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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ecology and Environment
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Journal DOI :
The Ecological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Nov 2015
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Aug 2015
Volume 38, Issue 2 - May 2015
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Gene flow from herbicide resistant genetically modified rice to conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars
Han, Sung Min ; Lee, Bumkyu ; Won, Ok Jae ; Hwang, Ki Seon ; Suh, Su Jeoung ; Kim, Chang-Gi ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 397~403
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.042
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important feeding crop in Asia, and utilization of genetically modified (GM) rice is highly demanding. For co-existence of GM rice and non-GM rice, the proper confinement measures should be provided. Thus, we surveyed gene flow from herbicide resistant GM rice to the conventional rice cultivars in the field tests. Gene flow frequency decreased with increasing distance between the pollen donor and recipients and did not exceed more than 1% even at the nearest distance. In single recipient model plot, a maximum gene flow frequency was observed at the shortest distance and hybrid was detected up to 12 m from the pollen donor. The direction of gene was coincided with the dominant wind direction. Gene flow assessment to multiple recipient plots was conducted under the high raining season by chance, and abrupt decline of gene flow frequency and maximum distance were resulted. According to the survey results, current regulation for isolation distance is reasonable for environmental safety or for general crop production. However, we suggest an alternative measure for GM rice cultivation that should be supplemented to overcome the out of estimation and in the environment asking higher security levels.
Analysis for the relationship of environmental factors and vegetation structure at natural streamside valley and riparian forest in South Korea
Cho, Kyu-Tae ; Jang, Rae-Ha ; You, Young-Han ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 405~413
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.043
We classified the streamside plant community by phyto-sociological method and analyzed the relationship between environment factors and vegetation structure by using the classification and ordination method. We found that twenty one plant communities were classified according to dominant species at the natural streamside valley forest with surveying the 65 quadrats (10 m × 10 m). From the survey results, the hardwood plant communities were classified as streamside valley forest and the softwood plant communities as riparian forest according to the degree of flooding. The valley forest had a distribution of 17 plant communities which was 65% (42 quadrats) of 65 quadrats: Maackia amurensis community, Betula davurica community, Quercus variabilis community, Pinus densiflora community, Q. serrata community, Prunus sargentii community, and Meliosma oldhamii community etc. The riparian forest had a distribution of four plant communities which was 35% (23 quadrats) of 65 quadrats: Salix koreensis community, S. rorida community, S. purpurea var. japonica community, and S. glandulosa community, etc. From the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) analysis, we found indicator species Oplismenus undulatifolius and Lindera obtusiloba for the streamside valley forest and Humulus japonicus, Phragmites japonica, and S. koreensis for the riparian forest. From the results of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), coordinates, altitude, and stream structure showed low correlation to the distribution of the plant community. Therefore, it seemed that valley forest and riparian forest were distinguished by the stream gradient and waterway width which determined by the stream water level.
A study on breeding ecology and nest characteristics of oriental scops owl (Otus sunia stictonotus) in South Korea
No, Sun-Ho ; Baek, Chung-Youl ; You, Young-Han ; Cho, Sam-Rae ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 415~424
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.044
This research was conducted to reveal the characteristics of breeding ecology of oriental scops owl (Otus sunia stictonotus) inhabiting in South Korea according to the nest types during the breeding season from march to October for two years (2011 and 2012). Oriental scops owl nested in woodpecker's nest holes (46.1%), natural tree holes (38.5%), and artificial wood boxes (15.4%). These nests were located on following trees: Zelkova serrata, Paulownia coreana, Celtis sinensis, Salix chaenomeloides, Salix babylonica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Robinia pseudoacacia and Platanus occidentalis. The hatching success was 91.4%, fledging success was 83.0%, and breeding success was 75.9%. The factors of the breeding failure were falling (57.1%), abandonment (28.6%), hatching failure (7.1%), and others with unknown cause of death (7.1%). According to nest types, the fledging success (69.2%) of woodpecker's nest holes were low and the hatching success (79.2%) of natural tree holes were also low due to hatching failure and abandonment. However, hatching success, fledging success, breeding success were high in the artificial nests as all the eggs hatched and succeeded in fledging. Therefore, we suggested that artificial nests can cover the weaknesses of natural nests as well as increasing the breeding success. However, long-term research on installation place, height, and hole sizes of the artificial nest are required in order to clearly reveal the effects on the breeding success of oriental scops owl.
