Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ecology and Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Global warming and biodiversity model projections
Ihm, Byung-Sun ; Lee, Jeom-Sook ; Kim, Jong-Wook ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 157~166
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.022
Many models intending to explain the latitudinal gradient of increasing species diversity from the poles to the equator are presented, which are a formalisation of the species-energy hypothesis. The model predictions are consistent with patterns of increasing species number with increasing mean air or water temperatures for plants and animals. An increase in species richness is also correlated with net primary production or the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. This implies that increased availability of resources favours increased diversity capacity. The explanatory variables included in the biodiversity prediction models represent measures of water, energy, water-energy, habitat, history/evolution and biological responses. Water variables tend to be the best predictors when the geographic scope of the data is restricted to tropical and subtropical areas, whereas water-energy variables dominate when colder areas are included. In major models, about 20-35% of species in the various global regions (European, Africa, etc.) will disappear from each grid cell by 2050 and >50% could be vulnerable or threatened by 2080. This study provides good explanations for predictive models and future changes in biodiversity depending on various scenarios.
The classification of biotope type and characteristics of naturalized plant habitat on the coastal sand dune ecosystem
Lee, Jeom-Sook ; Jeon, Ji-Young ; Ihm, Byung-Sun ; Myeong, Hyeon-Ho ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 167~175
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.020
Coastal sand dune systems are particularly fragile and threaten the environment. However, these systems provide fundamental ecosystem services to the nearby urban areas, acting, for example, as protective buffers against erosion. In this paper, we attempt to classify the biotope types of coastal sand dune ecosystems and select an index for the assessment of the conservation value. The types of biotopes are categorized based on the vegetation map; floras are examined in order to research the effects of hinterlands on coastal sand dunes. In addition, a naturalization rate and an urbanization index for each biotope type in hinterlands are analyzed. In the ecosystem of coastal sand dunes, the urbanization index and naturalization rate shows a higher value in sand dunes with areas of road, residential, and idle land in farm villages, rice fields, and fields. On the contrary, a lower value in the urbanization index and naturalization rate is present when typical biotope types, such as sand dune vegetation and natural Pinus thunbergii forests, are widely distributed. Based on these results, urbanization index and naturalization rate should be used as critical indices for the assessment of the ecosystem of costal sand dunes.
Responses of different phytoelements to habitat light level and their dynamic convergence towards crown development of Aucuba japonica Thunb. var. japonica
Ali, Md. Sohrab ; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 177~188
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.021
We analyzed crown development in Aucuba japonica Thunb. var. japonica resulting from the responses of phytoelements to habitat light conditions over a long period of time. Over the years, the degree of extension unit (EU) dimorphism and the degree of anisophylly were higher under shaded conditions than in brighter conditions. An overall temporally increasing pattern in the degree of EU dimorphism was found while no clear-cut trend was found in the case of anisophylly. EU length and number of leaves per EU co-varied in a spatio-temporal context. The number of terminal buds and their sizes acted as the key initiators of morphological differences of phytoelements which were further amplified following bud break. Leaf area density was displayed mostly in the apex peripheral layer of the crown and the apex layer received most of the incident light. There was a tradeoff between annual leaf production and mean leaf size. Depending on the heterogeneity of irradiance level within a crown, correlative growth inhibition caused higher EU mortality at brighter sites. Due to high mortality, shorter EUs had a mere role in the construction of structural framework of the crown except for the formation of some gaps. There was a strong convergence of EU dimorphism, anisophylly, EU extension growth and variations in leaf size towards formation of functional crown to reduce potential self-shading. Depending on the irradiance level, Aucuba japonica Thunb. var. japonica showed two different modes of crown expansion. At the brighter sites, individual crown expansion was progressive while at the darker sites, individual crown expanded in a diminishing manner and maintained a stable size. A plant's "growth diminishing phase" appeared earlier at shaded sites than brighter sites.
Association between coarse woody debris and small mammals and insectivores in managed forests
Lee, Sang-Don ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.023
Coarse woody debris (CWD) is generally considered dead woody material in various stages of forest decomposition and has been hypothesized to be an important habitat feature for mammals in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Sherman and pitfall trapping were conducted for 2 years on three paired sites with low and high amounts of CWD. Deer mice was the dominant species with a total capture of 605 (45.6%). Four species of insectivores were captured, including Sorex moncicolus, S. trowbridgii, S. vagrans, and Neurotrichus gibbsii. A Poisson regression model was used to test whether 11 CWD variables could predict insectivore captures. The volume of logs and mean decay were important variables for deer mice use of CWD. Mean distance from pieces of CWD to the capture point was significantly related to the total number of captures of trowbridge shrew (Sorex trowbridgii) and all insectivore species. Vagrant shrews (Sorex vagrans) were significantly associated with log volume. Retaining large size CWD should be part of a management plan for ground-dwelling insectivores in forests to secure their biodiversity.
