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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ecology and Environment
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Distribution and abundance of wintering raptors in the Korean peninsula
Lee, Sangdon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 211~216
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.211
The purpose of this study is to examine distribution and abundance of wintering raptors in Korea during 2000-2007 which is a rare data set for covering large landscape areas. Total 6,643 raptors of 16 species were recorded at 94 different points in west, south and east coasts, and rivers of inland areas all over Korea. During the study period, the most abundant raptors were black vulture (Aegypius monachus, 62.3%), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, 11.0%) and common buzzard (Buteo buteo, 10.0%), and these 3 birds were dominant species in inland areas and also considered as resident species except for black vulture. Also, there was a difference among 5 different habitat types. Black vultures were most found in estuaries whereas common buzzard and common kestrel could be found in coastal areas. Presumably raptors prefer reservoirs and estuaries probably due to lower human disturbance in these areas, and management efforts should be concentrated in inland areas for black vulture and coastal areas for common kestrel and common buzzard.
Difference in Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) diet during the breeding season for the last 10 years in the South Sea of Korea
Kwon, Young-Soo ; Noh, Hyung Soo ; Kim, Miran ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 217~222
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.217
Sea temperature in the South Sea of Korea has been increased over the last decades. Seabirds are sensitive to changes in food availability in marine environment. In this study, we investigate the diet of Black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) during the breeding season to identify changes of marine environment and biological response such as breeding performance in the South Sea of Korea. A total of 22 fish species or family (n = 128) from regurgitates by chicks were collected on Hongdo Island in 2002 and 2012. The most important prey item was Japanese anchovies (Engraulis japonicas). Proportion of Anchovy in diet increased in 2012 (70.5%) compared to 10 years ago (27.5%). Some species were newly found in 2012: Spotted chub mackerel (Scomber australasicus), Pacific sand lace (Ammodytes personatus), White ventral goby (Acanthogobius lactipes), Silver-strip round herring, Multicolorfin rainbowfish (Halichoeres poecilopterus), Silverside (Hypoatherina tsurugae), Surfperch (Neoditrema ransonneti) and Spotnape ponyfish (Leiognathus muchalis), but not in 2002. Especially, sub-tropic fish such as Kammal thryssa (Thryssa kammalensis), and Rosefish (Helicolenus hilgendorfi) were frequently observed in the diet of 2012. These results might reflect the increase of sea temperature in the South Sea of Korea.
The effect of simulated acid rain on microbial community structure in decomposing leaf litter
Cha, Sangsub ; Lim, Sung-Min ; Amirasheba, Bahitkul ; Shim, Jae-Kuk ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 223~233
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.223
Acid deposition is one of the most serious environmental problems in ecosystems. The present study surveyed the effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter mass loss and microbial community in the decomposing leaf litter of Sorbus anifolia in a microcosm at
and 40% humidity. Microbial biomass was measured by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), and the microbial community structures were determined by composition of PLFAs at each interval of decomposition in litter sample and at each pH treatment. The microbial biomass showed peaks at mid-stage of decomposition, decreasing at the late stage. The leaf litter mass loss of S. anifolia decreased with decreasing pH during early and mid-decomposition stages; however the mass loss becomes similar between pH treatments at late-decomposition stage. The acidification remarkably lowers the microbial biomass of bacteria and fungi; however, microbial diversity was unchanged between pH treatments at each stage of litter decomposition. With changes of decomposition stage and pH treatment there were considerable differences in replacement and compensation of microbial species. Fungi/bacteria ratio was considerably changed by pH treatment. The PLFA profile showed significantly larger fungi/bacteria ratio at pH 5 than pH 3 at the early stage of decomposition, and the difference becomes smaller at the later decomposition stage. At low pH, pH 3 and pH 4, the fungi/bacteria ratios were stable according to the litter decomposition stages. Simulated acid rain caused decreases of 10Me17:0, 16:1
7, 15:0, but increase of 24:0. In addition, litter mass loss showed significant positive correlation with microbial biomass measured by SIR and PLFA on the decomposing leaf litter.