Budget and distribution of organic carbon in Quercus serrata Thunb. ex Murray forest in Mt. Worak
Lee, Seung-Hyuk ; Jang, Rae-Ha ; Cho, Kyu-Tae ; You, Young-Han ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 425~436
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.045
The carbon cycle came into the spotlight due to the climate change and forests are well-known for their capacity to store carbon amongst other terrestrial ecosystems. The annual organic carbon of litter production, forest floor litter layer, soil, aboveground and belowground part of plant, standing biomass, net primary production, uptake of organic carbon, soil respiration, etc. were measured in Mt. Worak in order to understand the production and carbon budget of Quercus serrata forest that are widely spread in the central and southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The total amount of organic carbon of Q. serrata forest during the study period (2010-2013) was 130.745 ton C ha
. The aboveground part of plant, belowground part of plant, forest floor litter layer, and organic carbon in soil was 50.041, 12.510, 4.075, and 64.119 ton C ha
, respectively. The total average of carbon fixation in plants from photosynthesis was 4.935 ton C ha
and organic carbon released from soil respiration to microbial respiration was 3.972 ton C ha
. As a result, the net ecosystem production of Q. serrata forest estimated from carbon fixation and soil respiration was 0.963 ton C ha
. Therefore, it seems that Q. serrata forest can act as a sink that absorbs carbon from the atmosphere. The carbon uptake of Q. serrata forest was highest in stem of the plant and the research site had young forest which had many trees with small diameter at breast height (DBH). Consequentially, it seems that active matter production and vigorous carbon dioxide assimilation occurred in Q. serrata forest and these results have proven to be effective for Q. serrata forest to play a role as carbon storage and NEP.
Seed longevity of glyphosate resistant transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) lines
Hancock, Daniel ; Park, Kee Woong ; Mallory-Smith, Carol A. ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 437~442
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.046
Studies to estimate seed longevity and dormancy of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) were conducted from 2000 to 2005 at Corvallis and Hermiston, Oregon. Seeds from three transgenic glyphosate resistant creeping bentgrass lines, 48-10, 48-13, and ASR368, and one non-transgenic glyphosate susceptible line, SR1020, were used. Creeping bentgrass seeds were buried at 3, 18 and 31 cm in 2000 and removed 6, 12, 18, 24, and 51 months later. Soil type and climatic conditions were different at the two locations. At Corvallis, the soil was a Malabon silty clay loam, and the winters wet and mild. The soil at Hermiston was an Adkins fine sandy loam, and winters drier and colder. Seeds of all creeping bentgrass lines deteriorated faster at Corvallis than at Hermiston. The estimated half-lives of creeping bentgrass lines buried at Corvallis were 8.4 to 20.2 months, while those buried at Hermiston were 8.4 to 37.7 months. At both sites, seeds of the glyphosate resistant lines, 48-10 and 48-13, deteriorated faster than the susceptible line, SR1020. However, seed deterioration in the resistant line, ASR368, was slower than all other creeping bentgrass lines. Based on the germination test, exhumed intact seeds at Corvallis were more dormant than those at Hermiston. If buried, it could be expected that viable creeping bentgrass seeds will persist more than 4 years after the seeds are introduced to a site, but environmental conditions can influence both seed longevity and dormancy.
The changes of soil salinity in the Pinus densiflora forest after seawater spread using a fire-fight helicopter
Park, Jeong Soo ; Koo, Kyu-Sang ; Lee, Eun Ju ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 443~450
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.047
The east coast of the Korean Peninsula is susceptible to fires because of the low rainfall in winter and spring, and large forest fires have occurred in this area. Lack of fresh water to combat fires has hampered efforts to prevent widespread forest fires in this region. Seawater has not been used as a suppressant because of possible detrimental effects of salt. We investigated the mobility of saline water in the forest soil and their effect on the microbial activity. Using a fire-fighting helicopter, seawater was sprayed over three plots (50 × 100 m) located on the eastern slope of the Baekdu mountain range in South Korea in April, 2011. We sampled the soil in April 4, May 20, and August 5 to determine the amount of salt that remained in the soil. The electrical conductivity value of the soil decreased to <400 μS/cm over a 1-month period. Approximately, four months after the application of seawater, the electrical conductivity value and Na
content in all treatment plots did not significantly differ to those of the control plot, and total microbial activity also recovered to that of the control. Our results indicate that the amount of rainfall, soil physical-chemical properties, and topological factors may be a critical factor determining the mobility of saline water in forest soil.
