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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Monitoring of Heavy Metal Contaminations using Feathers of Feral Pigeons Columba livia in Seoul
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.091
To monitor the heavy metal exposure conditions of Feral Pigeons Columba livia, we collected them at commercial area, industrial area, park area and resident area in Seoul. In feathers, iron concentrations were significantly different among habitats(ANOVA, p<0.05), and were the highest at park area. Manganese concentrations were relatively higher at industrial and park area than other areas(ANOVA, p<0.05). In case of copper levels were the significantly highest at park area(ANOVA, p<0.05). Zinc, lead and cadmium had no difference among habitats. Correlation between livers and feathers concentrations were highly significant to copper(r²=0.983, p<0.01) and cadmium(r²=0.632, p<0.01), but iron, zinc, manganese and lead were not significantly different.
Influence of the Eco-park Development on Bird Community in Urban Stream
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.097
This study was carried out to understand the variation of bird community by eco-park development of urban stream, Yangjae stream, Seoul, from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2001. After the development, slight change in the bird community happened; for example, the number of species increased(r²=0.729, p<0.05), but there was not any variation in the total number of birds(r²=0.050, p>0.05). Especially, the number of individuals in herons and ducks rose. We suggest that the change as caused by restoration of low revetment vegetation and artificial pond vegetation in flood plain. However, the number of sandpipers, plovers and wagtails inhabiting on the sands and gravels in stream fell down. It seems that it would be caused by construction of bicycle path on the flood plain. The number of songbirds was tended to go down to 2000, but increased in 2001. The decrease of songbirds might be attributed to irregular removals of bush. We suggested that riparian vegetation restoration and artificial ponds positively affected birds inhabitation, but bicycle path and irregular elimination of a bush negatively affected.
Changes of the Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation after the Construction of an Embankment in Anmado
Ihm, Byung-Sun ; Lee, Jeom-Sook ; Kim, Ha-Song ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 103~108
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.103
This study examined the coastal sand dune vegetation before and after the construction of an embankment on Anmado Island in order to compare vegetation in relation to the development of islands. A total of 24 species distributed on the sand dunes. 18 species were found to be in common before and after the construction of the embankment, which included Vitex rotundifolia, Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii, Zoysia sinica, etc. The species which were not found in this survey included Rumex japonicus, Setaria viridis, Portulaca oleracea, Artemisia japonica, Poiygonum aviculare, etc, and new species included Arena fatua, Carex boottiana, Lycium chinense, Leonurus sibiricus, Torilis japonica, Solanum carolinense, etc. The washing away of sand brought about the changes in habitat and the increase in naturalized plants, which included Oenothera odorata, Lepidium apetalum, Bidens bipinnata, Erigeron canadensis, Datura stramonium, Xanthium strumarium, Arena fatua, Solanum carolinense etc. In addition, the disturbance to this habitat led to the changes in vegetation. The main plant communities in the surveyed site were classified as Vitex rotundifolia-Imperata cylindrica var. koenigil community, Zoysia sinica-Calystegia soldanella community and Messerschmidia sibirica community. The sand dune vegetation on Anmado Island changed with regard to the community and the composition of species after the construction of the embankment, due to the sand being severely eroded. While Vitex rotundifolia community and Commelina communis community were found before the construction of the embankment, they were replaced by Vitex rotundifolia-Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii community, Zoysia sinica-Calystegia soldanella community and Messerschmidia sibirica community, after the construction of the embankment.
The Patterns of Inorganic Cations, Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Plants in Moojechi Moor on Mt. Jeongjok.
