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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
Changes in Polyamine and Tyramine Concentrations in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) during Maturation and Preharvest Sprouting
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Hong, Byuong-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Yun, Seung-Gil ; An, Jae-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~7
The levels of polyamines were measured to investigate the alternative nitrogen metabolism during maturation and sprouting in rice. The rice plants (cv. Ansanbyeo) were cultivated in 20-year-old non-fertilized field. The flag leaves and spikes were collected weekly after the earing stage and the seeds were harvested daily after lodging. Free, bound, and conjugated polyamines were analyzed using reverse phase HPLC. Putrescine, spermidine, spermine, agmatine and tyramine were the major amines found in rice. The level of stress-induced amine, putrescine increased during the preharvest sprouting confirming that the process was a stress to the plants. With all other polyamines, tyramine in free form decreased in flag leaves and panicles during seed maturation. However, agmatine in bound form showed a noticeable increase about 8-fold during 6 weeks period of maturation after which it declined to the bottom level. Among the individual amines, tyramine and spermine in conjugated form showed a marked change during matutation and sprouting. Interestingly, the level of tyramine with all conjugated polyamine decreased in spikes during seed maturation and increased during preharvest sprouting implying that tyrosine decarboxyation and conjugation to phenolic acids may play a key role in preharvest sprouting. Spermine in conjugated form was synthesized only at the early earing stage in the level of
fresh weight, and then decreased to the level of nmole during maturation. Thereafter, it dramatically increased to 2.8 mole during preharvest sprouting. In this study we found the tyramine is a major amine in rice, and it would play a critical role in N-assimilation during seed maturation and sprouting.
Effect of a Common Medium on the Growth of Nitrogen Fixer Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizer Bacillus megaterium
Poonguzhali, Selvaraj ; Thangaraju, Muthu ; Ryu, Jyung-Hyun ; Madhaiyan, Munusamy ; Chung, Keun-Yook ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 8~14
Mass culturing of two beneficial organisms used as biofertilizers for crops would reduce the risks in production and minimize the capital involved and this demands appropriate media that supports both organism and also selection of organisms that are not antagonistic to each other. A study was initiated to culture a nitrogen fixer (Rhizobium) and phosphate solubilizer (Bacillus megaterium) in a single medium and to study their growth patterns and shelf life in carrier. The growth of Rhizobium and Bacillus megaterium was assessed in different media and a slight modification in the traditional yeast extract mannitol media promoted the growth of both the organisms. The growth of the individual organisms in the modified medium was assessed by estimating the population at regular intervals and compared to their original medium. Maximum population of Rhizobium and phosphobacteria was at 60 hr when the phosphiobacteria inoculation of later was after 48 hr of Rhizobium inoculation. The shelf life of the individual inoculants in the inoculant containing both the organism in a sterile carrier base revealed no significant differences compared to individual organisms inoculated in a sterilized carrier. The population of both organisms in carrier based mixed inoculant remained at
cells till 90 days.
Effect of Phosphate Bio fertilizer Produced by Enterobacter intermedium on Rhizosphere Soil Properties and Lettuce Growth
Park, Bum-Ki ; Na, Jung-Heang ; Hwang-Bo, Hoon ; Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Kil-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 15~24
Enterobacter intermedium oxidizes glucose to gluconic acid and sequentially converts gluconic acid to 2-ketogluconic acid (2-KGA) under aerobic condition. Shaking incubation of E. intermedium in a broth medium containing 22.5 g glucose, 8.2 g gluconic acid and 40 g rock phosphate per liter resulted in
soluble phosphate. The culture broth was used as phosphate bio-fertilizer (PBF) in this experiment. To evaluate PBF produced by E. intermedium on lettuce growth, five treatments (PBF1/3, PBF2/3, PBF3/3, BP, and MF) were used. In MF and BP treatments,
5.9 kg of mineral fertilizer per 10a was added, while in PBF1/3, PBF2/3, and PBF3/3 treatments, culture broth containing one third, two third, and same amount of soluble
5.9 kg per 10a was applied, respectively. At 20, 35, and 50 days after transplanting of lettuce, plant growth components, biomass, enzyme activities and soil chemical properties were analyzed. Dehydrogenase activity and available phosphate concentration of rhizosphere in phosphate bio fertilizer treatments (PBF1/3, PBF2/3, PBF3/3) were generally higher compared to MF and BP treatments. Soil biomass in PBF3/3 treatment was significantly higher than MF and BP treatments at early growth stage. However, there was no significant difference among all treatments with time. Plant fresh weights in PBF1/3, PBF2/3, and MF treatments were better than those in BP and PBF3/3 treatments. However, in PBF2/3 treatment the highest fresh weight was discovered where alkaline phosphatase activity was generally higher than other treatments at 35 and 50 days. Enhancement of lettuce growth at 35 and 50 days in PBF2/3 treatment was associated with greater phosphate uptake in lettuce tissue. As regarding all results, PBF showed better lettuce growth compared to mineral phosphate fertilizer where PBF2/3 treatment resulted in increase of lettuce fresh weight by 23% and phosphate uptake by 50%.
