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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ecology and Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Nov 2015
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Aug 2015
Volume 38, Issue 2 - May 2015
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
The response of plants growing in a landfill in the Philippines towards cadmium and chromium and its implications for future remediation of metal-contaminated soils
Nazareno, Patricia Anne G. ; Buot, Inocencio E. Jr. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.014
During several visits to the Cebu City landfill in the Philippines, plants were observed growing within the area, including on top of the garbage piles. Studying the response of these plants is important in assessing which can be used in remediating metal contaminated soils. This study aimed to determine whether the plants in the Cebu City landfill excluded or accumulated cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in the plant tissues. The floristic composition of the landfill was analyzed prior to the sample collection. The samples were acid-digested before the desired elements were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The Cd and Cr concentrations in the plant root-zone soil were also measured using AAS. The results indicated that the landfill substrate was generally acidic based on the results of the pH measurement. Of the 32 plant species sampled, Cyperus odoratus showed potential for Cd uptake and internal transfer; Cenchrus echinatus, Vernonia cinerea and Terminalia catappa for Cr uptake, and Cynodon dactylon for Cr internal transfer. The plants in the landfill differed in their response towards the heavy metals. To confirm the behavior of C. odoratus towards Cd, and C. echinatus, C. dactylon, V. cinerea, and T. catappa towards Cr, controlled experiments are recommended, as the plant samples analyzed were collected from the field.
Detecting response patterns of zooplankton to environmental parameters in shallow freshwater wetlands: discovery of the role of macrophytes as microhabitat for epiphytic zooplankton
Choi, Jong-Yun ; Kim, Seong-Ki ; Jeng, Kwang-Seuk ; Joo, Gea-Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 133~143
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.015
Freshwater macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in water, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. Some studies have focused on the overall influence of macrophytes on zooplankton, but the effects of macrophyte in relation to different habitat characteristics of zooplankton (e.g., epiphytic and pelagic) have not been intensively studied. We hypothesized that different habitat structures (i.e., macrophyte habitat) would strongly affect zooplankton distribution. We investigated zooplankton density and diversity, macrophyte characteristics (dry weight and species number), and environmental parameters in 40 shallow wetlands in South Korea. Patterns in the data were analyzed using a self-organizing map (SOM), which extracts information through competitive and adaptive properties. A total of 20 variables (11 environmental parameters and 9 zooplankton groups) were patterned onto the SOM. Based on a U-matrix, 3 clusters were identified from the model. Zooplankton assemblages were positively related to macrophyte characteristics (i.e., dry weight and species number). In particular, epiphytic species (i.e., epiphytic rotifers and cladocerans) exhibited a clear relationship with macrophyte characteristics, while large biomass and greater numbers of macrophyte species supported high zooplankton assemblages. Consequently, habitat heterogeneity in the macrophyte bed was recognized as an important factor to determine zooplankton distribution, particularly in epiphytic species. The results indicate that macrophytes are critical for heterogeneity in lentic freshwater ecosystems, and the inclusion of diverse plant species in wetland construction or restoration schemes is expected to generate ecologically healthy food webs.
Assessment of water quality variations under non-rainy and rainy conditions by principal component analysis techniques in Lake Doam watershed, Korea
Bhattrai, Bal Dev ; Kwak, Sungjin ; Heo, Woomyung ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 145~156
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.016
This study was based on water quality data of the Lake Doam watershed, monitored from 2010 to 2013 at eight different sites with multiple physiochemical parameters. The dataset was divided into two sub-datasets, namely, non-rainy and rainy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) techniques were applied to evaluate seasonal correlations of water quality parameters and extract the most significant parameters influencing stream water quality. The first five principal components identified by PCA techniques explained greater than 80% of the total variance for both datasets. PCA and FA results indicated that total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus were the most significant parameters under the non-rainy condition. This indicates that organic and inorganic pollutants loads in the streams can be related to discharges from point sources (domestic discharges) and non-point sources (agriculture, forest) of pollution. During the rainy period, turbidity, suspended solids, nitrate nitrogen, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus were identified as the most significant parameters. Physical parameters, suspended solids, and turbidity, are related to soil erosion and runoff from the basin. Organic and inorganic pollutants during the rainy period can be linked to decayed matters, manure, and inorganic fertilizers used in farming. Thus, the results of this study suggest that principal component analysis techniques are useful for analysis and interpretation of data and identification of pollution factors, which are valuable for understanding seasonal variations in water quality for effective management.