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 109~114
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.109
To investigate ecophysiological characteristics of plants species adapted to moor habitat, we selected 22 species plants and analyzed inorganic cations (K, Ca, Mg), heavy metals (Al, Fe, Mn) and total nitrogen and phosphorus quantitatively. Moojechi moor indicated typical acidic and oligotrophic conditions with pH of 5.0∼5.6 (pH 4.3∼5.1 in soil) and EC of 15∼30μ S/cm, and contained very low contents of soil divalent cation such as Ca and Mg but high contents of heavy metals (esp. Al). With respect to inorganic cation contents, investigated plants species showed remarkable interspecific difference. Plant species belonging to J. effusus var. decipiens, M. japonica, I. globosa, M. sacchariflorus, R. mucronulatum, R. yedoense var. poukhanense, H. micrantha, D. rotundifolia showed very low contents of inorganic cation below 400 μ M/g DW, but plant species of C. palustris var. spontanea, L. sessilifolia, P. mandarinorum, C. lineare, S. austriaca sub. glabra, V. mandshurica, A. decursiva showed high cation contents in leaves. Especially, S. austriaca sub. glabra (Compositae) and V. mandshurica (Violaceae) showed pattern accumulating Ca and Mg with plant growth, but I. ensata var. spontanea (Iridaceae) and S. officinalis (Rosaceae) showed decreasing tendency. Meanwhile, most plant species showed low contents of soluble metal ions in leaves in spite of high heavy metal contents on soil, and indicated remarkable interspecific differences in the total contents and composition of heavy metals accumulated. Despite low contents of N and P on soil, most plant species indicated relatively high contents of N and P in leaves at the early stage of growth, and showed slowly decreasing pattern according to growth. Consequently, it seems that plant species inhabited on Moojechi moor cope with acidic-oligotrophic conditions, accumulating inorganic cations and nitrogen at the early growing stage and reutilizing them in the course of growth, and developing heavy metal excluding mechanism.
Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Stress and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tomato Seedlings
Cho, Un-Haing ; Kim, In-Taek ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.115
Leaves of two-week old seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were treated with various concentrations (0∼100 M) of
for up to 9 days and subsequent growth of seedlings, symptoms of oxidative stress and isozyme activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) were investigated. Compared with the non-treated control, Cd exposure decreased biomass but increased Cd accumulation, hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in leaves and roots. Further studies on the developmental changes of isozyme activities showed that Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and one of three APX isozymes decreased and CAT and one of four POX isozymes increased in leaves, whereas Fe-SOD, one of three POX isozymes and two of four APX isozymes decreased and CAT increased in roots, showing different expression of isozymes in leaves and roots with Cd exposure level and time. Based on our results, we suggest that the reduction of seedling growth by Cd exposure is the oxidative stress resulting from the over production of
and the insufficient activities of antioxidant enzymes particularly involved in the scavenging of
. Further, the decreased activities of SOD and APX isozymes of chloroplast origin, the increased activities of CAT and POX and high
contents with Cd exposure might indicate that Cd-induced oxidative stress starts outside chloroplast.
Use of the Centroid Method to Estimate Volumes of Japanese Red Cedar Trees in Southern Korea
Coble, D. W. ; Lee, Young-Jin ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 123~127
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.123
Cubic-meter volumes estimated from two proxy taper functions were compared to observed volumes of Japanese red cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) to evaluate accuracy and precision in the centroid method. Centroid volume estimates were also compared to volume estimates from existing whole-tree volume equations developed for another geographic region. This study found that one proxy function produced unbiased volume estimates while the other was biased. Volume estimates from the whole-tree equations were also biased. However, the volume estimates from the whole-tree equations were more precise than those from the centroid method. These results support previous studies that the centroid method can produce reliable volumes of trees when no other reliable volume equations exist.
A Study on the Carbon Budget in Pinus koreansis Plantation
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 129~134
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.129
Amounts of CO₂ fixed by net primary production and released by soil respiration were determined on big-cone pine plantation. Net primary production, which was determined by allometric method, was converted into CO₂. CO₂ evolution in forest ecosystems are mainly through soil and root respiration. In order to separate root respiration from soil respiration, root-free sites were made in stand. Litter removal sites were prepared to estimate CO₂ evolution through litter layer. Respiration was measured at every two weeks intervals from April 2001 through April 2002, and soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at the same time. Net primary production of this big-cone pine plantation was 25.7 t·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/. The amount of CO₂ fixed by this plantation was 42.5 t CO₂·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/, The amount of CO₂ released by soil respiration was 5.0 t CO₂·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/. The relative contribution of root respiration and litter layer respiration to total respiration was 46% and 32%, respectively. Net amount of fixed CO₂ was 37.5 t CO₂·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ in this big-cone pine plantation. From this result, this big-cone pine plantation play a carbon sink source from the atmosphere.