Effect of island geography on plant species on uninhabited islands in southeastern South Korea
Choi, Sei-Woong ; An, Jeong-Seop ; Yang, Hyo-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 451~459
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.048
We investigated the pattern of floral diversity including naturalized plant species and three ecological factors (area, elevation and distance from mainland) of plant species on 53 uninhabited islands in Gyungsangnam-do, southeastern South Korea. A total of 206 taxa in 67 families were observed, and the species of Compositae was most common. Thirteen taxa in eight families of the naturalized plants were observed on 33 islands. The numbers of total plant species, area and elevation were significantly correlated, but no relationship with distance from the mainland was observed. In addition, no relationship was found among the numbers of naturalized plants, area and elevation. However, the average rate of naturalization on islands with different elevations differed significantly, indicating the smallest proportion of naturalized plant species was on high islands. Multiple regression of total species richness identified elevation as a significant factor, while no significant variables were correlated with naturalized plant species. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination identified three major variables, distance from mainland, number of naturalized plant species and elevation. These findings indicate that the geography of islands such as area and elevation affected the species richness of plants on uninhabited islands, while human disturbance had a greater effect than geography on the species richness of naturalized plants on islands in southeastern South Korea.
Soil development and bacterial community shifts along the chronosequence of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier foreland in Svalbard
Kwon, Hye Young ; Jung, Ji Young ; Kim, Ok-Sun ; Laffly, Dominique ; Lim, Hyoun Soo ; Lee, Yoo Kyung ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 461~476
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.049
Global warming has accelerated glacial retreat in the high Arctic. The exposed glacier foreland is an ideal place to study chronosequential changes in ecosystems. Although vegetation succession in the glacier forelands has been studied intensively, little is known about the microbial community structure in these environments. Therefore, this study focused on how glacial retreat influences the bacterial community structure and its relationship with soil properties. This study was conducted in the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier in Svalbard (78.9°N). Seven soil samples of different ages were collected and analyzed for moisture content, pH, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents, and soil organic matter fractionation. In addition, the structure of the bacterial community was determined via pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The physical and chemical properties of soil varied significantly along the distance from the glacier; with increasing distance, more amounts of clay and soil organic carbon contents were observed. In addition, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were dominant in soil samples taken close to the glacier, whereas Acidobacteria were abundant further away from the glacier. Diversity indices indicated that the bacterial community changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous structure along the glacier chronosequence/distance from the glacier. Although the bacterial community structure differed on basis of the presence or absence of plants, the soil properties varied depending on soil age. These findings suggest that bacterial succession occurs over time in glacier forelands but on a timescale that is different from that of soil development.
A comparison of five Korean snake species' reproductive organ sizes, Oocatochus rufodorsatus and Rhabdophis tigrinus in Colubridae and Gloydius saxatilis, G. brevicaudus and G. ussuriensis in Viperidae
Lee, Heon-Joo ; Kim, Ja-Kyeong ; Kim, Il-Hun ; Koo, Kyo-Sung ; Park, Jaejin ; Kwon, Se-Ra ; Park, Daesik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 477~483
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.050
Characteristics of snake reproductive organs that are relatively less affected by external environmental conditions can be used as an important means of classification; additionally, such characteristics can provide useful information on a species' reproductive system. In this study, we compared the testis weights, hemipenis lengths and retractor muscle lengths of male Oocatochus rufodorsatus and Rhabdophis tigrinus in Colubridae and Gloydius saxatilis, G. brevicaudus and G. ussuriensis in Viperidae. The snake snout-vent lengths (SVLs) were positively related to the three reproductive organ sizes, but the body weight only exhibited a positive relationship with the testis weight. The three organs did not significantly differ on the left and right sides. The relative testis weights and retractor muscle lengths (divided by the body weight and SVL, respectively) of the Colubridae snakes were greater than for the Viperidae snakes, but the relative hemipenis lengths (divided by SVL) did not differ between the two groups. The relative testis weight of G. saxatilis and the relative retractor muscle lengths of the Viperidae snakes were smaller compared with the Colubridae snakes. The relative hemipenis length of O. rufodorsatus was greater than for R. tigrinus, G. saxatilis and G. brevicaudus. Additional comparisons were not significant. Our results may facilitate further studies on hemipenial morphology and mating competition in Korean snakes. This is the first study on Korean snake reproductive organs.