Seasonal variations in the content and composition of essential oil from Zanthoxylum piperitum
Kim, Jong-Hee ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 195~201
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.024
Seasonal variations in the profile and concentrations of essential oil in Zanthoxylum piperitum were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seasonal changes in the percentages of the main constituents of the essential oil of both leaves and fruits from Z. piperitum varied. Variations in essential oil yield and the amount of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in leaves and fruits at different developmental stages were significant. The characteristic content of essential oil in leaves was determined mainly due to the content of monoterpenes, and that in fruits was determined largely due to the sesquiterpenes. Twenty-nine compounds in the oil from Z. piperitum leaves were detected; the major compounds were
-phellandrene (26.90%), citronella (15.32%),
-pinene (2.79%), trans-caryophyllene (2.66%), and fanesyl acetate (2.30%). The highest yield of oil (43.89%) in Z. piperitum leaves was obtained in May but decreased gradually beginning in June. The yield of essential oil from Z. piperitum leaves during early periods was higher than that during later periods and usually decreased from early maturation stages to subsequent stages. However, in contrast to leaves, the oil yield in Z. piperitum fruit increased in June, and oil yield later in the season was higher than that earlier in the season. These results indicate that the essential oil produced from Z. piperitum leaves at the early developmental stages was stored in leaves, and might be transferred to fruit at the final developmental stages.
Ecophysiological responses of Quercus gilva, endangered species and Q. glauca to long-term exposure to elevated CO
concentration and temperature
Kim, Hae-Ran ; You, Young-Han ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 203~212
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.025
The physiological effects of elevated
concentration and temperature were examined for Quercus gilva and Q. glauca grown under control (ambient
and temperature) and treatment (elevated
and temperature) conditions for 39 months. The objective of the study was to measure the long-term responses, in physiological parameters, of two oaks species exposed to elevated
and temperature. The photosynthetic rate of Q. gilva was found to be decreased, but that of Q. glauca was not significantly affected, after long-term exposure to elevated
and temperature. Stomatal conductance of Q. glauca was reduced by 21.7%, but that of Q. gilva was not significantly affected, by long-term exposure to
and temperature. However, the transpiration rate of the two oak species decreased. Water use efficiency of Q. gilva was not significantly affected by elevated
and temperature, while that of Q. glauca was increased by 56.6%. The leaves of Q. gilva grown under treatment conditions had an increased C:N ratio due to their reduced nitrogen content, while those of Q. glauca were not significantly affected by long-term exposure to elevated
and temperature. These results suggest that the long-term responses to elevated
and temperature between Q. gilva and Q. glauca are different, and that Q. gilva, the endangered species, is more sensitive to elevated
and temperature than Q. glauca.
Environmental controls on growing-season sap flow density of Quercus serrata Thunb in a temperate deciduous forest of Korea
Laiju, Nahida ; Otieno, Dennis ; Jung, Eun-Young ; Lee, Bo-Ra ; Tenhunen, John ; Lim, Jong-Hwan ; Sung, Joo-Han ; Kang, Sin-Kyu ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 213~225
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.026
Sap flux density (SFD) measurements were used, in combination with morphological characteristics of trees and forest structure, to calculate whole-tree transpiration, stand transpiration (St) and mean canopy stomatal conductance (Gs). Analysis based on the relationships between the morphological characteristics of trees and whole tree water use, and on the responses of SFD and Gs to short wave radiation (RR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content (SWC) during drought and non-drought periods were conducted. The results showed a strong positive correlation between whole tree transpiration and both tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (
= 0.95, P < 0.05) and sapwood area (SA) (
= 0.98, P < 0.05). Relationships between SFD and DBH (
= 0.25), as well as SA (
= 0.17) were weak. Daily SFD of Quercus serrata Thunb was closely related to VPD and RR. Although operating at different time scales, RR and VPD were important interacting environmental controls of tree water use. SFD increased with increasing VPD (<1 kPa) and RR. SWC had a considerable effect on stand transpiration during the drought period. The relationships between SFD, VPD and RR were distorted when SWC dropped below 35%.