Reference information for realizing ecological restoration of river: A case study in the Bongseonsa stream
Park, Sung Ae ; Kim, Gyung-Soon ; Pee, Jung-Hun ; Oh, Woo-Seok ; Kim, Hye-Soo ; Lee, Chang Seok ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 235~243
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.235
In Korea, where the plain land is greatly deficient as a mountainous nation, most of riparian zones were transformed into agricultural fields and urban areas. Excessive use of the land, which is close to river, makes the rivers enduring severe pollution stresses. Disappearance of riparian buffer, which plays a function of filter in the riverside, appears as a main factor aggravating water pollution of rivers. In this respect, it is imperative to restore the lost riparian vegetation. This study found out restoration models of riparian vegetation from the Bongseonsa stream, which has remnant riparian vegetation patches as a conservation reserve. Feasible reference information applicable for restoration of riparian vegetation was shown in the species level in the order of herb, shrub, and tree and sub-tree zones as far away from the waterway. Those information could contribute to restoring integrate and healthy rivers and streams beyond simple landscaping differently from the other restoration projects when they will be applied to the restoration project to be carried out in the future. In addition, the spatial range of river and stream, background that riparian zone disappeared in Korea, and application plan of the obtained reference information were discussed.
A Study of the Characteristics of the Appearances of Lepidoptera Larvae and Foodplants at Mt. Gyeryong National Park in Korea
Han, Yong-Gu ; Nam, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Youngjin ; Choi, Min-Joo ; Cho, Youngho ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 245~254
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.245
This research was conducted over a time span of three years, from 2009 to 2011. Twenty-one surveys in total, seven times per year, were done between April and June of each year on major trees on trails around Donghaksa and Gapsa in Mt. Gyeryong National Park in order to identify foodplants of the Lepidoptera larvae and their characteristic appearances. During the survey of Lepidoptera larvae in trees along trails around Donghaksa and Gapsa, 377 individuals and 21 species in 8 families were identified. The 21 species were Alcis angulifera, Cosmia affinis, Libythea celtis, Adoxophyes orana, Amphipyra monolitha, Acrodontis fumosa, Xylena formosa, Ptycholoma lecheana circumclusana, Choristoneura adumbratana, Archips capsigeranus, Pandemis cinnamomeana, Rhopobota latipennis, Apochima juglansiaria, Cifuna locuples, Lymantria dispar, Eilema deplana, Rhodinia fugax, Acronicta rumicis, Amphipyra erebina, Favonius saphirinus, and Dravira ulupi. Twenty-one Lepidoptera insect species were identified in 21 species of trees, including Zelkova serrata. Among them, A. angulifera, C. affinis, and L. celtis were found to have the widest range of foodplants. Additionally, it was found that many species of Lepidoptera insects can utilize more species as foodplants according to the chemical substances in the plants and environments in addition to the foodplants noted in the literature. Also, it is thought that more species can be identified with a survey of various woody and herbaceous plants.
Physiological Responses of Calystegia soldanella under Drought Stress
Bae, Chae-Youn ; Hwang, Jeong-Sook ; Bae, Jeong-Jin ; Choi, Sung-Chul ; Lim, Sung-Hwan ; Choi, Deok-Gyun ; Kim, Jong-Guk ; Choo, Yeon-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 255~265
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.255
This study was conducted to determine the extent of drought resistance based on physiological responses of Calystegia soldanella under water deficit. In order to investigate the changes of plant growth, stomatal density, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, osmolality, total ion contents, the contents of carbohydrate and proline, C. soldanella was grown under well watered and drought stressed conditions for 12 days. In this study, water-deficit resulted in remarkable growth inhibition of C. soldanella. The effect of water-deficit on plant growth was associated with low osmotic potential of soil. On day 12 after drought treatment, dry weight, relative water contents, number and area of leaves and stem length were lower than those of control. The stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate were significantly reduced in water stressed plant to regulate inner water contents and
exchange through the stomatal pore. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll contents were not different in comparison with the control, indicating that the efficiency of photosystem II was not affected by drought stress. This results could be explained that water-deficit in C. soldanella limits the photosynthetic rate and reduces the plant's ability to convert energy to biomass. A significant increase in total ion contents and osmolality was observed on day 7 and day 12. Accumulation of proline in leaves is associated with the osmotic adjustment in C. soldanella to soil water-deficit. Consequently, this increase in osmolality in water stressed plant can be a result in the increase of ion contents and proline.
Competitor density and food concentration: an empirical approach to elucidate the mechanism of seasonal succession of two coexisting Bosmina
Mano, Hiroyuki ; Sakamoto, Masaki ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 267~271
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.267
To examine the density effect and food concentration in the competitive output of two Bosmina species, the population growths of Bosmina fatalis were investigated by manipulating the density of B. longirostris and the concentration of algae. The B. fatalis density did not increase in conditions with abundant B. longirostris regardless of the food concentrations. The B. fatalis increased only at low densities of B. longirostris with high food concentrations. Based on the current results, a possible mechanism underlying the seasonal shift from B. longirostris to B. fatalis in Japanese eutrophic lakes will be explored below.