Individual physical variables involved in the stabilimentum decoration in the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi
Kim, Kil Won ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.017
The physical factors of Argiope bruennichi (Araneae, Araneidae) that influence the stabilimentum decoration on the web, a conspicuous white silk structure reflecting much more ultraviolet light than other spider silks in the web, have been poorly understood. In this study, individual variables involved in decorating the webs with stabilimenta by A. bruennichi were examined. The results revealed that the physical condition of the female A. bruennichi affected the behaviors of the stabilimentum decoration on the web. Among the 82 female spiders building their webs, the 49 female spiders adding upper and lower stabilimenta on their web weighed less, and had a narrower cephalothorax and shorter abdomen than the 33 female spiders that did not use stabilimentum. The heavier females decorated their webs with stabilimentum of greater widths. There were also significant positive relationships between the stabilimentum area and the female spider's cephalothorax width, and between the stabilimentum area and female spider's abdomen length. Taken together, this study suggests that spiders allocate their resources in stabilimentum decoration as a functional response to the spider's physical conditions, and also supports the "prey-attraction hypothesis," which states that the use of stabilimentum increases the foraging success by attracting more prey to the web.
Using habitat suitability model for the wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) to select wildlife passage sites in extensively disturbed temperate forests
Rho, Paikho ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 163~173
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.018
The occurrence of wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) and reports of wildlife-vehicle conflicts (i.e., road-kill) involving them have increased in natural forest regions of Korea. In the past few decades, many wildlife passages have been constructed to reduce vehicle collisions involving wildlife species. However, few studies have assessed the habitat suitability of target wildlife species when locating the construction sites of wildlife passages. Target species rarely use wildlife passages if built in an inappropriate location. Therefore, a quantitative habitat model is required to find suitable sites for wildlife passages that can connect the fragmented forest patches of wildlife habitats in Korea. In this study, the wild boar was selected as the target species, and six environmental variables (percentage of Quercus forest, slope aspect, distance to roads, water accessibility, forest stand age and density) were measured. The habitat model for wild boars was developed with a Delphi survey, and habitat suitability maps were delineated for the provinces of Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do. In this study, 298 and 64 boars were observed in Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do, respectively. Observations of wild boars derived from the second nationwide natural environmental survey were used to evaluate the habitat model. Habitat suitability maps that superimposed existing road networks suggested that wild boar habitats were severely fragmented in both provinces, particularly in Gangwon-do. To connect the fragmented habitats and prevent wildlife-vehicle collisions, this study proposes 11 and 5 wildlife passage sites in Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do, respectively.
