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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Ecology
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Vegetation of Mok-do Island: Its Spatial Distribution and Monitoring for Vegetation Conservation
Kim, Jong-Won ; Jegal, Jae-Cheol ; Lee, Byeong-Yeol ; Lee, Yul-Gyeong ; Mun, Gyeong-Hui ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 259~265
This paper describes the species composition of the remnant forest vegetation (Natural Monument No. 65) in the Mok-do island of Ulsan city and its relation to ecological long-term monitoring. Syntaxonomical classification and actual vegetation map were depicted in very fine scale 1:800 for better understanding spatial distribution and vitality of individual trees and communities. A total of 111 species and 13 plant communities occurred on the 19,166 ㎡ area. Evergreen broad-leaved forest of Machilus thunbergii is a representative vegetation type, which covers 37.4% of the island area. Evergreen coniferous forest of Pinus thunbergii covers 18.6% of the island. These two forests occurred at different parts of the island, i.e., the former at the rearward and the later at the frontward of island against marine. 95.7% of trees analysed was determined as critically and absolutely monitored individuals. From a conservation perspective the Mok-do vegetation is extremely vulnerable, which must be long-termly monitored using an assessment of tree vitality and a fine scale map of vegetation.
Syntaxonomical Reconsideration of the Rosetalia rugosae
Jeong, Yong-Gyu ; Kim, Won ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 267~271
A phytosociological study on the hierarchical classification system of the Rosetalia rugosae, developed at the coastal dunes in the cool-temperate region of Northeast Asia, was carried out. Currently, the Rosetalia rugosae is subordinated to the Rosetea multiflorae which is the highest rank of the mantle vegetation in Northeast Asia, however its hierarchical system is somewhat ambiguous. This study was accomplished by using the syntaxa and hierarchical system of the Rosetalia rugosae and Rosetea multiflorae, and by also using 197 homogeneous relevns of the Rosetalia rugosae in South Korea and Japan in terms of the Zbrich-Montpellier School. For the hierarchical analysis of the Rosetalia rugosae, the constancy, the frequency and the net contribution degree were evaluated. It is estimated that the Rosetalia rugosae and the Rosetea multiflorae are hardly related to reciprocally. Thus, the subordination of the Rosetalia rugosae to the Rosetea multiflorae is comparatively irrational. Accordingly, the syntaxonomical hierarchy of the Rosetalia rugosae must be reconsidered that is correspond to the Viticetea rotundifoliae of the warm-temperate coastal dune shrub vegetation.
Vegetation Structure and Distribution of Exotic Plants with Geomorphology and Disturbance in the Riparian Zone of Seunggi Stream, Incheon
Sin, Dong-Ho ; Jo, Gang-Hyeon ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 273~280
We investigated the flora and vegetation structure of exotic plants along stream geomorphology and disturbance factors in the riparian zone of Seunggi stream, Incheon. Total 53 exotic plant species were found in the riparian corridors of Seunggi stream. The percentage of exotics ranged from 25% to 33% of total species richness, and its mean value was 24% in the whole riparian area. The percentage of exotics reflected the vulnerability of riparian zones to plant invasions by disturbances, and it could be used as an indicator of riparian system dysfunction. The distinct distribution patterns of exotic plants did not found in the lateral topographic features of the stream. Invasion and proliferation of the exotic plants were somewhat remarkable at terraces and bank slopes of the stream. Among various disturbance factors, plowing and trampling were important on the invasion of exotic plant species of Seunggi stream.
Dendrochronological Analysis of Abies koreana W. at Mt. Halla, Korea: Effects of Climate Change on the Growths
Koo, Kyung-Ah ; Park, Won-Kyu ; Kong, Woo-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 281~288
The relationships between the growths of Abies koreana W. and climatic factors were analyzed by the use of tree-ring analysis at the subalpine belt of Mt. Halla National Park. The four cores were extracted from each 21 trees at north-facing slope (1,900m a.s.1.). The site chronology was established on the periods from 1912 to 1999. The growth of A. koreana was very poor, in particular in the years of 1982, 1988 and 1996. Simple correlation was employed to analyze the relationship between the growth of A. koreana and climatic factors. The result of simple correlation indicates that the growth of A. koreana represent positive correlations both with the mean temperatures of April and previous November, and the precipitation of previous December and January. The presence of large number of frost-damaged scars in the individual trees of A. koreana implies that local freezing temperature conditions at Mt. Halla have occurred in 1964, 1965 and 1966. The correlations between the fir chronology SOI(Southern Oscillation Index) of previous January, February and November were significantly positive. The growth ratio of A. koreana demonstrates that this species is sensitive to seasonal variations. As the winter temperature rises, the growth ratio of A. koreana decreases, on the other hand, the increase of autumn temperature accelerates the growth ratio of A. koreana. The growth decline of A. koreana was observed from 51 cores out of the 54 cores, and the overall growth declines have initiated at 1978, 1982 and 1988. Distinct growth decline of A. koreana in the range of 70% is noticed at 34 cores out of the 51 cores. The decline of, A. koreana growth appears to be related to the winter temperature which has increased since mid-1970s.
