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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
The Determination and Prediction of Pine to Oak Forest Succession in Sugadaira, Central Japan
Jun, Kato ; Hayashi, Ichiroku ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 155~163
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.155
In order to analyze the succession process from a pine forest to an oak forest, the tree growth of Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica ssp. crispula was monitored in a permanent quadrat for 23 years. The measurements were carried out for the stem diameter (DBH) of Pinus densiflora between 1977 and 1999 and for the height of Quercus mongolica ssp. crispula saplings between 1998 and 2000. The floristic composition and the locations of the individual P. densiflora and Q. mongolica ssp. crispula trees and saplings in the quadrat were recorded. P densiflora and Q. mongolica ssp. crispula individuals were randomly distributed within the quadrat. The relative growth rates (RGR) of DBH in P. densiflora were 0.085
for large trees and 0.056
for small trees in 1977. The RGR of height for Q. mongolica ssp. crispula was 0.122
. The growth curve for DBH of P. densiflora was approximated by the logistic equation:
where DBH (t) the DBH (cm) in year t and t is the number of years since 1977. The growth in height of P. densiflora and Q. mongolica ssp. crispula was described by following equations:
Where H (t) is the tree height (m) in year t and t is the number of years since 1977 in P. densiflora and 1998 in Q. mongolica ssp. crispula. With these equations we predicted that the height of Q. mongolica ssp. crispula increases from 2 m in 1999 to 20 m in 2029. Therefore, Q. mongolica ssp. crispula and P. densiflora will be approximately the same height in 2029. The years required for succession from a pine forest to an oak forest are expected 33 with the range between 23 and 44 years.
Growth, Physiological Responses and Ozone Uptake of Five Betula Species Exposed to Ozone
Lee, Jae-Cheon ; Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Jang, Suk-Seong ; Woo, Su-Young ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.165
The objectives of this study were to examine the physiological responses to ozone and to measure ozone uptake rates of Betula species exposed to relatively high concentration of pollutants. At the end of the growing season, photosynthesis, pigments contents, antioxidants (SOD and GR) and ozone uptake rates were measured or estimated at the leaves of five Betula species (Betula costata, B. davurica, B. platyphylla var. japonica, B. schmidtii and B. ermanii) exposed to 100ppb ozone concentration. On the termination of the experiment, growth effects were determined by measuring leaf area and dry weights of leaf, stem and root. Ozone treatment showed the significant reduction the leaf area and dry weight of four Betula species, except for B. ermanii. Shoot / root (SR) ratio of five species represented two different types. SR ratio of B. costata and B. davurica were lower than control, in contrast, SR ratio of B. platyphylla var. japonica, B. schimidtii and B. emani, were higher than that of control. The photosynthetic responses of five species were different in responses to ozone exposure. Four species, except for B. emanii, maintained or increased the stomatal conductance, but B. emanii decreased both stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. SOD activities of five species decreased by the ozone exposure, especially B. ermanii showed the largest reduction, GR activities of B. platyphylla var. japonica and B. schmidtii increased, B. costata and B. emanii decreased. Instantaneous ozone uptake rate was the highest at the leaves of B. ermanii and B. costata, ozone uptake per seedling was the highest at the leaf of B. schmidtii and B. emanii. It was concluded that B. costata, B. davurica and B. platyphylla var. japonica, appeared the growth reduction and visible ozone injury, were sensitive species to ozone, and B. schmidtii with the increased antioxidant activity and B. ermanii without the growth reduction were relatively resistant species to high ozone concentration at the early growing stage.
Population´s Limit of Corydalis (Sect. res-gallinaceua) Group Living in the Same Area
Min, Byeong-Mee ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.173
To clarify whether the closely related species living in the same area is a population or populations ecologically, leaf morphology, specific leaf area, and fruit and seed production were studied in the natural group of sect. Pes-gallinaceua of Corydalis of Namhansansung area from 1999 to 2000. There were 352 plants in one square meter and total eight species or varieties were identified. Of the 352 plants, the number of C. turtschaninovii was the most with 103(29.3%), and that of C. ambigua was the next with 78(22.2%), and that of C. turtschaninovii var. fumariaefolia was the smallest with 9(2.6%). In the 28 plants having spotted leaves, central leaflet did not parted or again parted. The extent of partition with the plant was various from non-parted type to perfectly two-parted type (three leaflet). Between two extreme types, there were diverse types so that this character formed a gradient. The rate of length/breadth was in the range of 0.79~2.17. This character was related to the extent of leaflet partition but did not well expressed the distinguishing trait along a species. The number and the type of serration were diverse and there was no sharp borderline among the species or varieties. Ecological properties, specific leaf area, the number of fruit per plant, and the number of seed per fruit, varied with a wide range in a species or variety but differences between species or variety were not significant. Therefore, the Corydalis group studied was regarded as a population on the three criteria: (1) possibility of interbreeding, (2) continuity of leaf morphology, (3) irrelevance between character and species, (4) similarity of several ecological properties.
