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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ecology and Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Nov 2009
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Aug 2009
Volume 32, Issue 2 - May 2009
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
From So Simple a Beginning, From So Simple a Theory
Choe, Jae-Chun ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 217~220
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.217
The year of 2009 marks the
anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his book, On the Origin of Species. Having survived the 150 years of hardening and tempering, Darwin's theory of natural selection is now more comprehensive and powerful than ever. It casts its shadow over nearly all academic disciplines and societal sectors. It truly revolutionized the way we look at the world and ourselves. In the midst of Darwinian revolution, however, Korea remains as a backward country as far as the understanding of Darwin and his theory is concerned. A variety of intellectual activities organized to celebrate the Year of Darwin is helping to narrow the gap. This article summarizes the kinds of such activities held in Korea this year and explains how Darwin made all this possible. To paraphrase the famous quotation by Theodosius Dobzhansky, I now dare to say, "Nothing in life makes sense except in the light of evolution".
Time Lags between Hydrological Variables and Phytoplankton Biomass Responses in a Regulated River (the Nakdong River)
Kim, Myoung-Chul ; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk ; Kang, Du-Kee ; Kim, Dong-Kyun ; Shin, Hyun-Suk ; Joo, Gea-Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.221
This study describes time lag responses between hydrological variables and phytoplankton biomass in a regulated river system, the lower Nakdong River in South Korea. The lower Nakdong is a typical flow-controlled lotic system, and its limnological characteristics are influenced by climatic variation such as monsoons and summer typhoons. Mean rainfall in the area during summer is about 1,200 mm, which comprises >60% of annual rainfall. Our results show that the regulation of flow in the Nakdong by multi-purpose dams from 1995 to 2004 affected phytoplankton dynamics. Diatom blooms occurred in winter, when the limited discharge allowed for proliferation of the phytoplankton community. Using multiple regression analysis, we detected significant time-delayed relationships between hydrological variables and phytoplankton biomass. These results may be useful for water resource managers, and suggest that 'smart flow' control would improve water quality in large regulated river systems of the Republic of Korea.
Use of GIS to Develop a Multivariate Habitat Model for the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Mountainous Region of Korea
Rho, Paik-Ho ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 229~236
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.229
A habitat model was developed to delineate potential habitat of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in a mountainous region of Kangwon Province, Korea. Between 1997 and 2005, 224 leopard cat presence sites were recorded in the province in the Nationwide Survey on Natural Environments. Fifty percent of the sites were used to develop a habitat model, and the remaining sites were used to test the model. Fourteen environmental variables related to topographic features, water resources, vegetation and human disturbance were quantified for 112 of the leopard cat presence sites and an equal number of randomly selected sites. Statistical analyses (e.g., t-tests, and Pearson correlation analysis) showed that elevation, ridges, plains, % water cover, distance to water source, vegetated area, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, and distance to paved road differed significantly (P < 0.01) between presence and random sites. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop a habitat model. Landform type (e.g., ridges vs. plains) is the major topographic factor affecting leopard cat presence. The species also appears to prefer deciduous forests and areas far from paved roads. The habitat map derived from the model correctly classified 93.75% of data from an independent sample of leopard cat presence sites, and the map at a regional scale showed that the cat's habitats are highly fragmented. Protection and restoration of connectivity of critical habitats should be implemented to preserve the leopard cat in mountainous regions of Korea.
