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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ecology and Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Acclimation responses of Tamarix chinensis seedlings related to cold stress
Joo, Young-Sung ; Lee, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 251~257
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.027
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acclimation responses of Tamarix chinensis to cold stress. We evaluated the acclimation responses by measuring biomass, daily elongation rate, chlorophyll content, and total soluble carbohydrate content. The plant samples comprised leaves from seedlings of 2 different ages (8 and 12 weeks); the leaves were collected 0, 2, and 4 weeks after cold treatment. We found that the cold-treated samples showed reduced daily elongation rates and chlorophyll content. Further, these samples showed more than 8-fold increase in the total soluble carbohydrate content. However, the seedling ages did not have a significant influence on the growth of cold-treated seedlings. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that T. chinensis seedlings aged less than 1 year old show acclimation to cold stress by accumulating soluble carbohydrates. This study may help us understand how T. chinensis seedlings acclimatize to their first cold season.
Vegetation history around Yongneup moor at Mt. Daeamsan, Korea
Jang, Byeong-O ; Kang, Sang-Joon ; Choi, Kee-Ryong ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 259~267
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.028
A pollen analytical study of sediment sequences collected from Yongneup moor (sampling point:
7'30.2" E) was conducted to understand the vegetation history in the mountainous region of the central Korean peninsula. Carbon dating was carried out to measure five successive samples obtained from the bottom at a depth of 180 cm to the surface. The Yongneup moor sediment revealed four main local pollen zones; that is, four past vegetation phases as follows: Local pollen zone I: Quercus-Pinus zone; estimated age, 5,900-4,800 calibrated years (cal) before present (BP); vegetation type, cool-temperate central/montane deciduous broad-leaved forest. Local pollen zone II: Pinus-Abies-Quercus zone; estimated age, 4,800-3,400 cal BP; vegetation type, cool-temperate northern/alti-montane mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved forest. Local pollen zone III: Quercus-Pinus-Abies zone; estimated age, 3,400-400 cal BP; vegetation type: cool-temperate central/montane deciduous broad-leaved forest. Local pollen zone IV: Pinus-Quercus zone; estimated age, 400-present cal BP; vegetation type, cool-temperate central/montane mixed deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous forest. It was confirmed that subalpine coniferous forests had expanded to the mountainous region of the central Korean peninsula during the period from 4,800-3,400 cal BP and thereafter deciduous forests dominated by Q. mongolica were established. Notably, secondary forests dominated by P. densiflora developed in the lower part of the mountainous region of the central Korean peninsula about 400 cal BP due to human interference.
Community changes in carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) through ecological succession in abandoned paddy fields
Do, Yu-No ; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk ; Lineman, Maurice ; Kim, Ji-Yoon ; Kim, Hang-Ah ; Joo, Gea-Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 269~278
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.029
Carabid beetle community changes in paddy fields, abandoned paddy fields, and mountains were investigated to understand differences in species diversity and composition of different habitat types in small agricultural landscapes in South Korea. A total of 2,938 individuals from 37 species were identified and classified from the studied habitats. Diversity in the mountains was higher than that in abandoned paddy fields. As the number of years since abandonment increased, the diversity and stability of the carabid beetle community also increased. Abandoned paddy fields in some paddy field areas and adjoining mountainous areas, left with preconditions for management and control, have provided the opportunity to improve the diversity and habitat of small agricultural landscapes. Species composition changed continuously from the paddy fields to the mountains, in accordance with individual species habitat preferences. Abandoned paddy fields in small agricultural landscapes are believed to play an important role as transitional buffer zones between paddy fields and the adjacent mountainous areas.
