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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Apr 2002
Selecting the target year
A Study on Food Resource and Utilization of Artificial Nest of Wild-birds in Urban Woodland
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 275~282
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.275
Preference of food plants of wild birds was shown in the order of Pinus densiflora, Celtis sinensis, Celastrus orbiculatus, Rosa multiflora, Taxus cuspidata, and Euonymus japonica, etc. The wild birds preferred the animal food(92.2%) rather than the vegetable food(32.7%) in breeding season(May through June), but preferred both animal and vegetable foods in non-breeding season(November through December). The rates utilzing artficial nest were 77.5%, 50.3%, 44.1% and 42.2% in Nosan, Sanho, Chinju-castle and Bibong parks, respectively. The wild birds used more the 3cm hole than 5cm hole.
A Study on Habitat for Multiplication of Wild-birds in Urban Woodland
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 283~295
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.283
The number of species and individvals of birds observed in Bibong, Chinju-castle, Nosan and Saho parks were 49 and 4,349, 46 and 6,453, 37 and 2,817, and 33 and 6,014, nespectively The dominant species in all survey areas were shown in the order of Passer montanus(21.8%), Aegithalos spp.(20.7%), Pica pica(8.7%), Hypsipetes amaurotis(7.6%), Parus major(6.4%), Carduelis spp.(4.6%). Migration of birds was the order of residents, summer visitor, winter visitor, and passage migrant. The number of bird species appeared was the fewest in winter as 40 species and the most in spring as 53 species. Species diversity was the highest in Bibong park as 1.3256 and followed in the order of Sanho park, Nosan park, and Chinju-castle park. The nesting guild was higher at outside and artificial nesting guild(7-15 species) compared with hole, canopy, bush nesting guild(1-7 species) in all survey areas. The breeding forage guild was higher at canopy and bush(12-25 species) than that at outside, artificial, and air forage guild(2-8 species).
Forest Vegetation Analysis of Gabhasan and Woosanbong in Daejeon, Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 297~303
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.297
This study was carried out to analyze forest vegetation of Gabhasan and Woosanbong in Daejeon, Employing the releve method of TWINSPAN, 62 plots were sampled from June 2001 to September 2001. Field survey carried out to examine importance value, to do diameter of breast height(DBH) measurement, and to analyze the Ordination. The Forest vegetation was classified into four communities: Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis community, Quercus acutissima community. The importance value of Pinus densiflora, Quercus variabilis, Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata and Styrax japonica were high. According to DBH analysis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis dominate currently, however, importance value of Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata, Prunus sargentii would increase in the future. The result of ordination analysis, showed that Quercus mongolica community was located in high altitude and steep area, Pinus densiflora community was located in comparatively high altitude and medium slope area, Quercus variabilis community was located in low altitude and gentle slope area and Quercus acutissima community was located in the lowest altitude and relatively gentle slope area.
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Water and Distribution of Vascular Hydrophytes in the West Nakdong River, South Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.305
The physico-chemical characteristics of water and sediment, and structures of vegetation of the vascular hydrophytes were investigated in the West Nakdong River. Water quality was eutrophic according to the mean values and the ranges of water properties such as pH, DO, BOD, chlorophyll a, total nitrogen and phosphate, and other nutrients. A few cases were hypereutrophic for chlorophyll a level in summer. Soil reaction was weak acid. Composition of sediment was mainly sand except in SI(Sinan chideung) of which was mainly clay, and SU(Suan chideung) of which was mainly silt. Flora of vascular hydrophyte had 26 species and 1 variety comprising 16 families. Trapa japonica was dominant species in the sites of DU(Dunchido), GA(Garak chideung) and SU. Nymphoides peltata and Hydrocharis dubia dominated in DA and SI, respectively. Species diversity and evenness were relatively high in SI and SU but dominance was high in DA. After June, water lettuce(Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes) were flowed from tributary to the river. Standing crop of macrohydrophytes was high in DA from April to August, but it showed maximum standing crop (445g·dw/㎡) in DU after disturbance by explosive growth of exotic plants in October. In comparison with those in 1985, total productivities in DU and GA decreased to 33.5%, and the reduction ratio of dominant species, Trapa japonica was 56.7%. Najas marina, N. minor, Myriophyllum spicatum and Nymphoides indica have disappeared ever since the Nakdong barrage was constructed in the Nakdong river. They were divided into three groups (GA-SU-DU, DA, SI) by cluster analysis. Introduction of the exotic species in this river caused decreasing of endemic plants including endangered species Euryale ferox and rare species Hydocharis dubia, and food plants for waterfowl such as Trapa japonica, Vallisneria asiatica and Potamogeton crispus.
