Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ecology and Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Perspectives on the new National Ecological Institute in South Korea
Crane, Peter R. ; Choe, Jae-C. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 271~274
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.271
The Ministry of Environment of South Korea has launched its plan to establish the National Ecological Institute. An International Symposium and Workshop was held at Ewha Womans University in Seoul on Thursday, 30 September 2010, to strengthen international cooperation, networking and partnerships for the conservation of biodiversity. This symposium was attended by experts of many major institutions for biodiversity conservation from South Korea and overseas. At the symposium and workshop preceded by a keynote speech by the renowned primatologist and conservation biologist Jane Goodall the participants discussed a wide range of topics including "biodiversity conservation: in situ and ex situ approaches", "conservation of species diversity and ecosystem management", and "international cooperation for biodiversity conservation and research". As a basis for future discussions, this article summarizes how the National Ecological Institute might contribute most effectively to public life and environmental management in South Korea and worldwide. It addresses the following issues: governance and funding, synergies within Korea, participation in international networks, external advice, a broad view of ecological issues, research agenda, building on identity, public outreach, and training the next generation of scientists.
Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation
Kim, Dong-Kyun ; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk ; McKay, Robert Ian (Bob) ; Chon, Tae-Soo ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Joo, Gea-Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 275~288
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.275
Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships, making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystem modeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in models arising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computation modeling approaches are introduced and proposed as useful modeling tools for ecosystems. The results of our case study support the applicability of an algal predictive model constructed via genetic programming. In conclusion, we propose that evolutionary computation may constitute a powerful tool for the modeling of highly complex objects, such as river ecosystems.
Patterns in solute chemistry of six inlet streams to Lake Hövsgöl, Mongolia
Puntsag, Tamir ; Owen, Jeffrey S. ; Mitchell, Myron J. ; Goulden, Clyde E. ; McHale, Patrick J. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 289~298
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.289
A number of characteristics of the Lake H
l watershed, such as the lake's location at the edge of the Central Asian continuous permafrost zone, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate possible anthropogenic impacts in this remote area in northern Mongolia. In this study, we compared stream solute concentrations in six sub-watersheds in the Lake H
l watershed. Water samples were collected during the summer months between 2003 and 2005. Concentrations of
ranged from 9.8 to
; average nitrate concentrations were very low and ranged from undetectable to
concentration at sampling stations with minimal animal grazing ranged from 66 to
. Average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged from 642 to
C/L. We did not find statistically significant differences in DOC concentrations among the six streams, although DOC concentrations tended to be higher in the two northernmost streams, possibly related to differences in the active layer above the permafrost. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations were correlated with DOC concentration, and followed the same spatial pattern as those for DOC. In streams in this remote watershed, total dissolved nitrogen was made up of mostly organic N, as has been found for other regions distant from anthropogenic N sources. Overall, these results suggest that future research on the dynamics of DOC and DON in this watershed will be especially insightful in helping to understand how changes in climate and land use patterns will affect transformations, retention, and export of dissolved organic matter within these sub-watersheds in the Lake H
Effects of seed sources and shade on vigor of Brant's oak seedling
Taghvaei, Mansour ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 299~306
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.299
The use of local seed provenance is often recommended in forest restoration. Early vigor is a combination of the performance of seed germination and emergence after planting. The ability of young Brant's oak plants to grow and develop after emergence and its dependence on local habitat conditions was investigated in this study. The effects of seed source and shade on early growing seedlings of Brant's oak (Quercus brantii L.) were determined in field measurements. Seeds of Quercus brantii L. were collected from 4 forest areas (seed sources) in southern Zagros (Provinces of Kohkilouyeh-Bouyer Ahmad and Fars) at altitudes of 850, 1,100, 1,500, 2,100 m a.s.l., and planted in a nursery constructed in southwestern Iran. According to a split-plot design consisting of four blocks, each containing two main treatment plots (no shading, partial shading), each main plot was sub-divided into four sub-plots (for elevations of 850, 1,100, 1,500 and 2,100 m). Results showed that shade treatments had significant effects on emergence percentage and rate, shoot length, shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), leaf area (LA), and chlorophyll content. Ecological factors also had an effect on seed performance. Altitude of seed source had a very significant effect on root length, LA, SDW, and RDW. The seeds collected from 850 m a.s.l. elevation showed the highest performance, especially in leaf area, root length, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Our results showed that the altitude of 850 m a.s.l. was the best for collecting Brant's oak seeds.
Calling song and phonotactic selectivity in the field cricket Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)
Jang, Soo-Jin ; An, Hyon-Gyong ; Jang, Yi-Kweon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 307~315
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.307
Males of the field cricket Teleogryllus emma produce calling songs that are attractive to receptive females. The calling songs of T. emma consist of two components, the long chirp that is composed of up to 12 single pulses, followed by a variable number of short chirps. Based on the analysis of coefficient of variation (CV), temporal characters of the long chirp were less variable than those of the short chirps in male calling songs. To test for phonotactic selectivity of females, we conducted a single-stimulus playback experiment in which five stimuli (standard, long chirp only, long chirp augmented, short chirps only, and short chirps augmented) were used. The standard stimulus included both long and short chirps whose characteristics were derived from the calling songs of field populations. Results of the playback experiment showed that female crickets oriented more frequently toward the stimuli that included the long chirp (standard, long chirp only, and long chirp augmented stimuli) than toward the stimuli lacking the long chirp (short chirps only and short chirps augmented stimuli), indicating that the long chirp in the calling songs was required to elicit positive phonotaxis in the female crickets. The result of CV analysis of the male calling songs and the findings of the female phonotaxis experiment suggested that the long chirp of calling songs may play a role in species recognition in T. emma.