Isolation and Identification of Low Molecular Weight Compounds Produced by Bacillus subtilis HJ927 and Their Biocontrol Effect on the Late Blight of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Lee, Hyun-Jin ; Park, Keun-Hyung ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Park, Ro-Dong ; Kim, Yong-Woong ; Hwang-Bo, Hoon ; Cho, Jeung-Yong ; Kim, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 25~31
A soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis HJ927, exhibiting strong antagonistic property against pathogenic fungi was isolated from pepper fields infested with Phytophthora capsici. Pepper plants inoculated with P. capsici revealed severe root mortality while plants co-inoculated with B. subtilis HJ927 and P. capsici showed drastically reduced root mortality. Low molecular weight substances released by B. subtilis HJ927 mediated the plant protective effect. The anti-fungal compounds released by B. subtilis HJ927 were identified as 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, and methyl 2-hydroxy, 3-phenylpropanoate by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition to these compounds, B. subtilis HJ927 also produced
-1,3-glucanase, a hydrolytic enzyme implicated in antifungal activity.
Comparison of Sampling Methods for On-Farm Use Quick Test Procedure of Soil Nitrate
Kang, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Ki-In ; Chung, Keun-Yook ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 32~37
The procedure of soil sampling for on-farm quick test of soil nitrate is very important to improve practical application without weighing or drying soil. To improve application of test strip reflectometer as a quick on-farm analytical procedure for the estimation of soil nitrate concentration, three sampling methods such as gravimetric sampling (GS), particle density sampling (PDS) and bulk density sampling (BDS) for on-farm analytical procedure were investigated with twelve soils of 45 to
nitrate nitrogen concentration. The nitrate nitrogen concentrations measured from different soils were compared with two analytical methods, ion electrode method as a standard laboratory analysis (SLA) and test strip reflectometer at three moisture conditions, viz. air dried soil, 20 and 40% of maximum water holding capacity (MWHC). Nitrate nitrogen concentration measured by test strip reflectometer was significantly correlated with that of SLA, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were in the range of 3.5 to 10.9%. These CV values less than 10.9% were thought to be acceptable for the measurement of soil nitrate as an on-farm real time analytical procedure. The nitrate nitrogen concentration by BDS for test strip reflectometer as well as ion electrode method was more similar to that of SLA compared with those by GS and PDS especially in case of moist soils. This result suggests that the BDS is more useful than GS and PDS in case of on-farm analytical procedure of soil nitrate for moist soils. Further the practical measurement by BDS could be improved by substituting the bottle cap with a larger container.
Genotypical Variation in Nitrate Accumulation of Lettuce and Spinach
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Choi, Hee-Youl ; Park, Yong ; Cho, Moon-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 38~44
In addition to the variation in nitrate accumulation of vegetables due to environmental conditions, there is also a distinct genetic variation. The variation of nitrate accumulation in some cultivars of lettuce and spinach commonly cultivated in Korea was investigated. Ten cultivars for both lettuce and spinach were grown in plastic containers filled with a 1:1 mixture of perlite and vermiculite with application of Hoagland No. 2 nutrient solution of high nitrate content (17.3 mM N) in a greenhouse condition. Plants were harvested four weeks after transplanting four-leaf stage seedlings. Plant growth was measured by fresh and dry matter of shoot, and contents of nitrate and other inorganic ions and organic solutes including sugar, amino acids and organic acids were measured. Large and significant genotypical variations in the nitrate content of the plants were found for both lettuce and spinach, and high negative correlations between nitrate content and fresh or dry weight were found in lettuce and spinach. Variation in nitrate accumulation of lettuce and spinach cultivars was not directly related to the differences in contents of organic and inorganic solutes, and this result indicates that photosynthesis and osmotic regulation are not directly related with the nitrate accumulation. Considering the correlations between nitrate content and plant growth of this study, it can be simply suggested that different cultivars of lettuce and spinach have their own inherited growth and physiological characteristics and also optimum nitrogen level required for the growth. Therefore when available nitrogen in root media is higher than the optimum level required for the inherited growth potential, some of the excess nitrate supplied can be accumulated in plants.
Improving Rice Productivity and Soil Quality by Coal Ash-Phosphogypsum Mixture Application
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Ha, Ho-Sung ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Lee, Hyub ; Ha, Byung-Hyun ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 45~51
As a silicate source to rice, a coal ash (50%) was mixed with a phosphogypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%). Field experiments were carried out to evaluate rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) to which 0, 20, 40 and
of the mixture were added. The mixture increased rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of
. The mixture did not result in an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The mixture improved available silicate and phosphate and exchangeable calcium contents in soil. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to
following the application of
, but boron toxicity in rice was not found. It is concluded that the coal ash and gypsum mixture could be a good alternative to inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil.
Increased Available Phosphate by Shell Meal Fertilizer Application in Upland Soil
Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Ha, Byung-Hyun ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 52~57
Previous studies showed that shell meal fertilizer from the oyster farming industry could be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase Chinese cabbage productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in upland soil (Lee et al., 2004). Herein, shell meal fertilizer was applied at rates of 0, 4, 8, 12, and
to upland soil (Pyeontaeg series, Fine silty, Typic Endoaquepts) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. We found available phosphate increased significantly with shell meal fertilizer application, due to high content of phosphate (
) in the applied shell meal fertilizer. In addition, high pH of shell meal fertilizer contributed to increase available phosphate content by neutralization of acidic soil. Total and residual P contents increased significantly with increasing shell meal fertilizer application, but we could not find any tendency in organic and inorganic P fraction. Of extractable P fraction, water-soluble phosphorus (W-P) and calcium-bound P (Ca-P) contents increased significantly with increasing application level. By contrast, aluminum and iron-bound P (Al-P and Fe-P) decreased slightly with shell meal application. The present experiment indicated that shell meal fertilizer had a positive benefit on increasing available phosphate content in arable soil. And so the increased available phosphate by shell meal fertilizer may decrease phosphate application level and then reduce phosphorus loss in arable soil.