Gap formation and susceptible Abies trees to windthrow in the forests of Odaesan National Park
Jeon, Mina ; Lee, Kyungeun ; Choung, Yeonsook ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.019
Extremely strong winds and heavy rainfall caused canopy gaps in a mixed Abies holophylla broadleaf forest and a Quercus mongolica-dominated forest in Odaesan National Park, Korea in October 2006. The impact of the combination of strong winds and torrential rain on the development of forest gaps and canopy structures were investigated. The mean size of newly created gaps were
in the mixed forest and
in the Quercus forest, and were created by 2.8 and 1.4 gapmaker trees, respectively. Among the 73 trees lost in the mixed forest, 59% succumbed because of direct wind damage while 41% were struck by neighboring trees that fell into them. Most of these trees downed by wind were uprooted (74%), while the trees downed by neighboring tree falls snapped (78%). 21 trees in the Quercus forest died from direct wind damage, and 57% of them were uprooted. Although the relative density of Abies nephrolepis and A. holophylla represented only 0.2% and 6.4%, respectively, of all species in the intact mixed forest, they accounted for 27% and 15%, respectively, of all trees affected by wind on that site. In fact, 85% of the total A. nephrolepis and 91% of the total A. holophylla in the mixed forest fell directly due to strong wind. By contrast, only one Abies species, A. nephrolepis, was found in the Quercusdominated forest, and it accounted for 7.3% of the species composition. These findings suggest that A. nephrolepis and A. holophylla are particularly susceptible to high winds because of their great heights and shallow root systems.
Regional land cover patterns, changes and potential relationships with scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) abundance
Rho, Paikho ; Wu, X. Ben ; Smeins, Fred E. ; Silvy, Nova J. ; Peterson, Markus J. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 185~193
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.020
A dramatic decline in the abundance of the scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) has been observed across most of its geographic range. In order to evaluate the influence of land cover patterns and their changes on scaled quail abundance, we examined landscape patterns and their changes from the 1970s to the1990s in two large ecoregions with contrasting population trends: (1) the Rolling Plains ecoregion with a significantly decreased scaled quail population and (2) the South Texas Plains ecoregion with a relatively stable scaled quail population. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Land Use/Land Cover data were used to quantify landscape patterns and their changes based on 80 randomly located
windows in each of the ecoregions. We found that landscapes in the Rolling Plains and the South Texas Plains were considerably different in composition and spatial characteristics related to scaled quail habitats. The landscapes in the South Texas Plains had significantly more shrubland and less grassland-herbaceous rangeland; and except for shrublands, they were more fragmented, with greater interspersion among land cover classes. Correlation analysis between the landscape metrics and the quail-abundance-survey data showed that shrublands appeared to be more important for scaled quail in the South Texas Plains, while grassland-herbaceous rangelands and pasture-croplands were essential to scaled quail habitats in the Rolling Plains. The decrease in the amount of grassland-herbaceous rangeland and spatial aggregation of pasture-croplands has likely contributed to the population decline of scaled quails in the Rolling Plains ecoregion.
Physicochemical tolerance ranges and ecological characteristics in two different populations of Carassius auratus and Cyprinus carpio
Kang, Seung Gu ; Choi, Ji-Woong ; An, Kwang-Guk ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 195~211
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.021
The objectives of this research were to determine mean and maximum tolerance ranges of Carassius auratus (
) and Cyprinus carpio (
) populations on various physico-chemical parameters and ecological indicator metrics. Little is known about chemical tolerance ranges of the two species, even though these species are widely distributed species in aquatic ecosystems. Maximum tolerance ranges of
-population to total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were
, respectively. Optimal ranges of TN and TP in the
, respectively. Such nutrient regimes of the
-population were evaluated as hypereutrophy, indicating high tolerance limits. The
-population had similar ecological characteristics to
-population, but the mean tolerance ranges of TN, TP, BOD, and COD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the
-population. Ecological patterns of trophic composition and tolerance guilds in the
-population were similar to those of the
-population. The model value of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) of the habitat where C. auratus and C. carpio co-occurred averaged
, respectively. Based on the modified criteria of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Klemm et al. 1993), it indicated poor ecological health of both species. These results suggest that both species are highly tolerant to chemical and physical habitat conditions of waterbodies, and that the chemical tolerance range of
-population was higher than
New records of genus Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae) found in Korea
Kim, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 213~227
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.022
This study summarizes the taxonomic notes and distribution of 13 taxa of the genus Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae) collected from several swamps, reservoirs, and rivers throughout South Korea from 2012 to 2014. In this study, light microscopy images of all 13 taxa are presented and briefly discussed with regard to their taxonomy, distribution, and ecology and environmental factors of occurrence sites. All 3 subgenera (subgenus Scenedesmus 1 taxon; subgenus Acutodesmus 2 taxa; subgenus Desmodesmus 10 taxa) are newly described in Korean freshwater algal flora: S. linearis, S. acuminatus var. elongatus, S. acuminatus var. tetradesmoides, S. carinatus, S. denticulatus var. disciformis, S. gutwinskii var. heterospina, S. helveticus f. bicaudatus, S. lefevrei, S. oahuensis var. clathratus f. longiclathratus, S. oahuensis var. clathratus, S. pannonicus, S. polydenticulatus, and S. tenuispina.