Distribution and Community Structure of Salix Species along the Environmental Gradients in the Nam-River Watershed
Lee, In-Sun ; Lee, Pal-Hong ; Son, Seong-Gon ; Kim, Cheol-Su ; O, Gyeong-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 289~296
Community structure of the Salix and physico-chemical properties of sediment were studied from July to September, 2000 in Nam-River watershed for the purpose of inquiring niche breadth, niche overlap and the environmental factors affecting the distribution of Salix species. Among eleven Salix species, the dominant species was Salix koreensis, while the rests were such order as S. nipponica, S. gracilistyla and S. glandulosa by the relative abundance based on the basal area. Mean values and the ranges of sediment properties such as pH, conductivity, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, clay, silt and sand were 5.3∼6.3, 14∼351 μmho/cm, 0.1∼3.4%, 0.5∼7.3%, 0.01∼0.2%, 0.1∼0.4 mg/100 g, 1.7∼22.0%, 0.2∼40.8%, 39.7∼98.0%, respectively. Altitude and annual mean temperature of each site were 20∼620 m and 9.3∼13.0℃, respectively. Niche breadth was estimated by considering the differences of the soil texture as the differences of state of source. S. glandulosa was the broadest at the level of 0.77, while the rests were such order as S. koreensis, S. nipponica were 0.69, 0.54, respectively. The niche overlap showing the level of interspecific competition was the largest as 0.94 between S. purpurea var. japonica and S. purpurea var multinervis, while S. graciliglans and S. purpurea var. japonica 0.92, S. graciliglans and S. purpurea var. multinervis 0.87, respectively. According to the analysis of the correlation between eleven species of Salix and eleven environmental factors, S. gracilistyla showed the negative correlation with conductivity, water content, total nitrogen, clay, silt and annual mean temperature, and showed the positive correlation with total nitrogen, sand and altitude. S. graciliglans showed the negative correlation with conductivity, water content, organic matter, clay, silt and annual mean temperature, and showed the positive correlation with total nitrogen, sand and altitude. S. nipponica showed the negative correlation with sand and altitude, and showed the positive correlation with water content, total nitrogen, clay, silt and annual mean temperature. S. nipponica showed the opposite results of S. gracilistyla. Soil texture, total nitrogen, water content, altitude and annual mean temperature were affecting the distribution of Salix species in Nam-River watershed.
Heavy Metal Concentrations of Sediment and Ruditapes philippinarum Inhabited in the Intertidal Zone of Kwangyang Bay
Gwak, Yeong-Se ; Hwangbo, Jun-Gwon ; Lee, Chung-Il ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 297~301
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent of heavy metals(As, Pb, Cd, Hg)accumulated in sediments of the Kwangyang Bay, and to investigate bioaccumulation of heavy metals(As, Pb, Cd, Hg) in shellfish(Ruditapes philippinarum) commonly found in the intertidal zone of the Kwangyang Bay. The data was also compared with that of Namhae and Kohung intertidal zones, which were regarded as control stations in this study. Substantial geographical variations in heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found. However, heavy metal concentrations in the sediment collected from the intertidal zones of Yochon(stations I, J) and Myodo(stations G, H) close to Yochon Industrial Area exhibited relatively higher heavy metal concentrations, compared to those from other intertidal zones(stations A, B, C) adjacent to POSCO at Kwangyang Bay. In addition, stations A, B, C showed lower heavy metal concentrations in the sediments than controls(K, L). The annual mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the shellfish from the stations(G, H, I, J) were significantly higher than those from other stations(A, B, C, D, E, F). Nevertheless, heavy metal accumulation in sediments was not reflected in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in shellfish, probably indicating that interactions between the heavy metals in sediment and shellfish might be poor in the current study area, Kwangyang Bay.
Heavy Metal Contamination of Feral Pigeons Columba livia by Habitat in Seoul
Kim, Jeong-Su ; Han, Sang-Hui ; Lee, Du-Pyo ; Gu, Tae-Hoe ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 303~307
Some Feral Pigeons Columba livia were collected in commercial, industrial, park and resident areas of Seoul and heavy metal concentrations in their liver, kidney, bone and muscle tissues were measured to compare the levels of exposure by habitats. Statistical analyses showed some differences in the levels of heavy metals among these habitats. The levels of iron in liver and zinc in kidney were lower in resident area than in the other ones. Manganese and copper levels in all tissues were the highest in industrial area and park area, respectively. Lead bone level in resident area was the lowest, while that in commercial area was the highest. Cadmium level in kidney was higher in park area than in the other areas. Of these results, the levels of iron, zinc and lead in some tissues were related to traffic density in each habitats.