Responses of weed community and soil biota to cessation of fertilization
Eo, Jin-U ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 317~323
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.317
Nutrient availability is a critical component of agroecosystems, and is relevant to both above- and below- ground interactions. The principal objective of this study was to determine how the cessation of fertilization affects the communities of weeds and soil organisms in a corn/wheat field. Changes in dominant weed species, substrate-induced respiration, and the population density of nematodes and microarthropods were evaluated. Microbial substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and the population density of microarthropods decreased following the cessation of fertilization and were partly correlated with the aboveground weed biomass. The cessation of organic fertilizer application but continuing application of inorganic fertilizer reduced the population density of nematodes. In response to the cessation of fertilization, weed communities were dominated by species with little dependency on fertilization. Amaranthus retroflexus was identified as the most dominant species in the corn field; however, it was replaced by Digitaria ciliaris after the cessation of fertilization. In the wheat field, the cessation of fertilization led to a rapid reduction in the biomass of most weeds, except for Vicia angustifolia, supposedly as the result of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the fact that weed biomass was partially correlated with SIR or the population density of microarthropods may reflect a mutual feedback between soil organisms and weeds. The results indicate that the cessation of fertilization alters communities of weeds and soil organisms through changes in weed biomass and interactions with symbiotic microorganisms.
Physical characteristics and age structure of Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus; Larcertidae; Reptilia)
Kim, Ja-Kyoung ; Song, Jae-Young ; Lee, Jung-Hyun ; Park, Dae-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.325
In this study, we have evaluated the physical characteristics of neonate, female, and male Mongolian racerunners (Eremias argus) and determined the age structure of a population of the species in a field located in Taean-gun, Chungnam, South Korea. The physical parameters of females and males, including snout-vent length (SVL), head length, head width, and body mass were found to be significantly interrelated. Male Mongolian racerunners exhibited significantly longer heads than the females, but other physical parameters, such as SVL, head width, and body mass did not differ between the female and male specimens. In the study population, the females ranged in age from two to eleven years old and the males ranged between two to eight years of age. The number of females and males, when separated into different age classes, did not differ within each age class. Male Mongolian racerunners evidenced greater SVL growth coefficients than the females, but asymptotic SVL did not differ between the females and males.
Visible injury and growth inhibition of black pine in relation to oxidative stress in industrial areas
Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Du-Hyun ; Ku, Ja-Jung ; Byun, Jae-Kyung ; Lee, Jae-Cheon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 333~341
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.333
The objective of our study was to investigate the major reasons for the different growth and visible injury on the needles of black pine growing in Ulsan and Yeocheon industrial complex areas, South Korea. After 12 years of growth, we collected climatic and air pollutant data, and analyzed soil properties and the physiological characteristics of black pine needles. Annual and minimum temperatures in Ulsan were higher than those in Yeocheon from 1996 to 2008. Ozone (
) was the pollutant in greatest concentration in Yeocheon, and whereas the
concentration in most areas decreased gradually during the whole period of growth,
concentration in Yeocheon has increased continuously since 1999, where it was the highest out of four areas since 2005. Total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity in Yeocheon soil were significantly lower than those of Ulsan. The average growth of black pine in Yeocheon was significantly smaller than that in Ulsan, and the growth of damaged trees represented a significant difference between the two sites. Photosynthetic pigment and malondialdehyde content and antioxidative enzyme activity in the current needles of black pine in Yeocheon were not significantly different between damaged and healthy trees, but in 1-year-old needles, there were significant differences between damaged and healthy trees. In conclusion, needle damage in Yeocheon black pine can be considered the result of long-term exposure to oxidative stress by such as
, rather than a difference in climatic condition or soil properties, and the additional expense of photosynthate needed to overcome damage or alleviate oxidative stress may cause growth retardation.
Vulnerability of Pinus densiflora to forest fire based on ignition characteristics
Seo, Hyung-Soo ; Choung, Yeon-Sook ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.343
In Korea, man-caused forest fires are known originate primarily in coniferous forests. We have hypothesized that the vulnerability of Pinus densiflora forests is principally a consequence of the ignition characteristics of the species. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted two combustion experiments using fallen leaves with a reference species, Quercus variabilis. In the first experiments, in which a cigarette was employed as a primary heat source for the initiation of a forest fire, the Pinus leaves caught fire significantly faster (1'1" at Pinus, 1'31" at Quercus, P < 0.001), and ignition proceeded normally. Quercus leaves, on the other hand, caught fire but did not ignite successfully. In the second set of experiments utilizing different moisture contents and fuel loads, the maximum flame temperature of the Pinus leaves was significantly higher (
at Quercus, P < 0.001) and the combustion persisted for longer than in the Quercus leaves (8'8" at Pinus, 3'38" at Quercus, P < 0.001). The moisture contents of the leaves appeared to be a more important factor in the maximum temperature achieved, whereas the most important factor in burning time was the amount of fuel. Overall, these results support the assumption that Pinus leaves can be ignited even by low-heat sources such as cigarettes. Additionally, once ignited, Pinus leaves burn at a relatively high flame temperature and burn for a prolonged period, thus raising the possibility of frequent fire occurrences and spread into crown fires in forests of P. densiflora.