Effects of an aqueous red pine (Pinus densiflora) needle extract on growth and physiological characteristics of soybean (Glycine max)
Hwang, Jeong-Sook ; Bae, Jeong-Jin ; Choo, Yeon-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 279~286
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.030
The effect of allelochemicals on growth, root nodule nitrogen fixation activity, and ion patterns of soybeans were investigated. We prepared 50 g/L (T50), 100 g/L (T100), and 200 g/L (T200) extract concentrations by soaking fresh red pine needles in a nutrient solution. Adding needles to the nutrient solution increased the content of total phenolic acids, osmolality, and total ions. The total phenolic content in the T50, T100, and T200 extracts were
mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. The
content increased by adding needles to the nutrient solutions, whereas
content decreased. The growth inhibition of soybeans was proportional to the needle extract concentrations, and the T100 and T200 concentrations resulted in remarkable growth inhibition. On day 20 after treatment, dry weight and nitrogen fixation activity of the root nodules were reduced by the T100 and T200 treatments, whereas the T50 treatment was not difference from the control. After day 10, total ion content in all treatment groups was not different in comparison with the control. However, total ionic content in all treatment groups decreased significantly compared with that in the control after day 20. The lowest total ion value was found for the T200 concentration. The T200 treatment also resulted in significantly reduced
content. The amounts of
were higher than those of the control for the T50 treatment on day 10 and for T100 on day 20 after treatment. A significant increase in osmolality was observed in the T200 treatment on day 10 and in the T100 treatment on day 20. These results suggest that under severe allelochemical stress conditions, a remarkable reduction in nodule formation, nitrogen fixation activity, and ion uptake eventually resulted in a decrease in leaf production. Furthermore, increased
, and osmolality in soybeans exposed to lower concentrations of allelochemicals than the critical stress level helped overcome the stress.
Bird and plant companion species predict breeding and migrant habitats of the genus Oenanthe
Pentzold, Stefan ; Pentzold, Constanze ; Randler, Christoph ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.031
Analysing companion species from unrelated taxa concentrated so far mainly on identifying biosurrogacy in terms of conservation biology. No study has investigated companion bird and plant species to predict breeding and migrant habitats of a bird genus. In this study we recorded and analysed companion bird and plant species of the breeding bird Cyprus Wheatear Oenanthe cypriaca and four migranting Oenanthe species on Cyprus. We found characteristic companion species in Cyprus Wheatear's, Wheatear migrant's and in control habitats where no Wheatears were present. We show that plant and bird companion species can be used as discriminating factors to predict breeding and migrant habitats of the genus Oenanthe on Cyprus. Furthermore, habitat preferences of Cyprus Wheatear's companion species indicate bushy and vegetation rich habitats avoiding woodland on the one hand and managed farmland on the other hand. In comparison, migrant Wheatear and control habitats were characterised by companion species pointing to a high openness. These results support former habitat descriptions of Cyprus Wheatear and migrant Wheatears. In more general, this study shows that companion species from unrelated taxa can be used to predict breeding and migrant habitats of a bird genus.
Seed contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon) dung and the fate of seeds in a temperate short grassland in an urban park in Japan
Ishikawa, Haruna ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 295~305
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.032
Many studies have suggested the positive effects of grazing by large herbivorous mammals on seed dispersal, but little is known about how herbivores could affect the fate of ingested seeds. This study examined the effects of seed ingestion by sika deer (Cervus nippon) on seed fate in a temperate grassland established in an urban park long resided by high densities of sika deer. I compared species composition and seasonal traits of seed abundance and maturity in the grassland community with those in deer fecal pellets. In total, 27 herbaceous species were observed, including the predominant Zoysia japonica. Seed phenology and production differed among the three dominant species (Z. japonica, Digitaria violascens, and Hydrocotyle maritima). Pellets contained at least 26 species of herbaceous seeds, and their abundance differed among species. Of the 26 species, 15 were observed in the vegetation at the study site. The peak of seed abundance in pellets for the dominant species appeared 1 month after the peak of inflorescence production (but most of the inflorescences were immature and susceptible to digestion) and consequently corresponded to the peak of mature inflorescence. Because sika deer are likely to ingest seeds at any maturity stage in the grassland and immature seeds are less hardened, ingested immature seeds can suffer great losses. The results suggested that the survival of germable seeds with great losses of immature seeds may be a factor determining which plant species can be successfully dispersed by herbivores.