Evaluation and validation of stem volume models for Quercus glauca in the subtropical forest of Jeju Island, Korea
Seo, Yeon Ok ; Lumbres, Roscinto Ian C. ; Won, Hyun Kyu ; Jung, Sung Cheol ; Lee, Young Jin ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 485~491
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.051
This study was conducted to develop stem volume models for the volume estimation of Quercus glauca Thunb. in Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Furthermore, this study validated the developed stem volume models using an independent dataset. A total of 167 trees were measured for their diameter at breast height (DBH), total height and stem volume using non-destructive sampling methods. Eighty percent of the dataset was used for the initial model development while the remaining 20% was used for model validation. The performance of the different models was evaluated using the following fit statistics: standard error of estimate (SEE), mean bias absolute mean deviation (AMD), coefficient of determination (R
), and root mean square error (RMSE). The AMD of the five models from the different DBH classes were determined using the validation dataset. Model 5 (V = aD
), which estimates volume using DBH and total height as predicting variables, had the best SEE (0.02745), AMD (0.01538), R
(0.97603) and RMSE (0.02746). Overall, volume models with two independent variables (DBH and total height) performed better than those with only one (DBH) based on the model evaluation and validation. The models developed in this study can provide forest managers with accurate estimations for the stem volumes of Quercus glauca in the subtropical forests of Jeju Island, Korea.
Influence of microenvironment on the spatial distribution of Himantormia lugubris (Parmeliaceae) in ASPA No. 171, maritime Antarctic
Choi, Seung Ho ; Kim, Seok Cheol ; Hong, Soon Gyu ; Lee, Kyu Song ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 493~503
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.052
This study analyzed how spatial distribution of Himantormia lugubris is affected by the microenvironment in the Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No. 171 located in the Barton Peninsula of King George Island that belongs to the maritime Antarctic. In order to determine the population structure of H. lugubris growing in Baekje Hill within ASPA No. 171, we counted the individuals of different size groups after dividing the population into 5 growth stages according to mean diameter as follows: ≤ 1 cm, 1-3 cm, 3-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and ≥ 10 cm. The count of H. lugubris individuals in each growth stage was converted into its percentage with respect to the entire population, which yielded the finding that stages 1 through 5 accounted for 32.8%, 25.3%, 15.9%, 22.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. This suggests that the population of H. lugubris in ASPA No. 171 has a stable reverse J-shaped population structure, with the younger individuals outnumbering mature ones. The mean density of H. lugubris was 17.6/0.25 m
, mean canopy cover 13.3%, and the mean dry weight 37.8 g/0.25 m
. It began to produce spore in the sizes over 3 cm, and most individuals measuring 5-10 cm were adults with sexually mature apothecia. The spatial distribution of H. lugubris was highly heterogeneous. The major factors influencing its distribution and performance were found to be the period covered by snow, wind direction, moisture, size of the substrate, and canopy cover of Usnea spp. Based on these factors, we constructed a prediction model for estimating the spatial distribution of H. lugubris. Conclusively, the major factors for the spatial distribution of H. lugubris were snow, wind, substrate and the competition with Usnea spp. These results are important for understanding of the distribution in the maritime Antarctic and evolution of H. lugubris that claims a unique life history and ecological niche.