Above- and below-ground vegetative responses to prescribed fire regimes in a Chesapeake Bay tidal brackish marsh
Leonard, Cheryl A. ; Ahn, Chang-Woo ; Birch, Dixie ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 351~361
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.351
The primary purposes for using fire are to enhance marsh vegetation to support waterfowl, and to manage invasive plant species. The study was conducted for two consecutive years in 2004 and 2005, investigating the effects of prescribed fire regimes on vegetation biomass in tidal brackish marsh areas of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge located on the eastern shore of Maryland, USA, that are under relatively similar environmental conditions. Four different burn regimes (i.e., annual burn, 3-5 year burn, 7-10 year burn, and no burn) were applied in the study. Above- and below-ground vegetation biomass samples as affected by the different burn regimes were harvested in each year for five plant species native to the marsh; Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, Schoenoplectus americanus, Spartina cynosuroides and Spartina patens. No significant difference was found either in total above-ground biomass or in above-ground biomass by species between burn regimes in 2004. However, more total above-ground biomass was produced in annual burn regime in 2005 than in the other burn regimes. There were no consistent effects of burning on vegetative biomass production by species, but it seemed D. spicata was somewhat benefited by prescribed burning for its biomass production. Moreover, the stem density for D. spicata under annual burn regime was significantly higher than that in the other burn regimes, showing some positive effects of burning on vegetation. The below-ground biomass was significantly greater in 2004 than in 2005, yet with no significant difference between burn regimes in either year. A longer-term monitoring is strongly recommended.
Plant community development in the first growing season of a created mitigation wetland bank as influenced by design elements
Ahn, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 363~376
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.363
Vegetative communities of created wetlands often display lower species richness, less cover, higher occurrence of non-native or invasive species, and fewer obligate wetlands species than those in natural wetlands, thus failing to meet basic success criteria for wetland mitigation. This study examined the effects of two design elements, disking-induced microtopography and hydrologic regime, on the first year vegetation development pattern of a mitigation wetland newly created in the Virginia piedmont. Elevation and species cover were measured along replicate multiscale circular transects in two adjacent wetland sites that are different in their hydrologic regime. Two microtopographic indices, tortuosity (T) and limiting elevation difference (LD), were calculated from the elevation measurements. Both indices were higher in disked plots than non-disked plots, showing the effect of disking on microtopography. Out of forty-one vegetation taxa observed in the wetland, 29 taxa were naturally colonized and 12 taxa were seeded. All plots except one non-disked plot were dominated by wetland vegetation. Species richness and diversity were higher in disked than in non-disked plots. Vegetation community development seemed also influenced significantly by hydrologic regime of the site. The effect of microtopography on species richness and diversity was more pronounced in a relatively dry site compared to a wet site. In addition, percent cover, species richness and diversity of vegetation were positively correlated with microtopographic indices such as T and LD. Two design elements, microtopography and hydrologic regime, should be considered and incorporated in wetland creation to enhance plant community development.
Are the conservation areas sufficient to conserve endangered plant species in Korea?
Kang, Hye-Soon ; Shin, Sook-Yung ; Whang, Hye-Jin ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 33, issue 4, 2010, Pages 377~389
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2010.33.4.377
Understanding the factors relevant to endangerment and the patterns of habitat locations in relation to protected areas is critically important for the conservation of rare species. Although 64 plant species have recently been listed as endangered species in Korea, this information has, until now, not been available, making appropriate management and conservation strategies impossible to devise. Thus, we collected information on potentially threatening factors, as well as information on the locations in which these species were observed. The potentially threatening factors were classified into seven categories. National parks, provincial parks, ecosystem conservation areas, and wetland conservation areas were defined as protected conservation areas. Korean digital elevation model data, along with the maps of all protected areas were combined with the maps of endangered plant species, and analyzed via Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Excluding the category of "small population", endangered plant species in Korea were associated more frequently with extrinsic factors than intrinsic factors. Considering land surface only, all conservation areas in Korea totaled 4.9% of the land, far lower than International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)'s 10% coverage target. At the species level, 69% of the endangered plant species were detected in conservation areas, mostly in national parks. However, this result demonstrates that 31% of endangered species inhabit areas outside the conservation zones. Furthermore, at the habitat level, a large proportion of endangered species were found to reside in unprotected areas, revealing "gaps" in protected land. In the face of rapid environmental changes such as population increases, urbanization, and climate changes, converting these gap areas to endangered species' habitats, or at least including them in habitat networks, will help to perpetuate the existence of endangered species.