New Record of Dinoflagellates around Jeju Island
Kim, Hyeung-Sin ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Jung, Min-Min ; Lee, Joon-Baek ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 273~291
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.273
Dinoflagellate species composition has changed around Jeju Island as well as in Korean waters due to global warming and climate changes. An investigation was conducted to monitor changes in planktonic dinoflagellates around Jeju Island from June 2006 to September 2009. A total of 86 species belonging to 14 families and 15 genera were identified, of which 34 species were newly recorded in Korean waters. Among the newly recorded species, >20 were confirmed as tropical species. Thus, the occurrence of such tropical dinoflagellates could be an indicator to monitor of environmental changes including global warming around Jeju Island and in Korean waters.
Anabaena koreana sp. nov. (Cyanophyceae), a new species, and new record of fresh-water blue-green algae from Korea
Kim, Han Soon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 293~302
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.293
The present study summarizes the occurrence, distribution and autecology of 12 taxa of the class Cyanophyceae collected from several swamps, reservoir and highland wetlands in South Korea from 2009 to 2012. A new species, Anabaena koreana sp. nov. and 11 taxa of blue-green algae newly recorded are described and illustrated. Anabaena koreana is similar to A. oumiana, A. spiroides and A. crassa in that the trichomes form regular coils. However, A. koreana is distinguished from these three species by the morphological characteristics of the vegetative cell, heterocyst, and akinet shape and size. This study considers 12 blue-green algal species, including a new species, Anabaena koreana sp. nov. and 11 species that are recorded for the first time in the Korean freshwater algal flora. Among them, the genus Nostochopsis Wood ex Bornet et Flahault 1886 had not previously been recorded in Korea.
New record of fresh-water green algae (Chlorophytes) from Korea
Kim, Han Soon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 303~314
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.303
The present study summarized the occurrence, distribution and autecology about 31 taxa of the green algae (Chlorophytes) collected from several swamps, reservoir and highland wet-lands in the South Korea from 2010 to 2013. This paper deals with a total 31 taxa including of 26 genera which are recorded for the first time in Korea. Among these algae, 18 genera including Pyrobotrys Arnoldi, Volvulina Playfair, Dicellula Svirenko, Echinocoleum Jao & Lee, Hofmania Chodat, Gloeotila Kutzing, Tetrachlorella Korschikov, Botryospherella P.C.Silva etc., were newly recorded in Korean fresh-water algal flora.
A Study of Nine Newly Reported Species of the Order Chlorococcales (Chlorophyta) in Hongcheon River, Korea
Shin, Hyun-Joo ; Song, Mi-Ae ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 315~325
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.315
Taxa in the order Chlorococcales inhabiting Hongcheon River, South Korea were collected and identified from December 2011 to September 2012. As a result, nine taxa in the Order Chlorococcales including unrecorded genera Oocystidium and Heleococcus were newly added to the Korean flora: Oocystidium ovale, Heleococcus mucicola, Chlorella mirabilis, Monoraphidium convolutum var. pseudosabulosum, M. minutum, Raphidocelis mucosa, Eutetramorus tetrasporus, Scenedesmus flavescens, and S. multicauda. The morphological characteristics of the nine taxa identified in this study mostly corresponded to already reported characteristics; however, M. minutum had a shorter cell length than the recorded description, Raphidocelis mucosa and S. flavescens were larger than previous descriptions, and Scenedesmus multicauda had larger spines than the cell itself. Eight of the nine taxa were found in planktonic samples, whereas Heleococcus mucicola was found in an epilithic sample. Therefore the Korean order Chlorococcales, including these newly reported ones, totals to 255 species.
Taxonomic Review of families Botryococcaceae and Characiaceae, Order Chlorococcales, and Class Chlorophyceae in Korea
Kim, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 327~338
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.327
A study on Chlorococcal algae was carried out at 21 stations (ponds, swamps, reservoirs, lakes and rivers) from May 2011 to January 2012. The families of Botryococcaceae and Characiaceae of Chlorococcales were investigated to the extent of 8 genera, 20 species. Among them, 10 taxa are newly recorded in algal flora of Korea by Kim and Kim (2012) and this study reviewed about ; 1) Family Botryococcaceae: Dictyosphaerium elegans, D. reniforme, D. simplex, D. elongatum, 2) Family Characiaceae: Characium conicum, Ankyra ancora, A. judayi, A. calcarifera, Schroederia spiralis, S. indica.
