long-term changes of the forest ecosystems in energy fluxes, water and nutrient cycling, forest stand structure, biological diversity, to quantify nutrient budgets and fluxes among forest ecosystem compartments and to integrate ecological data with a GIS - assisted model. To achieve the objectives, forest stand dynamics. environmental changes in soil properties, stream water quality, nutrient cycling, air pollution and biological diversity have been investigated and plant phonology as an indicator of climate change has been monitored in the LTER sites.
The Mongolian LTER : Hovsgol National Park
Goulden ; Clyde E. ; J. Tsogtbaatar ; Chuluunkhuyag ; W.C. Hession ; D. Tumurbaatar ; Ch. Dugarjav ; C. Cianfrani ; P. Brusilovskiy ; G. Namkgaijangtsen ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 135~140
The Government of Mongolia approved establishment of the Mongolian LTER network in December 1997. In June 1998, a seminar was organized by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences to initiate the program. Dr. James Gosz of the US LTER program keynoted the seminar. A Mongolian LTER Steering Committee was established to organize the network and to develop guidelines for its management. This Committee designated Hovsgol National Park in northern Mongolia as the first Mongolian LTER network site. Other potential sites are presently being considered. including study sites in steppe grassland and desert locations. The primary goals of the Mongolian LTER Network are to study human impacts on Mongolia's environment; with a focus on short-term impacts of nomadic grazing on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and long-term climate change impacts on more pristine environments in the protected areas. There are at least two additional goals: to provide information and advice on how best to protect Mongolia's pristine environments, and to train Mongolian students to work on environmental problems to encourage the growth of expertise for making sound environmental decisions.
Long-Term Biodiversity Research Programme for Mindanao, Philippines
Amoroso, Victor B. ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 141~147
The Long-Term Biodiversity Research Programme (LTBRP) for Mindanao is envisioned to be a collaborative programme of the Philippines. It will be a programmatic research on biodiversity - its status, threats. and conservation and management. The chosen research site is Mt. Malindang in Misamis Occidental of Mindanao. The BRP will support a set of research projects that will generate knowledge on biological and ecological, socio-economic. cultural and policy aspects of biodiversity conservation. It will also enable researchers to develop and try new methods for research on these aspects, separately or crossing boundaries of academic disciplines. Moreover. the BRP will implement support programmes which will provide the linkages of research activities to development issues and needs in the research site. The support programmes will also draw from the research projects, the knowledge that can be lent or immediately available to policy and programme formulation. The support programmes will comprise: human resource development or capability-building; information, education and communication; database; networking; community organizing: and development action. The BRP will be undertaken by a group of academie and research institutions from the Philippines, in partnership with their respective government entities and local government units in Mindanao. The Biodiversity Research Programme (BRP) will comprise a set of research projects to be undertaken by small research teams in the site. Researchable areas have been identified initially through the National Biodiversity Research Agenda. and later enriched in the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Analysis workshops by the Mindanao researchers and Philippine resource persons. Results of the PRA are presented in the paper.
Allelopathic Effects of Artemisia lavandulaefolia
Kil, B.S. ; Han, D.M. ; Lee, C.H. ; Kim, Y.S. ; Yun, K.Y. ; Yoo, H.G. ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 149~155
The allelopathic effects of Artemisia lavandulaefolia were studied using several test plants and microbes. Aqueous extracts and volatile compounds of A. lavandulaefolia inhibited seed germination, seedling and root growth of the test species such as Achyranthes japonica. Lactuca sativa, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Oenothera odorata, Plantago asiatica. Aster yomena, Elsholtzia ciliata, and Raphanus sativus var. hortensis for. acanthiformis. The root growth of test species was more affected than shoot growth by allelochemicals of A. lavandulaefolia. Essential oil of A. lavandulaefolia had antibacterial and antifungal effects. However, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was dependent upon the microbial species and concentrations. Callus growth of Oryza sativa, Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. pekinensis and Achyranthes japonica was sensitive by the essential oil of A. lavandulaefolia. Twenty three chemicals were identified from A. lavandulaefolia essential oil by gas chromatography. Primary allelochemicals among them were 1, 8-cineole, 1-
-terpinene. camphor, 2-buten-1-ol and azulene. We concluded that aqueous extract and essential oil of A. lavandulaefolia were responsible for allelopathic effects.
Mass Loss and Changes of Nutrients during Decomposition of Phragmites communis at the Fringe of Stream
Mun, Hueong-Tae ; Namgung, Jeong ; Namgung, Jeong-Hee-Namgung ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 157~161
Mass loss and changes of mineral nutrients during decomposition of Phragmites communis for 13 months from November 1998 to December 1999, were investigated at the fringe of stream at Boryeong, Chungnam Province in Korea. Plant materials, which were collected in November 1998. were divided into leaves, culms and rhizomes. Litterbags, 15
15 cm, were made of nylon mesh with 2-mm
holes. At 13 months after installation, remaining mass of leaves, culms and rhizomes was 29.0%, 57.4%, 20.6%, respectively. Mass loss rate of the culms was significantly lower than those of the leaves and rhizomes. The decay rate of leaves, culms and rhizomes was 1.21. 0.42 and 1.48 per year, respectively. Initial concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of leaves. culms and rhizomes was 22.5, 9.0, 15.5 mg/g for N, 0.34. 0.10, 0.33 mg/g for P, 15.0, 12.5. 12.3 mg/g for K, 2.84. 0.80, 0.03 mg/g for Ca. 1.94. 0.97, 0.40 mg/g for Mg, respectively. Concentrations of nutrients were higher in leaves than in culms and rhizomes. Except for N and Mg in rhizomes, there was no immobilization period during the decomposition. In the case of remaining K and Ca, most are lost during the first 3 months. Without any suitable method for removal of dead part, eutrophication of freshwater may be accelerated by dead macrophytes.