Several Growth Properties of Pes-gallinaceua (Corydalis, Fumariaceae) Group
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 181~188
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.181
Frequencies of each size class, annual change of tuber state and above ground/belowground rate in sect. Pes-gallinaceua group of Corydalis (Fumariaceae) were studied to clarify spring ephemeral´s growth characteristics from 1999 to 2000 in Namhansansung area. Shoot grew from the tuber corresponding with soil thawing in the early growth season, and the deeper tuber was located in soil, the later shoot germinated. Shoot appeared in middle March and died early in May, and the period of total growth season was 45 days. Frequencies were 40% (in total dry weight) or 53% (in tuber´ dry weight) in the smallest size class, and 93% (in total dry weight) or 96% (in tuber´ dry weight) below medium size, therefore, almost all of plants were small. Specific gravity of tuber (SGT) gradually decreased from late growth season to the time that leaf unfolded in next year. At this time, the value of SGT was 0.14. Thereafter, SGT increased to 0.42 at withering time of aboveground part. During growth season, the SGT of flowering plants was lower than that of non-flowering plants. And SGT difference between flowering plants and non-flowering plants was significant at 1% level. In the late growth season, SGT decreased along the increase of tuber volume. The tuber volume roughly increased along the leaf area but there was no a conspicuous trend. Shoot/tuber rate had nothing to do with tuber volume. SGT decreased and leaf area increased along the tuber dry weight, and tendencies of increase or decrease were conspicuous. Therefore, the smaller the plants were, the larger organic matter accumulated in tuber during a growth season. Shoot/tuber rates were various along each plant.
Seed Production of Pes-gallinaceua(Corydalis, Fumariaceae) Group
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 189~197
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.189
Properties of seed production in Corydalis, spring ephemeral, group were studied during two years at Namhansansung area. Corydalis´ flower was out in the early April and its seed dispersed in the early May. The period of total seed production was 30 days. The decrease rate of sex organs was the highest between deflowering time and early fruiting time. The numbers of flower and seed per plant were in the range of 1∼13 and 0∼76, respectively. And the number of seed per fruit was from zero to twenty. In a plant, seed production was the most (11.8 seeds) in the lowest fruit and conspicuously decreased along the upward fruit. In the same plant, seed production was various by each year. The plants of small tuber size produced more seeds and those of large tuber size produced fewer seeds in the next year than this year. In the early growth season, the flowering plants/total plants rate increased in proportion to plant size (tuber volume), the rate of the smallest size class (<100 ㎣) was in the range of 5.0%(1999)∼5.4%(2000), those over the 600 ㎣ size classes were 100%. The number of flower per plant at the same size class were higher in 2000 than in 1999. Especially, at the size class of 900 ㎣≤, the numbers of flower per plant were 13.2 in 2000 and 6.5 in 1999. In the late growth season, the flowering plants/total plants rates were 13.3%in the smallest size class (<100 ㎣)and 100% over the 500 ㎣ size classes. Therefore, the flowering plants/total plants rates along the size classes were higher in the late growth season than in the early one. The bumer of fruit or seed per plant increased in proportion to the volume and dry weight of tuber, there was not significant and varied along each plant in the same size class. The number of fruit or seed per plant conspicuously increased in proportion to the leaf area. Therefore, it was thought that seed production was related to photosynthetic ability during growth season.