A Study on the Cadmium Tolerance of Some Native Herb Plants
Jang, Ju-Yeon ; Jang, Yun-Yeong ; Bae, Beom-Han ; Lee, In-Suk ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 309~313
This research was conducted to test cadmium tolerance by five speices of native herbs for screening cadmium tolerance plant. We examined germination rate, root and shoot growth rate of seedling, fresh biomass of native herbs exposed to cadmium solution for 14 days. Especially, germination rate of Abutilon avicennae and Amaranthus retroflexus was over 90% in all concentration, but germination rate of Aeschynomene indica, Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola and Echinochla crus-galli var. frumentacea began to decrease when they exposed to 15 mgCdSO₄ /L. The higher the Cd concentration, the length of root, shoot grew lower. The fresh biomass of Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola, Echinochla crus-galli var. frumentacea and Amaranthus retro-flexus were not so different from each control, but those of Abutilon avicennae and Aeschynomene indica began to decrese greatly when exposed to 60 mgCdSO₄ /L. EC/sub 50/(Effective Concentration 50%) of Abutilon avicennae, Aeschynomene indica and Amaranthus retroflexus was 44.6∼77.5 mgCdSO₄ /L for root growth, 38.6∼114 mgCdSO₄ /L for shoot growth, 60∼107.5 mgCdSO₄ /L for fresh biomass. Among the native herbs, sensitivity of cadmium ordered as root length > fresh biomass > shoot length. These results indicate that Abutilon avicennae is a tolerant species for cadmium.
Seasonal Diversity, Production and Nutrients Concentration of Mushrooms in an Oak Forest
Namgung, Jeong ; Pyo, Jae-Hun ; Mun, Hyeong-Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 315~322
Seasonal production and nutrient concentrations of mushrooms in an Quercus acutissima forest were studied from 1999 to 2000. Thirty 2×2m quadrats were established randomly in the study area. 114 species of mushrooms were identified during the study period. Although mushrooms occurred from May to November in each year, the highest biomass production occurred in August. Seasonal dominant species was Lactarius violascens in June, R. bella and L. violascens in July, Marasmius siccus in August, Cortinarius tenuipes in September, Lepista nuda and C. tenuipes in October, respectively. Annual production of mushrooms in 1999 and 2000 were 84.8 kgDW·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ and 86.7 kgDW·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/, respectively. Seasonal production was27.1kg/ha for July, 35.9kg/ha for August and 17.1 kg/ha for September, 3.7kg/ha for October, respectively. Seasonal dominant species in biomass was Russula alboareolata in June, R. bella in July, R. pseudodelica in August and September, Lepista nuda in October, respectively. R. pseudodelica showed the highest biomass in the study area, which is 17.5% of the total biomass. Average concentration of nutrients in mushrooms was 45.2mg/g for N, 1.5 mg/g for P, 29.6 mg/g for K, 0.2 mg/g for Ca and 0.8 mg/g for Mg, respectively, which were much higher than those in the leaf litter. Nutrients absorbed by mushrooms in 2000 was 4,163.1 g·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ for N, 130.1 g·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ for P, 2,568.2 g·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ for K, 12.4 g·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ for Ca, 68.5 g·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ for Mg, respectively.
Cultural Landscape of Korea, Its Entity, Changes and Values Evaluation from New Paradigm
Lee, Chang-Seok ; Yu, Yeong-Han ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 24, issue 5, 2001, Pages 323~332
A cultural landscape results from a combination of human activities for resource-use and the response of nature to such artificial interference. Nature provides resources necessary for human life on the Earth in terms of his survival as well as living. Humanbeing has developed civilization using the benefits that nature provides. In the past, a harmonious relationship between mankind and nature had ensured sustainability of resource-use for human. We can find such facts from the existence of cultural landscape. However, rapid economic growth and a development-oriented logic caused from such socio-economic change led to the environmental crises and the depletion of various resources at global level. In the perspective of preparation for such problems, we investigated the background for establishment, function, and value of cultural landscapes, in which a dynamic equilibrium exists between a supply of natural resources and human needs. Furthermore, we discussed a new economic model including ecological consideration, a strategy for ecological management of environment, and a framework for transmission of traditional culture to new generations on the basis of a cultural landscape regime.