Comparisons of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal Capacity of Four Macrophytes
Lee, Jeom-Sook ; Ihm, Byung-Sun ; Kim, Jong-Wook ; Lee, Seung-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 163~167
To evaluate the water purification capacity of 4 emergent macrophytes in 4 tributaries of Mankyung River, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and nutrient removal capacity were determined. Higher NRA occurred in emergent macrophytes such as Persicaria thunbergii and Oenanthe iavanica with 7.8 and 5.4
. respectively. The nitrogen removal capacity of emergent macrophytes displaying higher NRA fell within the range of 0.85 to 1.95 mg g
and was higher in the order Phragmites communis > Persicaria thunbergii > Oenanthe iavanica > Zizania latifolia. The phosphorus removal capacity was within the range of 0.07 to 0.12 mg g
and was higher in the order Phragmites communis > Oenanthe iavanica > Persicaria thunbergii > Zizania latifolia. In all the domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewaters, Phragmites communis showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity; 1.36 and 0.0088 mg g
respectively. Among the 4 macrophytes. Phragmites communis was the most suitable species for water purification in 4 tributaries of Mankyung River.
Temporal Distribution of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Pollen as a Seasonal Nutrient Source in a Boreal Forest, Canada
Lee, Eun-Ju ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 169~173
Seasonal distribution of ectomycorrhizal associations in various types of forest in a boreal forest in Manitoba. Canada was investigated. Alsohe relationship between ectomycorrhizal growth and pine pollen nutrients was examined. In four different forest stands, ectomycorrhizas tended to be lower in the spring than in the summer and fall samples. In addition. a mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stand showed higher mycorrhizal activities than a young jack pine stand. Growth of Suillus brevipes hyphae wa ts stimulated by additions of pollen representing mean pollen deposition in Mistik Creek study area after 30 and 70 days of growth with dextrose availability. This result suggests that the peak ectomycorrhizal activity is followed by pollen deposition in the study region and therefore, addition of pine and spruce pollen in early or middle of June in the boreal forest can be an important seasonal nutrient source for ectomycorrhizal growth.
Interactions between Insect Species Feeding on Rumex obtusifolius: the Effect of Philaenus spumarius Feeding on the Ecology of Gastrophysa viridula
Kwon, Oh-Seok ; Nam, Sang-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 175~180
In order to study the insect-insect interaction of the insect community associated with Rumex obtusifolius. this experiment was designed in such a way that the feeding of one insect could indirectly affect the subsequent insect species through the changes in host plant (plant mediated insect-insect interaction ). Philaenus spumarius and Gastrophysa viridula were selected for the experiment. To investigate the effect of P. spumarius feeding on the ecology of G. viridula, first, statistical analyses were carried out. As results. no significant difference between Control and Experimental was found in the development patterns (Repeated Measures ANOVA, F=0.744, p=0.667) and survivorships (F=0.373. p=0.990). As the results from this experiment show, there was no effect on the ecology of G. viridula due to the previous feeding by P. spumarius on R. obtusifolius leaves.
The Potential of Gastrophysa viridula as a Biological Control Agent for Rumex obtusifolius
Kwon, Oh-Seok ; Nam, Sang-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 181~185
This study was carried out to see whether Gastrophysa viridula (Degeer) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) could be used as a biological control agent for Rumex obtusifolius L., with human manipulation of the beetle population. The study was consisted of three experimental sets : Wet-Dry experiment (the wet weight Vs dry weight relationship of Rumex obtusifolius L.), Greenhouse feeding experiment, and Field experiment. There was a significant correlation between the total wet and dry weight of Rumex obtusifolius as follows : Total dry weight : -0.23542+ (0.17514
Total wet weight) (
=0.9317, p=0.047, T=16.927 (dF=21)). In the Greenhouse feeding experiment, the result was very promising. The relationship between the density unit of the beetles and the growth of the plant is given below (20 day) : Plant growth =105.8+(-34.4
Density unit) (
=0.76, p=0.13). A repeated introduction of the beetle population into the field vegetation of R. obtusifolius from April to October is suggested to see the beetle's grazing ability on the plant. This study shows that the potential grazing power of the beetle on Rumex obtusifolius was enough to defoliate the plants, but it was able to recover from its root reserves. The practical question remains as to whether repeated additions (by man) of the beetles to Rumex obtusifolius could eliminate them.
Effect of Phytolacca americana Extracts on the Activities of AsPOX and GuPOX during Germination Process of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame
Lee, Ho-Joon ; Kim, Yong-Ok ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 23, issue 2, 2000, Pages 187~192
After Cassia mimosoides var. nomame was treated with Phytolacca americana extracts during the germination process, its effect on the activities of AsPOX and GuPOX were examined. As the concentration of P. americana extract increased. the activity of AsPOX decreased while that of GuPOX increased. During the germination process, the activity of AsPOX was lower than the control, while the activity of GuPOX was over 2 times higher than the control. Activity of total peroxidase by IEF was extremely high at pI 6.4 and pI 6.6 when treatment was made with a 30% concentration of P. americana extract. The treatment with phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and benzoic acid did not show much difference from the control although a slight increase was observed at pI 6.6. Activity of GuPOX in C. mimosoides was over 4 times higher in roots than in shoots. Namely, because GuPOX activity of C. mimosoides was increased by extracts of P. americana, defense enzyme, GuPOX. was generated against external stress, and we could certified the activity increase at pI 6.4, especially in root.