Nutrient regime, N:P ratios and suspended solids as key factors influencing fish tolerance, trophic compositions, and stream ecosystem health
Kim, Seon-Young ; An, Kwang-Guk ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 505~515
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.053
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stream nutrient regime, N:P ratios and suspended solids on fish tolerance/trophic compositions and stream ecosystem health, based on multi-metric model, during 2008-2013. Also, stream ecosystem health was evaluated in relation to chlorophyll-a (CHL) as a measure of algal productivity or indicators of trophic state to water chemical parameters. Total number of sampled fish species were 50 and showed a decreasing trend from 2008 to 2013. The minnow of Zacco platypus, based on the catch per unit effort (CPUE), was the most dominant species (25.9%) among the all species. Spatial heterogeneity was evident in the fish tolerance guilds that showed the dominance of sensitive species (89%) in the headwaters (S1) and the dominance of tolerant species (57%) in the urban. These conditions were directly influenced by concentrations of nutrients and organic matter (COD). The N:P ratios, as a barometer of water pollution, had a negative linear function (R
= 0.40, P < 0.01) with CHL, and the ratios had an important role in changes of COD concentration (R
= 0.40, P < 0.01). Under the circumstances, the N:P ratio directly influenced the relative proportions of fish trophic/tolerance compositions. According to the regression analysis of omnivore (O
) and insectivore sp. (I
) on total nitrogen and total phosphorus, nitrogen had no significant influences (P > 0.05) to the two compositions, but phosphorus influenced directly the two guilds [slope (a) = -32.3, R
= 0.25, P < 0.01 in the I
; a = 40.7, R
= 0.19, P < 0.01 in the O
]. Such water chemistry and fish trophic guilds determined the stream ecosystem health, based on the multi-metric fish model.
Decomposition of leaf litter of some evergreen broadleaf trees in Korea
Lee, Kyung Eui ; Cha, Sangsub ; Lee, Sang Hoon ; Shim, Jae Kuk ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 517~528
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.054
Litter decomposition is an important process in terrestrial ecosystem. However, studies on decomposition are rare, especially in evergreen broadleaf trees. We collected the leaf litter of five evergreen broadleaf trees (Daphniphyllum macropodum, Dendropanax morbifera, Castanopsis cuspidata var. thunbergii, Machilus thunbergii and Quercus acuta), and carried out a decomposition experiment using the litterbag method in Ju-do, Wando-gun, Korea for 731 days from December 25, 2011 to December 25, 2013. Among the five experimental tree species, C. cuspidata var. thunbergii distribution was limited in Jeju Island, and D. macropodum was distributed at the highest latitude at Mt. Baekyang (N 35°40′). About 2% of the initial litter mass of D. macropodum and D. morbifera remained, while 20.9% remained for C. cuspidata var. thunbergii, 30.4% for M. thunbergii, and 31.6% for Q. acuta. D. macropodum litter decayed four times faster (k = 2.02 yr
) than the litter of Q. acuta (k = 0.58 yr
). The decomposition of litter was positively influenced by thermal climate such as accumulated mean daily air temperature (year day index) and precipitation, as well as by physical characteristics such as thickness (R
=0.939, P = 0.007) and specific leaf area (SLA) (R
= 0.964, P = 0.003). The characteristics of chemical composition such as lignin (R
= 0.939, P = 0.007) and water-soluble materials (R
= 0.898, P = 0.014) showed significant correlations with litter decomposition. However, the nutrients in litter showed complicated species-specific trends. The litter of D. macropodum and D. morbifera had fast decomposition despite their low nitrogen concentration and high C/N ratio. This means that the litter decomposition was more strongly affected by physical characteristics than chemical composition and nutrient content. On the other hand, the litter of Q. acuta which had the slowest decay rate had a high amount of N and low C/N ratio. Thus, the decomposition of Q. acuta litter was more affected by the P content of the litter than the N content, although all litter had similar physical characteristics.