Carbon Storage of Pure and Mixed Pine-Deciduous Oak Forests in Gwangneung, Central Korea
Lee, Sue-Kyoung ; Son, Yo-Whan ; Noh, Nam-Jin ; Yoon, Tae-Kyung ; Lee, Ah-Reum ; Seo, Kyung-Won ; Hwang, Jae-Hong ; Bae, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 237~247
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.237
This study was conducted to determine the carbon (C) contents in different mixed stands of P. dens if/ora and deciduous oak species in Gwangneung, central Korea. Five mixed stands with different ratios of P. densiflora and deciduous oak species were chosen based on the basal area of all trees
DBH: pure P. densiflora (P100D0), 70% P. densiflora + 30% deciduous oak species (P70D30), 44% P. densiflora + 56% deciduous oak species (P50D50), 37% P. densiflora + 63% deciduous oak species (P40D60), and 10% P. densiflora + 90% deciduous oak species (P10D90). Total C contents in the overstory (aboveground and belowground) vegetation were higher in the mixed stands (P70D30, P50D50, P40D60) than in the pure stands (P100D0, P10D90). Moreover, except for P40D60, C contents of forest floor (litter and coarse woody debris) were larger in the mixed stands (P70D30, P50D50) than in the pure stands. However, total soil C contents up to 30cm depth were highest in the pure deciduous oak stand than in the pure P. densiflora stand and mixed stands. Total ecosystem C contents (Mg/ha) were 163.3 for P100D0, 152.3 for P70D30, 188.8 for P50D50, 160.2 for P40D60, and 150.4 for P10D90, respectively. These differences in total ecosystem C contents among the different mixed stands for P. densiflora and deciduous oak species within the study stands were attributed by the differences in vegetation development and forest management practices. Among the five study stands, the total ecosystem C contents were maximized in the 1:1 mixed ratio of P. densiflora and deciduous oak species (P50D50).
Status of the Red-Listed Plant Species, Smilax wightii A. DC. in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the Western Ghats, India
Paulsamy, S. ; Vijayakumar, K.K. ; Kil, Bong-Seop ; Senthilkumar, P. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 249~256
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.249
The rare endemic plant, Smilax wightii, is generally distributed in shola forests at high altitudes in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the Western Ghats, southern India. To determine the ecological status of the species, we surveyed 11 major shola forests in that region. S. wightii has a limited distribution in all sholas (frequency value of < 13%). The density of the species is generally around
in the sholas except in Thiashola where it occurred at a density of 40 individuals/
. The density of S. wightii was generally greater in the margins of the shoals, while the interior forests contained fewer individuals per unit area. The basal cover occupied by this species ranged between 2246 and
. The importance value index for S. wightii was >2 in all shoals, which indicates that the species occupies an important position in the lower stratum of shola forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
Secondary Productivity of Pelagic Zooplankton in lake Paldang and lake Cheongpyeong
Kang, Ji-Soon ; Joo, Sung-Bae ; Nam, Sung-Jin ; Jeong, Ga-Ram ; Yang, Dong-Woo ; Park, Hae-Kyung ; Park, Sang-Kyu ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 257~265
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.257
We estimated monthly and annual secondary productivity of pelagic zooplankton in Lake Paldang and Lake Cheongpyong. Secondary productivity was calculated by combining estimated zooplankton biomass and biomass-specific productivity for each site and depth from March to November 2008. In addition to somatic production, we measured production of eggs and exuviae for three dominant species: Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris, Cyclops sp. In terms of biomass, B. longirostris was dominant in Lake Paldang in April and May, B. longirostris showed explosive biomass growth, especially in May. In June and July, B. longirostris and D. galeata were both dominant. Lake Cheongpyeong showed much lower zooplankton biomass than Lake Paldang. In August, there was little or no biomass in both lakes probably due to heavy rain. The Gyeongan River contributed most of the secondary productivity and B. longirostris contributed the most secondary productivity in Lake Paldang. D. galeata also contributed in the Gyeongan River, the South Han River and at the Paldang Dam in spring and fall. Overall, Lake Cheongpyeong showed lower secondary productivity than Lake Paldang. B. longirostris made the largest contribution to secondary productivity in the Cheongpyeong Dam area while D. galeata contributed the most near Nami Island. Somatic production constituted ~80% of the total secondary productivity (the sum of somatic, egg and exuvia production) for D. galeata and B. longirostris. Although production-to-biomass (P/B) ratios were usually <<1 B. longirostris sometimes showed very high P/B ratios, probably due to fish predation. D. galeata showed much lower P/B ratios than B. longirostris after the summer at most sites.