Conservation of landscape and culture in southwestern islands of Japan
Somiya, Kazuo ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 229~239
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.023
The southwestern islands of Japan, especially southward from Amamioshima Island, have distinguished sets of nature and culture. However, various problems are arising on those islands. This report first introduces island characteristics as well as, their status briefly. Then it introduces conservation efforts. Since nature and culture are closely connected in the island system, conservation of the set of nature and culture is essentially important. From this point of view, this report focuses on two efforts. The first example is the effort for designation of a new national park with a new concept of "environmental culture type" and "ecosystem management type" in the Amami Gunto Islands. This effort is a new challenge to focus on the importance of cultural aspects. The second example is the unique effort of the national park visitor center to conserve as one set of integrated nature and culture with an alliance of all stakeholders in Taketomijima Island, Iriomote-Ishigaki National Park. The visitor center serves not only visitors, but also islanders. These two cases are good models that suggest hints for future conservation measures.
An extension plan of Yakushima Biosphere Reserve as a case study of consensus building of islanders
Matsuda, Hiroyuki ; Yumoto, Takakazu ; Okano, Takahiro ; Tetsuka, Kenshi ; Fujimaki, Aomi ; Shioya, Katsunori ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 241~247
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.024
A participatory approach of local stakeholders is important to create a balance between nature protection and the sustainable use of natural resources in a nature reserve and its vicinity area. The zoning and management policy of biosphere reserves (BRs) is a good example of this idea, especially for island reserves. Yakushima was inscribed as a World Natural Heritage (WH) in 1993. Almost all of its residents did not remember that Yakushima was a BR. In addition, Yakushima has some problems in nature reserve management. Overabundance of the deer population is a critical threat to both agriculture and natural vegetation in the world heritage site. There are too many tourists visiting the WH site and Nagata-hama beach. The beach is a Ramsar site and one of the most important spawning grounds of sea turtles in the north Pacific. Now, residents and the municipality have decided to reactivate the Yakushima BR. Although the Ministry of the Environment of Japan has an initiative to manage the WH and the Ramsar site, the BR is managed by the municipality and local stakeholders. Local activities of both nature conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources are encouraged in the BR site. The islanders willingly included all areas of the island into the BR site. Scientists who have participated in the Society of Yakushimaology have played a significant role to build trust between local stakeholders and to seek feasible policies on the nature reserves. The concept of the "Yakushima Environmental Culture Village" is a good model for the extension plan of the Yakushima and Kuchinoerabujima BRs.
Rural landscape and biocultural diversity in Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea
Kim, Jae-Eun ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 249~256
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.025
Islands are often habitats to unique species because they have different environmental conditions from the mainland and other islands. Another characteristic of islands is their limited natural resources, which has led island residents to heavily rely on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and use resources sustainably. The so-called "Maeul landscape" shows the interrelationship of biological species and people's use of natural resources. Shinan-gun is an administrative district located in the southwestern part of Korea that forms an archipelago with huge tidal flat areas. Since long ago, people's use of these tidal flats shows a high degree of biocultural diversity. Maeul landscapes also show humans' adaptation to the natural environment. For instance, strong winds blowing mainly from the northwest have led people in Shinan-gun to create "Ushil," a windbreak forest with stone blocks to block wind from their villages and agricultural fields. At present, the transfer of TEK to future generations is at stake due to socio-economic changes that cause island populations to shrink and age rapidly. Islands are often regarded as good destinations for tourism, but attention should also be given to sustainable development due to the environmental characteristics of islands. International organizations are making efforts to curb the threats of global environmental problems especially on small islands. Their activities are aimed at seeking solutions that stress the central role of biocultural diversity in establishing the sustainable use of natural resources on islands. Joint efforts oflocal people and government authorities to protect and conserve the Maeul landscape should be encouraged.