Prediction of changes in distribution area of Scopura laminate in response to climate changes of the Odaesan National Park of South Korea
Kwon, Soon Jik ; Kim, Tae Geun ; Park, Youngjun ; Kwon, Ohseok ; Cho, Youngho ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 529~536
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.055
This study was performed to provide important basic data for the preservation and management of Scopura laminata, a species endemic to Korea, by elucidating the spatial characteristics of its present, potential, and future distribution areas. Currently, this species is found in the Odaesan National Park area of South Korea and has been known to be restricted in its habitat due to its poor mobility, as even fully grown insects do not have wings. Utilizing the MaxEnt model, 20 collection points around Odaesan National Park were assessed to analyze and predict spatial distribution characteristics. The precision of the MaxEnt model was excellent, with an AUC value of 0.833. Variables affecting the potential distribution area of S. laminata by more than 10% included the range of annual temperature, seasonality of precipitation, and precipitation of the driest quarter, in order of greatest to least impact. Compared to the current potential distribution area, no significant difference in the overall habitable area was predicted for the 2050s or 2070s. It was, however, demonstrated that the potential habitable area would be reduced in the 2050s by up to 270.3 km from the current area of 403.9 km; further, no potential habitable area was anticipated by the 2070s according to our predictive model. Taken together, it is anticipated that this endemic species could be significantly affected by climate changes, and hence effective countermeasures are strongly warranted for the preservation of habitats and species management.
First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism by Polistes sp. on Polistes djakonovi Kostylev (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in South Korea
Choi, Moon Bo ; Kwon, Ohseok ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 537~540
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.056
Social parasitism is occasionally found in some Polistes and Vespa species, such as Vespa dybowskii. We report a discovey of interspecific facultative social parasitism by Polistes sp. (possibly P. mandarinus) on Polistes djakonovi Kostylev in two rural areas of South Korea. P. djakonovi is very similar to Polistes sp. in its body color patterns except that the mark on the clypeus is different. In nest 1 (65 cells), we found 5 females of P. djakonovi and 4 females of Polistes sp. on 30 July 2014, whereas nest 2 (102 cells) contained 12 females and 16 males of P. djakonovi, and 3 females of Polistes sp. on 28 August 2013. Although we found the two nests in July and August, P. djakonovi seems to have been exploited by Polistes sp. at the end of the preemergence period (early to mid-June). The two nests found in this study had mainly white cocoon caps of P. djakonovi with several yellow ones of Polistes sp. In most cases of social parasitism, intruders have a larger size of the body or some body parts than the host in order to usurp the host; in contrast, this study showed that the hosts had lager bodies than the intruders.
Status of wetland vascular plant species in Korea
Choung, Yeonsook ; Lee, Woo Tchul ; Cho, Kang-Hyun ; Joo, Kwang Yeong ; Min, Byeong Mee ; Hyun, Jin-Oh ; Lee, Kyu Song ; Lee, Kyungeun ; Seo, Anna ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 541~544
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.057
We report the status of wetland vascular plant species in Korea including the whole peninsula and its adjacent islands. This analysis was based on database from our previous categorized list. In all, 4,050 taxa have been reported, including 3,769 native and 281 naturalized. Of these, 479 taxa (12%) are considered as wetland vascular indicator species: 240 obligate wetland plants (OBW) and 239 facultative upland plants (FACW). Approximately 31% of those 479 taxa, i.e., 149 taxa, are labelled as aquatic macrophytes. Wetland plants, mostly herbaceous but some woody, inhabit aquatic bodies and wet meadows. Except for two OBW and six FACW taxa, the rest of the plants are summer-green only. The information provided here is valuable for making assessments of wetland ecosystem health, as well as for developing management plans to preserve and restore wetlands and their resident plant species while also creating artificial wetland environments.
Newly recorded diatom species in marine and fresh water of Korea
Lee, Jin Hwan ; Park, Joon Sang ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 545~562
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.058
A study on indigenous diatoms was carried out at 71 sites during the period from April 1999 to August 2014 in marine and fresh water in Korea. Forty species of diatoms are new to Korea and they are divided into three classes, six subclasses, 13 orders, 19 families, and 28 genera. The nomenclatures, references, dimensions, specimens examined, local habitat, distribution in Korea, and photograph are reported here. The 40 species found in marine and fresh water showed speciesspecific habitats.