A Study of the Potential for Phytoremediation of Cd Contaminated Soil
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.315
Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was studied using Indian mallow (Abutilon avicennae) in columns packed with 80 mg Cd/kg soil. At 90 days after transplat, root biomass of the exposed plants was 4 times more inhibited compared to the control. Also, shoot length of the exposed plants was 3 times more inhibited than that of control plants. Accumulation of cadmium into tissues was in the order roots> stems> leaves during the 50 days, but the order was roots> stems> seeds> leaves during the 90 days after transplant. Regardless of cadmium contaminations, microbial activities were significantly greater in soil with plants than without plants. In soil column, cadmium was not transferred toward the lower part. Uptake of Cd by plant tissues was about 3.5% of the initial bioavailable cadmium for leaves, stems, and roots during the 90 days after transplant.
Effects of Human Trampling Disturbance on the Vegetation at the Subalpine Zone near the Peak of Mt. Sorak, Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 321~328
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.321
In order to provide the basic information for restoration of vegetation, conservation of rare species and maintenance of biodiversity, changes of site factors and vegetation by human trampling disturbance were investigated at the subalpine zone near the peak of Mt. Sorak in Korea. The destructed vegetation was found mainly in the southern parts with gentle slope in this study area. Height and coverage of vegetation and the species diversity decreased, and the community structure depended on trampling strength. Soil moisture, organic matter contents and litter thickness in the site with destructed vegetation by human trampling showed lower values than in the undisturbed site. Soil depth decreased, and gravel exposure on the ground surface increased by soil erosion responded to trampling strength.
Comparison of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Tissues of Feral Pigeons(Columba livia) from Rural, Central Urban, and Industrial Complex Areas
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 329~334
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.329
In order to compare the lead and cadmium levels, studies of heavy metal accumulation of feral pigeons from rural (Deokjeok island), central urban (Seoul city), and industrial complexes (Ansan, Busan, Ulsan, and Yochon) were conducted. The outstanding result of this study is that feral pigeons in urban and industrial complex areas contain high Pb and Cd concentrations in kidney, bone, liver, and lung tissues compared to those of rural areas. Such a trend was prominent in the target organs, bone and kidney, about 10 times greater than in rural areas. On the other hand, the lead levels of the Yochon Industrial Complex were noticeably lower than those of other industrial complex areas. Not only feral pigeons habit of street and ground feeding, but also atmospheric metal concentration offers an explanation for the heavy metal concentration differences in the study areas.
Correlation between Heavy Metal Levels in Tissues of Feral Pigeons(Columba livia)
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 335~339
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.335
Concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb were determined in the tissues of sixty adult pigeons collected at six colonies in Korea, and examined correlations between elements, and between tissues in feral pigeons. As the results, we found many significant correlations between elements, and between tissues in them, A negative correlation between Cd and Fe concentrations was observed in the kidney, Cd depresses the absorption of Fe from the intestine and, in this way, affects the levels of Fe in particular tissues. This tendency could be expressed in terms of lower hemoglobin and hematocrit values because hematocrit is one of the most sensitive indicators of Cd intoxication. Zn concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd levels in the kidney and liver. This is thought to be a reflection of the interaction known to occur between these two metals. Zn induction has been shown to antagonize a number of toxic effects of Cd. A positive correlation between Pb and Fe concentrations was detected in the livers at the Busan colony with relatively high Pb and Fe concentrations. Pb has been shown to co-accumulate with Fe in the liver by inhibiting the heme synthesis. Significant correlations, especially in toxic elements, Pb and Cd, were observed for many pairs of tissues. We suggest that these correlations between elements, and between tissues should be considered in biomonitoring for heavy metal pollution.
Relationships between Geographical Conditions and Distribution Pattern of Plant Species on Uninhabited Islands in Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 341~348
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.341
Correlations among the island area, distance to mainland, latitude, longitude, human impacts, diversity and composition of vascular plants were investigated by analyzing data on 261 islands(10.3% of total number of islands in Korea) selected from the annual reports for 'the natural evironment survey of the uninhabited islands in Korea' published by 'Ministry of Environment' during three years from 1999. The area of surveyed 261 islands ranged 1,100 to 961,000㎡(average of 75,000㎡), and the distance to mainland ranged 0.15 to 51.5km (average of 14.9km). Total number of plant species recorded in those islands was 1,109 species throughout 30 families, and mean mumber of plant species of each island was 98.7 species. Native species were 1,003 species (90.4%), and exotic species were 106 species(9.6%). The families with the largest number of species was the Compositae with 114 species, and followed in the order of Gramineae(90), Leguminosae(54), and Rosaceae(53). The result of multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the plant species composition showed that 261 islands were distinctly divided into two groups, western sea group(131 islands) and southern sea group(130 islands). The islands of western sea group(average area of 93,000㎡) had greatly larger area than them of southern sea group(average area of 57,000㎡), but the average number of species (average species of 192) per island were less than in southern sea group (average species of 233). And, the partitioning into two groups was responsible for the species restricted to southern than to western sea group. Therefore, this results suggest that the distribution pattern and the composition of plant species could be also affected by the latitude of the island. When the species-area model was applied to total island and plant species, these results indicate that the island area was the most significant predictor of plant species diversity, and the distance to mainland and the human impacts were also shown to be significant predictors of plant species richness. But when applied to both groups of islands by the stepwise selection method, the result showed that islands of southern sea group were greatly affected by the factors such as human impacts, distance to mainland and longitude than western sea group. For the purpose of conservation of natural ecosystem on the uninhabited islands in Korea, we will also examine how the human impacts and the invasion of exotic plant species will disturb the native species diversity.