New records of Euglenophyta from Korea
Kim, Han Soon ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 339~346
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.339
The present study summarized the occurrence, distribution and autecology of 18 taxa in the class Euglenophyceae collected from several swamps, reservoir and mountain wetlands in the South Korea from 2009 to 2013. This paper deals with 18 taxa consisting of 3 taxa of Colacium Ehrenberg, 2 taxa of Phacus Dujardin, 13 taxa of Trachelomonas Ehrenberg, which are recorded for the first time in Korean freshwater algal flora.
Presence of benthic dinoflagellates around coastal waters of Jeju Island including newly recorded species
Shah, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman ; An, So-Jung ; Lee, Joon-Baek ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 347~370
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.347
A study on the presence of benthic dinoflagellates in the intertidal zone along the coasts of Jeju Island, Korea was conducted during 2011 and 2012. Identification and taxonomic observations were made of the benthic dinoflagellate samples using light and epifluorescence microscopy. Thirty-seven dinoflagellate taxa belong to five orders, nine families, 18 genera and 30 species, which are new records for Korean waters, were detected in this study. The detailed nomenclature, references, distribution, and illustrations are presented here. The commonly occurring genera were Amphidinium, Coolia, Ostreopsis, Prorocentrum, and Thecadinium. Among the recorded species, 26 were found only in sand sediment, seven in macroalgal samples, and four were found in both sand and macroalgal samples. Of the 37 species, nine were potentially toxic. These results suggest that diversified benthic dinoflagellates including several potentially toxic species occur in sand sediment and macroalgae in the intertidal zone along the coasts of Jeju Island. The morphological features of the identified species were more or less similar to observations made by previous studies in Korea and elsewhere. The presence of known toxic species may indicate a potential risk of toxicity in the marine ecosystem of Jeju Island. The present study can be helpful for further detailed taxonomic, toxicological, molecular phylogenetic studies and may help in the management and conservation of Jeju Island's marine ecosystem.
Species diversity of the old genus Navicula Bory (Bacillariophyta) on intertidal sand-flats in the Nakdong River estuary, Korea
Joh, Gyeongje ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 371~390
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.371
Remarkable diversity of diatom taxa occurs in intertidal sand-flats of the Nakdong River estuary, one of the most dynamic and productive ecosystem in Korea. Benthic diatoms were collected from the sandy sediments to clarify the taxonomic accounts and distribution of the old genus Navicula, i.e., the naviculoid flora. Total 92 taxa belonging to Navicula sensu stricto and 22 genera separated from Navicula sensu lato are reported with brief descriptions and micrographs, and many species remain unidentified. The genera are ranked by the number of diatom species: Navicula of 33 species and varieties, Fallacia of 17 species, Placoneis of five species, Fogedia and Parlibellus of four species, Austariella, Hippodonta and Petroneis of three species, Cosmioneis, Diadesmis, Luticola, Moreneis and Sellaphora of two species and variety, Berkeleya, Chamaepinnularia, Cocconeiopsis, Diademoides, Dickieia, Eolimna, Geissleria, Haslea, Lyrella and Mayamaea of one species. Through 32 samplings of the 12 areas, the important species were identified Navicula perminuta, N. gregaria, N. torneensis, Fallacia cunoniae, F. litoricola, F. subforcipata, F. tenera. The naviculoid diatoms constitute an average of 27% (range: minimum to maximum, 5-75%), of the benthic diatom assemblages. The diatom assemblages are characterized by the colonizing of a few dominant or frequent species and many occasional or rare species. The dominant species were observed to fluctuate with sampling site and time. Among the reported naviculoid diatoms, 46 taxa are newly reported in Korea.
Taxonomic study of the genus Achnanthes (Bacillariophyta) in Korean coastal waters
Lee, Sang Deuk ; Park, Joon Sang ; Lee, Jin Hwan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 391~406
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.391
A study on the fine structure of the genus Achnanthes species (Bacillariophyceae) is carried out at 92 stations for taxonomic purposes from January 2009 to April 2013 in Korean marine water, freshwater and brackish water. Twelve Achnanthes species are identified based on a variety of taxonomic characters by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Of these, seven species, Achnanthes cocconeioides, A. groenlandica, A. javanica, A. kuwaitensis, A. parvula, A. pseudolongipes, and A. yaquinensis, are newly recorded in Korean waters. All 12 species are documented concerning a taxonomic key, description, distribution, seasonality, remarks and photographs. Twenty three Achnanthes taxa are identified in the survey.