Floristic Survey of Diatom in the Three Islands (Baeknyeong, Daecheong, Socheong) from Yellow Sea of Korea
Lee, Sang Deuk ; Yun, Suk Min ; Park, Joon Sang ; Lee, Jin Hwan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 563~598
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.059
A floristic study on the diatom was carried out in coastal area at two seasons, August 2014 and April 2015, from three islands in the northern area of Yellow Sea of South Korea. A total of 117 species of diatoms, including 3 classes, 9 subclasses, 20 orders, 32 families and 54 genera, were identified based on LM and SEM examinations. Three species of diatoms, Gyrosigma obscurum, Pleurosigma frenguellianum, and P. sabangi were newly recorded in Korea. The historical synonyms of the species are presented for the floristic informations, the examined specimen for the each taxon is specified, and the distribution in three islands and detailed sampling localities of each taxon are given.
New records of three dinophycean genera Dinophysis, Histioneis, and Parahistioneis (Dinophysiales, Dinophyceae) from coastal waters of Jeju Island, Korea
Lee, Joon-Baek ; Kim, Hyeung-Sin ; Chung, Han-Sik ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 599~609
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.060
A total of 19 species of three genera Dinophysis, Histioneis, and Parahistioneis of the family Dinophysaceae are reported here from samples obtained using a 20-µm mesh net from June 2006 to December 2014 around Jeju Island including the East China Sea, and 16 of these species are new to Korean waters. A checklist of the three genera of dinoflagellates reported from coastal and oceanic Korean waters is presented. Short descriptions and synonyms are given for each species. The dinoflagellates of the family Dinophysaceae belong to mostly marine species, and include many tropical and/or subtropical species. Recently, the composition of dinoflagellate species has changed around Jeju Island as well as in Korean waters due to global warming and climate change. Tropical and subtropical dinoflagellates occur frequently in the coastal waters of Jeju Island, which reflects the ecosystem shift around the sea adjacent to Jeju Island from a temperate to a subtropical / tropical region.
New records of the genus Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae, Conjugatophyceae) in Korea
Kim, Jee-Hwan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 611~618
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.061
Spirogyra is a zygnematalean green algal genus that is ubiquitous in a broad range of freshwater habitats throughout the world. Samples collected throughout Korea from October 2004 to July 2015 were examined using light microscopy. Morphological characteristics (e.g., size of vegetative cells, number of chloroplasts in each cell, type of end walls of adjacent cells, details of conjugation, shape of female gametangia, dimensions and shape of zygospores, color and ornamentation of median spore walls) were used as diagnostic characteristics for species identification. In this study, five species of Spirogyra (i.e., S. emilianensis Bonhomme, S. jaoensis Randhawa, S. pascheriana Czurda, S. weberi var. farlowii (Transeau) Petlovany, and S. weberi var. grevilleana (Hassall) Kirchner) were described as newly recorded in Korea.
A study of newly recorded genera and species of filamentous blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae, cyanobacteria) in Korea
Song, Mi-Ae ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 619~627
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.062
Cyanobacteria were sampled at five sites in the Han River, Nakdong River, and Geum River watershed from June 2014 to May 2015 and then cultivated. Two genera and five species of the cyanobacteria were newly recorded in Korea. The newly recorded species were Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena galeata, Pseudanabaena amphigranulata, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides, and Calothrix parietina. As a result, the Korean flora of the cyanobacteria now include four orders, 22 families with 73 genera, 143 species, and two varieties, giving a total of 146 taxa.
Additions to the six taxa of the genus Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Charophyta) in Korea
Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 629~636
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.063
The samples were collected at lowland swamps, reservoirs, mountainous wetlands, and sphagnum bogs from 2012 to 2014. The followings were newly recorded in Korea: two species, three varieties, and one form, including six taxa of the genus Cosmarium. The newly recorded Korean species were Cosmarium bioculatum var. hians, C. bireme, C. pseudobiremum, C. nitidulum var. pseudorectangulare, C. trilobulatum f. retusum, and C. trilobulatum var. depressum. The flora of the genus Cosmarium contains 303 taxa in total in Korea. The specimens were cultured and deposited on the algal culture collection of Kyonggi University (ACKU) and National Institute of Botanical Resources (NIBR).