Effects of Nitrogen Application on the Patterns of Amino Acids, Nitrogen Contents and Growth Response of Four Legume Plants under Saline Conditions
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 135~142
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.135
Four legume plants showed better growth by the external nitrogen supply rather than the symbiotic nitrogen fixation only under salt additions. In case of Glycine max and Phaseolus angularis, total nitrogen contents decreased by high salinity level but their amino acid levels significantly increased with the increase of salt treatments and indicated high soluble-/insoluble-N ratios. Cassia tora and Albizzia julibrissin contained less amino acids than G. max and P. angularis but total N (esp. insoluble N fraction) increased with higher salt levels. Asparagine occurred as a main amino acid especially in G. max and P. angularis and can be seen as potential N-storage form in these plants. It might be play an important role for the osmoregulation mechanism under the saline condition. Meanwhile, to investigate what kinds of nitrogen sources are effective for overcoming salt stress on soybean plants, various N forms and concentrations (NH₄NO₃-N, NO₃-N, NH₄NO₃-N; 2.5 and 5 mM) were additionally supplied to the salt gradient medium. Soybean plants treated with NH₄NO₃-N showed the best growth up to 40 mM NaCl and NO₃- fed plants indicated good growth even at 80 mM NaCl treatments. Contrary to NH₄NO₃- and NO₃- fed plants, NH₄/sup +/- fed plants showed remarkable growth reduction and died by 40 and 80 mM NaCl treatments after the first harvest (15th day). Consequently, these results suggest that salt excluding and resistant capacities of soybean plants under NaCl treatments are increased in order of NH₄ - N, control, NO₃- N and NH₄NO₃- N depending on N concentration except NH₄- N treatments.
Ecological Importance of Water Budget and Synergistic Effects of Water Stress of Plants due to Air Pollution and Soil Acidification in Korea
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 3, 2003, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.3.143
Korea has plentiful precipitation but rainfall events concentrate on several months of rainy season in her weather condition. Korea, therefore, experiences drought for a given period every year. Moreover the soil has usually low water holding capacity, as it is composed coarse particles originated from the granite. Response of several oaks and the Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) on water stress showed that water budget was significant factor determining vegetation distribution. In addition, dehydration level due to cold resistance mechanism of several evergreen plants during the winter season was closely related to their distribution in natural condition. Experimental result under water stress showed that the Korean red pine was very tolerant to desiccation but the seedlings showed high mortality during the dry season. The mortality tended to proportionate to soil moisture content of each site. A comparison between soil moisture content during June when it is severe dry season and moisture content of the culture soil when the pine seedlings reached the permanent wilting point due to water withheld proved that high mortality during the dry season was due to water deficit. Water potential of sample plants measured during the exposure experiment to the air pollutant showed a probability that water related factors would dominate the occurrence of visible damage and the tolerance level of sample plants. In both field survey and laboratory experiment, plants exposed to air pollution showed more rapid transpiration than those grown in the unpolluted condition. The result would due to injury of leaf surface by air pollutants. Aluminum (Al/sup 3+/) increased in the acid soil not only inhibits root growth but also leads to abnormal distribution of root system and thereby caused water stress. The water stresses due to air pollution and soil acidification showed a possibility that they play dominating roles in inducing forest decline additionally to the existing water deficit due to weather and soil conditions in Korea. Sludge, which can contribute to improve field capacity, as it is almost composed of organic matter, showed an effect ameliorating the retarded growth of plant in the acidified soil. The effect was not less than that of dolomite known in widely as such a soil ameliorator. Litter extract contributed also to mitigate the water stress due to toxic Al/sup 3+/. We prepared a model showing the potential interaction of multiple stresses, which can cause forest decline in Korea by synthesizing those results. Furthermore, we suggested restoration plans, which can mitigate such forest decline in terms of soil amelioration and vegetation restoration.