Taxonomic study on the euryhaline Cyclotella (Bacillariophyta) species in Korea
Park, Joon Sang ; Lee, Sang Deuk ; Lee, Jin Hwan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 407~419
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.407
Cyclotella species were collected at 51 sites from July 2010 to June 2013 in Korean coastal waters. A total of five Cyclotella species (C. atomus var. marina, C. baltica, C. litoralis, C. meduanae, and C. meneghiniana) were identified in this study. The diagnostic characteristics for five Cyclotella species are described, focusing on the spacing, position, number of satellite pores of the mantle fultoportula and valve face fultoportula. In addition, we put the salinity ranges of five species of Cyclotella together. Of the five Cyclotella species, C. baltica, C. litoralis and C. meduanae are newly recorded in Korea.
Taxonomic and Ecological Study of the Families Hydrodictyaceae and Coelastraceae, Order Chlorococcales, and Class Chlorophyceae in Korea
Kim, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 421~437
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.421
A study on Chlorococcal algae was carried out at 33 stations (ponds, swamps, reservoirs, lakes and rivers) from May 2009 to January 2013. The families Hydrodictyaceae and Coelastraceae of order Chlorococcales were investigated, including 5 genera, 29 species, and 17 varieties. Among them, 8 taxa were newly recorded for Korea; 1) Family Hydrodictyaceae: Pediastrum asymmetricum, P. boryanum var. campanulatum, 2) Family Coelastraceae : Actinastrum aciculare, A. hantzschii var. subtile, Coelastrum indicum, C. microporum var. octaedricum, C. morus, C. pulchrum.
New Record of some red algal species (Rhodophyta) from Korea
Jeong, So Young ; Won, Boo Yeon ; Kang, Pil Joon ; Kang, Jeong Chan ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Nam, Ki Wan ; Cho, Tae Oh ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 439~448
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.439
Rhodophyta is one of major groups in the number of species and diversity of the marine algal flora. The occurrence of Korean 5 red algal species is reported for the first time on the list of Korean marine algal flora based on morphology: Ceramium pacificum, Cumathanmnion serrulatum, Gayliella fimbriata, Leptofauchea rhodymenioides, Sorella pulchra. Ceramium pacificum from Korea is recognized by complete cortication, many adventitious branches in a radial arrangement, 7-8 periaxial cells, and plant length of 1-2 cm. Cumathanmnion serrulatum is characterized by cartilaginous single main axis with a prominent midrib, serrulate blade, many higher orders of bladelets on each blade, and tetrasporagia produced near the midrib acropetally and then outwardly. Gayliella fimbriata is featured by clavate gland cell and 5-7 periaxial cells. Leptofauchea rhodymenioides is characterized by erect with flattened, dichotomously branched fronds, 1-2 cortical cells loosely arranged, 2-3 cell medullar layers with large colourless cells. Sorella pulchrais recognized by short branches produced alternately pinnate manner from margins of axial, mostly polystromatic frond, and tetrasporangial sori on the center of branches.
Species delimitation of the genus Champia (Rhodymeniales, Rhodophyta) from Korea using DNA barcoding
Koh, Young Ho ; Cho, Ga Youn ; Kim, Myung Sook ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 36, issue 4, 2013, Pages 449~463
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2013.449
DNA barcoding is becoming a widely applied tool to accurately discriminate red algae. We tested the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identification and discovery of Champia species in Korea and clarified the phylogenetic relationships using the plastid rbcL gene. As results, we described four species of Champia such as C. inkyua sp. nov., C. recta Noda, C. bifida Okamura, and C. expansa Yendo. A new species, C. inkyua, is characterized by entangled thallus, terete and irregular branches, hooked apices, and longitudinal filaments running throughout the frond periphery only. Longitudinal filaments were composed of a complete cell with two half cells between diaphragms in the cavity. C. recta and C. bifida were reinstated with previously used names of C. parvula and C. compressa, respectively. C. recta is the first recorded species from Korea and is characterized by an erect thallus, terete and irregular branches, and straight apices. C. bifida is characterized by compressed thallus, pinnate or alternate branches, and bifid apices. C. expansa is characterized by flabellate thallus and dichotomous branches. Molecular analyses of COI and rbcL genes revealed sufficient sequence divergence to warrant species recognition in the genus Champia.