Nine taxa of newly recorded species of chlorophytes (Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) in Korea
Shin, Hyun-Joo ; Im, Ji-Hoon ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 637~646
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.064
In this study, we collected, identified, and cultured phytoplankton that inhabited the small-scale artificial wetlands in Danyang-gun of Chungcheungbuk-do and Suwon-si of Gyeonggi-do. From the study, nine newly recorded species, including four genera (Mychonastes, Willea, Hindakia, and Oocystella), were found in Korea: Choricystis guttula, Mychonastes densus, Willea apiculata, Pseudokirchneriella elongata, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Hindakia tetrachotoma, Oocystella nephrocytioides, Oocystis bispora, and Oocystis ecballocystiformis. The morphological characteristics of the nine taxa identified in this study were mostly similar to previously reported characteristics. However, Oocystella nephrocytioides were smaller than previously recorded, while Choricystis guttula and Mychonastes densus were larger than previously recorded.
New record of Codium lucasii (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Korea
An, Jae Woo ; Nam, Ki Wan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 647~654
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.065
A prostrate species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) was collected from Daejin on the eastern coast of Korea. This alga is morphologically characterized by a prostrate, adherent or pulvinate, dark green thallus that is tightly attached to substratum. The utricles are strongly grouped and cylindrical to slightly clavate. Their apex is rounded to capitated, and it frequently has an alveolate ornament. Hair scars are found in the upper portion of the utricle. The gametangia grow on a short pedicel in the upper part of the utricle. In the phylogenetic tree based on molecular data, this alga is placed in the same clade as C. mozambiquense in UPGMA analysis, and nests in a sister clade of C. lucasii subsp. capense and C. mozambiquense in ML and NJ analyses. However, the genetic distance between the sequences of the Korean alga and the two species is 1.3-1.9%, while that between the Korean alga and C. lucasii from Japan is 1.1% within intraspecific range. The divergence value between the Korean alga and C. lucasii from the type locality (Australia) is 2.7% considered to be interspecific range. As based on this genetic divergence value, the Korean alga together with Japanese C. lucasii can be separated from genuine C. lucasii from the type locality. However, the Korean alga is identified as C. lucasii until those entities are morphologically characterized in species level. This is the first record of C. lucasii in Korea
New record of the genus Neodilsea and N. yendoana (Dumontiaceae, Gigartinales) in Korea
Kang, Pil Joon ; Nam, Ki Wan ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 655~661
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.066
A marine algal species was collected from the southern coast of Korea. This alga is characterized by a large and cartilaginous thallus, a dichotomous branching pattern, compressed axes, rare proliferations near the apex, and cystocarps protruded toward surface. In a phylogenetic tree based on rbcL sequences, this species nests in the same clade as Neodilsea yendoana as a terminal clade of the genus Neodilsea. The genetic distance between both sequences within the clade was calculated as 0.2% considered to be in the intraspecific range within the genus. Based on the morphological and molecular data obtained in the present study, this Korean species is identified as N. yendoana. This is the first record of the genus Neodilsea and N. yendoana in Korea.
New record of the red algae, Halarachnion parvum (Gigartinales) and Champia lubrica (Rhodymeniales), from Korea
Yang, Mi Yeon ; Koh, Young Ho ; Kim, Myung Sook ;
Journal of Ecology and Environment, volume 38, issue 4, 2015, Pages 663~671
DOI : 10.5141/ecoenv.2015.067
We report the first finding of Halarachnion parvum and Champia lubrica from Korea based on morphology and the plastid rbcL sequence analyses. H. parvum occurs in the subtidal zone of Munseom, the southern part of Jeju. Thalli have short stipe, and elliptical to ovate fronds with marginal proliferations of up to 3 cm in height. H. parvum has zonately divided tetrasporangia and cystocarp immersed under the cortical layer. Champia lubrica appears in Namhae, Gyeongnam and Seopseom, Jeju. Thalli are erect, irregularly branched, terete, obtuse apex, up to 3-5 cm high, and have tetrahedrally divided tetrasporangia. Molecular analyses of the plastid rbcL gene reveal that two species are clearly separated from other species of their respective genera. H. parvum is sister with Halarachnion latissimum in 3.1-3.2% sequence divergence, and C. lubrica is closely related to the sample from Japan with 0.2% sequence divergence.