Ectoparasites: immature Japanese hard ticks (Ixodes nipponensis; Acari: Ixodidae) on Korean lizards
Ra, Nam-Yong ; Lee, Jun-Ki ; Lee, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Ja-Kyeong ; Kim, Dae-In ; Kim, Bin-Na ; Kim, Il-Hoon ; Park, Dae-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.033
Although lizards are important hosts for hard ticks (Ixodidae), very few studies have been conducted in South Korea. To determine whether or not hard ticks can infest lizards endemic to South Korea, we examined 77 lizards of four species (Eremias argus, Sincella vandenburghi, Takydromus amurensis, and Takydromus wolteri) that were collected at 22 different sites between April and October 2010. We confirmed that all four lizard species can be infested by Ixodes nipponensis larvae or nymphs. Of the 62 E. argus examined, we found an average of 12.5 larvae on two lizards and an average of one nymph on one lizard. We found seven nymphs on one S. vandenburghi. We found an average of two nymphs on two of the five T. amurensis and an average of one nymph on four of the nine T. wolteri. Ixodes nipponensis larvae and nymphs were found most frequently on the foreleg axillae (87.8%), followed by the forelegs (7.3%), the eyelids (2.4%), and the ears (2.4%) of the lizards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of I. nipponensis infestations of lizards endemic to South Korea.
Effects of Pinus densiflora on soil chemical and microbial properties in Pb-contaminated forest soil
Kim, Sung-Hyun ; Lee, In-Sook ; Kang, Ho-Jeong ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 315~322
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.034
We investigated the effect of Pb uptake by Pinus densiflora and the Pb fraction in forest soil. We also investigated the change in soil physicochemical characteristics, microbial activity, and root exudates of Pinus densiflora in Pb-contaminated soils. Three-year-old pine seedlings were exposed to 500 mg/kg Pb for 12 months. The metal fractions were measured using sequential extraction procedures. Additionally, factors that affect solubility (three soil enzyme activities and amino acids of root exudate compounds) were also determined. The results showed that Pb contamination significantly decreased enzyme activities due to soil characteristics. In addition, organic matter, nitrate content, and Pb concentration were time dependent. The results indicate that changes in the Pb fraction affected Pb uptake by pine trees due to an increase in the exchangeable Pb fraction. The concentrations of organic acids were higher in Pb-spiked soil than those in control soil. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid resulted in increased Pb uptake from the soil. These results suggest that pine trees can change soil properties using root exudates due to differences in the metal fraction.
Estimation of micro-biota in the Upo wetland using eukaryotic barcode molecular markers
Park, Hyun-Chul ; Bae, Chang-Hwan ; Jun, Ju-Min ; Kwak, Myoung-Hai ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 34, issue 3, 2011, Pages 323~331
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2011.035
Biodiversity and the community composition of micro-eukaryotic organisms were investigated in the Upo wetland in Korea using molecular analysis. Molecular identification was performed using cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The genomic DNA was isolated directly from soil samples. The COI and SSU rDNA regions were amplified using universal primers and then sequenced after cloning. In a similarity search of the obtained sequences with BLAST in the Genbank database, the closely related sequences from NCBI were used to identify the amplified sequences. A total of six eukaryotic groups (Annelida, Arthropoda, Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Stramenopiles) with COI and six groups (Annelida, Arthropoda, Rotifera, Alveolata, Fungi, and Apicomplexa) with SSU rDNA genes were determined in the Upo wetland. Among 38 taxa in 20 genera, which are closely related to the amplified sequences, 10 genera (50%) were newly reported in Korea and five genera (25%) were shown to be distributed in the Upo wetland. This approach is applicable to the development of an efficient method for monitoring biodiversity without traditional taxonomic processes and is expected to produce more accurate results in depositing molecular barcode data in the near future.