Effects of Mn on the Growth and Nutrient Status of Pinus densiflora Seedlings in Nutrient Culture Solution
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 349~352
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.349
The effects of Mn on growth and nutrient status of Pinus densiflora seedlings grown in a nutrient culture solution were investigated. Mn concentrations was added as manganese chloride at 0, 30 and 60ppm to the nutrient culture solution. The 2-year-old seedlings were transplanted into the solution maintained at pH 4.0, and grown for 90 days in a greenhouse. The Mn treatment induced a significant reduction in the dry weight growth of the seedlings. The relative growth rate(RGR) and net assimilation rate(NAR) of the seedlings decreased with increasing Mn concentrations in the nutrient culture solutions. For the nutrient status of the seedlings, Ca and Mg content in trunk and root was least in 60ppm Mn treatment, and Mn content in needle was about 3 times more than in root. Also the net photosynthetic rate of the seedlings was significantly lower both in 30ppm and 60ppm Mn treatment compared to them in 0ppm. This result suggests that the reductions in the RGR and NAR of the seedlings may be resulted from the inhibition of net photosynthesis by the mixed effect of lower nutrient uptake of roots and excess accumulation of Mn in needle.
Antimicrobial Activity of the Monoterpenes of Pinus Plants on Escherichia coli and Aspergillus nidulans
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 353~358
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.353
We examined the effect of 12 main monoterpenes in Pinus plants on growth inhibition of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus nidulans. We tested four concentrations of each compound by comparing the clear zone with controls. (R)-(-)carvone, (S)(+)carvone, (1R)(-)fenchone, (-)menthone, α-pinene, (1S) (-)verbenone and (+)β - pinene had a inhibition effect on E. coli. (R)-(-)carvone, (S)(+)carvone, (+) β-pinene, geranyl-acetate, α-pinene, and (1S)(-)verbenone had inhibitory effects on the growth of A. nidulans. Geranyl-acetate inhibit growth of A. nidulans, however not to E. coli. And (1R)(-)fenchone and (-)menthone inhibit growth of E. coli, but not to A. nidulans. Myrcene, sabinene, bornyl acetate, and limonene had no inhibitory effects on E. coli and A. nidulans, eventhough at the highest concentration. All these results suggested that some selected monoterpenes had antifungal activities depend on the species of microorganism.
Uptake Patterns of N and P by Reeds (Phragmites australis) of Newly Constructed Shihwa Tidal Freshwater Marshes
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 25, issue 5, 2002, Pages 359~364
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2002.25.5.359
This study was conducted to examine the seasonal pattern of N and P uptake by reeds (Phragmites australis) planted in newly constructed Shihwa tidal freshwater marshes. Reed and soil samples were collected from the wetland periodically from June 2000 to May 2002. Reed samples were analyzed for dry weight and content of N and P Soil organic matter content and salinity were also determined. Dry matter content of reed increased during the growing season but decreased in the fall and winter. However, this seasonal pattern was not so evident in the second year. In particular, throughout the measurement period, dry matter content of reed was lowest at a site showing high soil salinity. Regression analyses between dry matter content of reed and soil EC(1:5) suggested that dry matter content per unit square meter would decrease by 1.5 kg with every 1 dS m/sup -1/ increase in soil EC(1:5). The amount of N and P assimilated by reed significantly decreased from the fall and was lowest in the spring. Net decrease in N content from reed during the fall and next spring was calculated as 34.5 and 24.6 g m/sup -2/ in the first and second years, respectively, while the corresponding P loss was 4.0 and 1.8 g m/sup -2/. Soil organic mailer content increased in the fall and winter, but decreased in the spring and summer. The results of this study suggested that the removal of N and P by reed would be considerable during the growing season but the nutrients taken up by reeds would return as detritus to the marshes in the fall and winter. Based on the results of the study, therefore, the harvest of the reed at the latter part of the growth would be recommended to prevent further water quality degradation. However, the long-term effects of reed harvest needs further study.