Phytoremediation of Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soil in a Reclaimed Dredging Area Using Alnus Species
Lee, Deok-Beom ; Nam, Woong ; Kwak, Young-Se ; Cho, Nam-Hoon ; Lee, Sang-Suk ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 267~275
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.267
To investigate the possible applications of plants to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soil, a pilot experiment was performed for four years in a reclaimed dredging area using two Alnus species, i.e., Alnus firma and Alnus hirsuta. In a comparison of phytomass of the two species at two different planting densities, the phytomass of Alnus planted at low density was twice as high as that of Alnus planted at high density after four years. The Alnus species showed active acclimation to the heavy-metal-contaminated soil in a reclaimed dredging area. A. hirsuta showed greater accumulation of phytomass than A. firma, indicating that it is the better candidate for the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. In the pilot system, Alnus plants took metals up from the soil in the following order; Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > As > Cd. Uptake rates of heavy metals per individual phytomass was higher for Alnus spp. planted at low density than those planted at high density in the pilot system. Low plant density resulted in higher heavy metal uptake per plant, but the total heavy metal concentration was not different for plants planted at low and high density, suggesting that the plant density effect might not be important with regard to total uptake by plants. The quantity of leached heavy metals below ground was far in excess of that taken up by plants, indicating that an alternative measurement is required for the removal of heavy metals that have leached into ground water and deeper soil. We conclude that Alnus species are potential candidates for phytoremediation of heavy-metal- contaminated surface soil in a reclaimed dredging area.
Taxonomic Status of Endemic Plants in Korea
Kim, Kun-Ok ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Yong-Ho ; Na, Chae-Sun ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Son, Yo-Whan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 277~293
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.277
Disagreement among the various publications providing lists of Korean endemic plants makes confusion inevitable. We summarized the six previous reports providing comprehensive lists of endemic plants in Korea: 407 taxa in Lee (1982), 570 taxa in Paik (1994), 759 taxa in Kim (2004), 328 taxa in Korea National Arboretum (2005), 515 taxa in the Ministry of Environment (2005) and 289 taxa in Flora of Korea Editorial Committee (2007). The total number of endemic plants described in the previous reports was 970 taxa, including 89 families, 302 genera, 496 species, 3 subspecies, 218 varieties, and 253 formae. Endemic plants listed four times or more were collected to compare the data in terms of scientific names and synonyms (339 taxa in 59 families and 155 genera). If the varieties and formae were excluded, the resulting number of endemic plants was 252 taxa for the 339 purported taxa analyzed. Seven of the 155 genera analyzed were Korean endemic genera. Among the 339 taxa, the same scientific names were used in the original publications for 256 taxa (76%), while different scientific names were used for 83 taxa (24%). The four largest families were Compositae (42 taxa, 12.4%), Ranunculaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%), Rosaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%), and Scrophulariaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%). Saussurea (Compositae) had the highest number of taxa within one genus (17 taxa; 5% of total endemic taxa).
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Dokdo Soil
Lee, Gil-Seong ; Choo, Yeon-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 32, issue 4, 2009, Pages 295~304
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2009.32.4.295
To understand the properties of soil in Dokdo, we collected soil samples from 12 locations on Seodo and 23 locations on Dongdo, in Dokdo of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province in 2007-2008 and analyzed the soil's physical and chemical characteristics. Sand comprises the largest component (49.37%) of Dokdo soil, followed by silt (40.70%) and clay (9.93%). The soil structure consists mostly of sand loam, followed by loam and silt loam. The pH level of soils from Dokdo varied dramatically among sampling sites and seasons, ranging from 3.36 to 8.02. The total ion content of Dokdo soil also varies greatly among survey places and periods, but in general the total ion content was high in summer when vegetation develops, and low in spring. The exchangeable cation contents of the soil showed low levels in samples where the soil pH was low, including habitats dominated by Agropyron tsukushiense var. transiens and Echinochloa crus-galli, whereas the exchangeable cation contents were high where the organic contents were high, as in habitats dominated by Liriope platyphylla and Artemisia japonica subsp. littoricola. Soil N contents varied greatly among survey sites and higher N contents were found in soil inhabited by Chenopodiaceous plants than in habitats inhabited by other plants. The substantial differences in phosphorus contents among sites were related to excrement of black-tailed gulls. To understand the basic physical and chemical features of the soil on Dokdo, it will be necessary to conduct seasonal and long-term research on soil pH, ion contents, organic contents, N and P, as well as obtaining precise data from samples collected at different depths.