Measurement of ecological niche of Quercus aliena and Q. serrata under environmental factors treatments and its meaning to ecological distribution
Lee, Seung-Hyuk ; You, Young-Han ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 227~234
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.027
Quercus aliena and Q. serrata are both occur as natural vegetation alongside natural freshwater bodies of the southern Korea Peninsula. Q. serrata dominates over Q. aliena as secondary forest vegetation in the present day. In order to explain these natural distributional traits of the oak species, we conducted some experiments with oak seedlings which treated with major important environmental resources, including light, moisture and nutrients, under controlled conditions. We then measured the ecological niche breadths and overlap from 15 eco-morphological characteristics. The ecological niche breadth of Q. aliena and Q. serrata were higher in terms of the nutrient factor applied, but was lower terms of light. The niche breadth of Q. serrata was wider than that of Q. aliena in light and moisture exposure. On the other hand, the niche breadth of Q. aliena was similar with that of Q. serrata in terms of the nutrient factor applied. These results imply that Q. serrata has a broader ecological distribution in over a wider variety of light and moisture environments than that of Q. alien. Ecological niche overlap between two oak species was the widest in terms of the light treatment factor applied, and narrowest in terms of moisture. This response pattern was also verified by cluster and principle component analysis. These results suggest competitive interactions between Q. serrata and Q. aliena seedlings may be higher for light resources than moisture or nutrient resources, and that Q. serrata is more shade tolerant than Q. aliena.
Controlling Mikania micrantha HBK: How effective manual cutting is?
Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Sandilya, Madan ; Subedi, Rajan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 235~242
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.029
Mikania micrantha, a neo-tropical vine, is spreading rapidly in the tropical part of Nepal and is now threatening the rural ecosystem including biodiversity and rural livelihoods. However, no attempt has been made to control the spread of M. micrantha. As a result, the vines are spreading freely and rapidly. After a thorough literature review and assessment of forest management practices, we proposed a manual cutting method, as it suits the Nepalese situation for several reasons: required labor is readily available, as local communities are managing forest patches, and the method does not have any potential adverse effects on non-target native species. Experimental plots were laid out in August 2011 to examine the effectiveness of manual cutting. Two different site types based on canopy coverage were selected and divided into three blocks based on cutting strategy. Four treatments were assigned across the experimental plots following a complete block design. We harvested above-ground biomass according to the assigned treatment. The results suggested that there should be at least two consecutive cuttings within a 3-week interval before flowering, and that three consecutive cuttings resulted in 91% mortality of the vines. In addition, cutting promoted regeneration of native plant species. Employing regular cutting operations can modify understory shade enhancing regeneration of native species, which is a desirable condition to constrain proliferation of M. micrantha. Periodic cuttings reduced the competitiveness of M. micrantha regardless of canopy openness, but native ground cover should be retained.
Notes on the biomass expansion factors of Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis forests in Korea
Li, Xiaodong ; Son, Yeong-Mo ; Lee, Kyeong-Hak ; Kim, Rae-Hyun ; Yi, Myong-Jong ; Son, Yo-Whan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 35, issue 3, 2012, Pages 243~249
DOI : 10.5141/JEFB.2012.028
Biomass expansion factors, which convert timber volume (or dry weight) to biomass, are used for estimating the forest biomass and accounting for the carbon budget at a regional or national scale. We estimated the biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEF), biomass expansion factors (BEF), root to shoot ratio (R), and ecosystem biomass expansion factor (EBEF) for Quercus mongolica Fisch. and Quercus variabilis Bl. forests based on publications in Korea. The mean BCEF, BEF, and R for Q. mongolica was 1.0383 Mg/
(N = 27; standard deviation [SD], 0.5515), 1.3572 (N = 27; SD, 0.1355), and 0.2017 (N = 32; SD, 0.0447), respectively. The mean BCEF, BEF, and R for Q. variabilis was 0.7164 Mg/
(N = 17; SD, 0.3232), 1.2464 (N = 17; SD, 0.0823), and 0.1660 (N = 8; SD, 0.0632), respectively. The mean EBEF, as a simple method for estimating the ground vegetation biomass, was 1.0216 (N = 7; SD, 0.0232) for Q. mongolica forest ecosystems, and 1.0496 (N = 8; SD, 0.0725) for Q. variabilis forest ecosystems. The biomass expansion factor values in this study may be better estimates of forest biomass in Q. mongolica or Q. variabilis forests of Korea compared with the default values given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).