The Relationship between Local Distribution and Abundance of Butterflies and Weather Factors
Choi, Sei-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 199~202
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.199
According to the energy hypothesis, the energy input per unit area primarily determines species richness in regions of roughly equal area. Some energy-related ecological research included identification of major climatic variables to determine regional species richness. In this study, the local butterfly species richness was examined to find out whether weather variables affected the local distribution or abundance of butterfly populations. Butterfly monitoring data from May 2001 to April 2002 taken at Mt. Yudal, Mokpo, in the southwestern part of Korea, and six weather variables (monthly mean values of temperature, precipitation, evaporation, wind speed, air pressure, and sunlight) were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis showed that only temperature explained 80% and 70% of the variability of log-transformed number of species and individuals, respectively, indicating that temperature played an important role in local species richness. Furthermore, global warming could affect the abundance and distribution of butterflies regionally as well as locally.
The Decomposition of Leaf Litters of Some Tree Species in Temperate Deciduous Forest in Korea I. Losses in Dry Weight of Leaf Litter
Yang, Keum-Chul ; Shim, Jae-Kuk ;
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 203~208
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.203
Losses in the dry weight of leaf litter from six tree species were studied during 16 months on the forest floor in temperate deciduous forest of Mt. Cheonma in the vicinity of Seoul in Korea by using litter bag method. The decomposition rate of each leaf litter varies with each species. After 16 months elapsed, the leaf litter of Acer pseudo-sieboidianum showed the highest decomposition constant (0.82) as Olson´s decomposition constant, while that of Pinus densiflora showed the lowest decomposition constant (0.33). The decomposition constant of Quercus mongolica, Q. serrata, Betula ermani and Carpinus laxiflora showed 0.43, 0.37, 0.66 and 0.75, respectively. The decomposition constant of leaf litter was considered with temperature and precipitation which accumulated daily during each term of litter bag collection. The decomposition constant of leaf litter showed closely positive correlation with daily accumulative temperature and precipitation. The relationships between decomposition constant and the daily accumulative temperature and precipitation at each period of litter bag collection were analyzed through multi-regression analysis. The correlation coefficients as a result of multi-regression analysis in Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, P densiflora, B. ermani, C. laxiflorais and A. pseudo-sieboldianum were 0.83, 0.81, 0.69, 0.77, 0.77 and 0.62, respectively. The precipitation showed higher effect, about 10 times, on the leaf litter decomposition than the daily accumulative temperature.
Early Vegetation Succession in Abandoned Field in Cheju Island
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 209~214
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.209
In order to clarify the successional trend and its characteristics of plant community in abandoned field in Cheju Island, we investigated the seral changes of vegetation height, coverage, growth form, species richness, diversity and dominance index along with the time lapse, and then compared with those of mainland researches. And in order to seek the overall trend of vegetation changes, we used cluster, TWINSPAN and PCA ordination techniques. The succession was characterized by the lower species number, lower vegetation height, longer period of herb dominant and later invasion of tree species. These results may come from that ecological traits of Cheju Island itself, and ecosystem fragmented influences that block a seed (propagule) transport. Sere of the dominant species was shown as follows: Mazus japonicus(0.5∼1 years)→Conyza sumatrensis (2 years)→Artemisia princeps var. orientalis(4 years)→Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, indigofera pseudotinctoria(5 years)→Rosa multiflora, Miscanthus sinensis, etc.(8 years)→Miscanthus sinensis(12 years)→Boehmeria nivea, Pueraria thunbergiana etc.(15 years)→Mallotus japonicus(20 years)→Litsea japonica, Machilus thunbergii (20 years<). Abandoned fields were classified into three groups according to time lapse; earlier stage(0∼1 years), middle stage(2∼8 years) and later stage(8∼20 years).
Watershed Concept Embedded in The Baekdoodaegan Frame
The Korean Journal of Ecology, volume 26, issue 4, 2003, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2003.26.4.215
Ecological concepts were embedded in the old Korean maps and other documents. The concepts may represent ecological views which people had at the time. Through those ecological views, we propose that we can see a watershed concept in old Korean maps. We also discuss relevant records to understand the history of this concept. While many scholars have highlighted in the Baekdoodaegan frame only the pan of the mountain ranges, we are pointing out other perspectives. Our emphasis is that the concept is explicitly related to a watershed concept. An old Korean map shows that people at that time divided the Korean Peninsula into many watersheds, which was as early as 1402. We can even say that the idea is identified in a literal document written in the 12th century. It is hypothesized that a typical Korean landscape configuration was developed in the arrangement of village and surrounding landscape elements situated in a watershed. In addition, we suggest that the view had some negative effects on the current society. Even though the ideas of our ancestor are something to be praised, further study is needed to improve it in a wise manner.