Stone weirs in Penghu and adaption to tourism development
Yu, Shyi-Liang ; Chu, Ying-Chien ; Tsai, Chia-Wen ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 257~262
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.026
The ancient fishing methods include stone fish weir, beach seine and baulk net, but the fish catches of the stone fish weir is the most abundant. The stone fish weirs not only constitute important landscape, but also are representative of the fishery culture in Penghu, because they are fishing ground built by ancient people to take advantage of natural environment and resources. The objectives of this study is to understand the relevance of stone fish weirs in Penghu and to preserve biological diversity, as well as the value of stone fish weirs in Penghu fishery culture, and further make suggestions on the stone fish weirs. According to the present study, the marine species around the stone fish weirs tend to be diversifying, and in the future the region's economy can be revitalized by sightseeing, which may promote the ecotourism, and also volunteer tourism. In the future, stone fish weirs must be promoted as a sightseeing destination. Also, by taking into consideration the experience of the Jibei stone weir protection team, the local communities of Penghu can have their own protection team to revitalize the stone fish weirs for sustainable operation and management.
Local activation using traditional knowledge and ecological resources of Korean islands
Hong, Sun-Kee ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 263~269
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.027
When we consider changes in agro-fishery systems instigated by environmental changes in islands, rise in sea levels, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, there is an urgent need to carry out initiatives to enhance life standard and conserve ecosystem in island and coastal regions. To protect the region's landscape from the effects of climate change, it is necessary to develop an integrated management system for ecosystem conservation, human settlements, and the local economy. This paper discusses the outline of a preliminary national plan for a sustainable island management system for remote (inhabited and uninhabited) islands in Korea. Two main ideas to enhance life standard are adapting to the natural environment by applying traditional knowledge and utilizing ecological resources of islands, i.e., improving the quality of life and creating added value. As a technique for improving the quality of life, the establishment of eco-villages based on energy-efficient passive houses and ecological welfare is suggested. Another technique for creating added value, the development of sea-farming islands that utilize islands' new recyclable energy is also proposed. Finally, the suggested ideas are discussed in relation to island ecotourism and carbon zero islands.
An integrated approach to tropical and subtropical island conservation
Yamano, Hiroya ; Satake, Kiyoshi ; Inoue, Tomomi ; Kadoya, Taku ; Hayashi, Seiji ; Kinjo, Koichi ; Nakajima, Daisuke ; Oguma, Hiroyuki ; Ishiguro, Satoshi ; Okagawa, Azusa ; Suga, Shinsuke ; Horie, Tetsuya ; Nohara, Katsuhito ; Fukayama, Naoko ; Hibiki, Akira ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 271~279
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.028
After the reversion of Okinawa (Ryukyu Islands) to Japan in 1972, extensive urban and agricultural development resulted in a significant increase in sediment discharge to coastal waters. The release of sediment has caused the degradation of freshwater and coastal ecosystems and biodiversity. A consideration for catchment-to-reef continua, as well as agricultural (socioeconomic) factors is necessary to establish proper land-based management plans for the conservation of the island environment. We have set up a framework to integrate biophysics and socioeconomics: 1) setting a conservation target and threshold, 2) identifying the sources and processes, and 3) examining cost-effectiveness and management priorities. The framework may be applicable to other tropical and subtropical islands with similar characteristics.