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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - 00 2006
Volume 39, Issue 5 - 00 2006
Volume 39, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 39, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 39, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 39, Issue 1 - 00 2006
Selecting the target year
Clay Mineral Composition of the Soils Derived from Residuum and Colluvium
Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Sun-Kwan ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Pyun, In-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 245~252
This experiment was conducted to investigate the distribution and compositions of clay mineral and to replenish the soil classification system in Korea. Soil layer samples were collected from 26 residuum and colluvium soil series out of 390 soil series in Korea, and then analyzed for soil physical and chemical characteristics, mineral and chemical compositions of clay in B horizon soils. Major clay minerals of residuum and colluvium were illite and chlorite in soils originated from the sedimentary rock such as limestone, shale, sandstone and conglomerate; quartz and kaolin in soils originated from rhyolite, neogene deposits, porphyry and tuff; and kaolin and quartz in the soils originated from granite, granite gneiss and anorthosite. Clay minerals in Korean soils were divided into 4 groups: mixed mineral group(MIX) mainly contained with illite, kaolin and vemiculite; kaolin group(KA) with kaolin and illite; chlorite group(CH) with chlorite and illite; and smectite group(SM) with kaolin, illite and smectite. The most predominant clay mineral group was kaolin group(KA) with kaolin and illite; an mixed mineral group(MIX) with illite, kaolin and vemiculite. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of clay was low in the soils mainly composed with MIX and KA groups and silica-alumina molar ratio of clay was high in the soils composed with SM group
O Emission from Upland Cultivated with Pepper through Related Soil Parameters
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Song, Beom-Heon ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Shin, Joung-Du ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 253~258
An empirical model of nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soil has been applied. It is based on the relationship between
and three soil parameters, soil mineral N(ammonium plus nitrate) content in the topsoil(0-15cm), soil water-field pore space, and soil temperature, determined in a study on clay loam and sandy loam at the pepper field in 2004. For comparisons between estimated and observed values of
emissions in the pepper field, it was investigated that
amount in the clay loam and sandy loam were overestimated as 12.2% and less estimated as 30%, respectively. However,
emissions were overestimated as 27.1% in the clay loam and 14.7% in the sandy loam from
gas samples collected once a week at the same time analyzing soil parameters. This modelling approach, based as it is well established and widely used soil measurements, has the potential to provide flux estimates from a much wider range of agricultural sites than would be possible by direct measurement of
Comparison of Disk Tension Infiltrometer and van Genuchten-Mualem Model on Estimation of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity
Hur, Seung-Oh ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Park, Chan-Won ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Geong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 259~267
Hydraulic conductivity is the rate of water flux on hydraulic gradient. The van Genuchten Mualem (VGM) model is frequently used for describing unsaturated state of soils, that is composed with the function of soil water potential and soil water content and requests various parameters. This study is to get the value of VGM parameters used Rosetta computer program based on neural network analysis method and to calculate VGM parameters. VGM parameters included Ko(effective saturated hydraulic conductivity),
(residual soil water content),
(saturated soil water content), L, n and m. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at 10 kPa was calculated by using Rosetta program. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of 17 soil series at 1, 3, 5, 7 kPa were also obtained by applying saturated hydraulic conductivity by disk tension infiltrometer based on Gardner and Wooding's equation. Water flow at the water potential of 3 kPa was very low except Namgye, Hagog, Baegsan, Sangju, Seogcheon, Yesan soil series. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at 1 kPa showed the highest value for Samgag soil series and was in order of Yesan, Hwabong, Hagog and Baegsan soil series. Those of Gacheon, Seocheon and Ugog soil series were very low. When the value by VGM was compared with the value by disc tension infiltrometer, there was a tendency with exponential function to soils without gravel but there was no tendency to soils including gravel. Conclusively, it would be limited that VGM model for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity analysis applies to Korean agricultural land including gravel and having steep slope, shallow soil depth.
Characteristics of Soil Water Runoff and Percolation in Sloped Land with Different Soil Textures
Lee, Hyun-Haeng ; Ha, Sang-Keon ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 268~273
Soil loss induced by erosion has come to be a serious problem in Korea's sloped land since more than 70% of upland fields are located on the sloped land area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phase of water flow in differently soil textured plot soil types by rainfall amount. Lysimeters with slope of 15%, 5 m in length, 2 m in width, and 1 m in depth were prepared and filled up with three different soil textures, such as sandy loam, loam, and clay loam, then relationships between seasonal rainfall and runoff, percolation were analyzed. Runoff and percolation rate were shown to increase linearly with increasing rainfall intensity in all the soil textures, but the starting threshold and increment rate in runoff and percolation occurrence were dependent differently upon soil textures. Percolation increment rate according to the increasing rainfall amount was 0.52, 0.36, and 0.57 for sandy loam, loam and clay loam soil respectively. The threshold rainfall amounts in which percolation occurs were 5.73 mm, 6.80 mm, and 12.86 mm for sandy loam, loam and clay loam respectively. Runoff increment rates were 0.42, 0.48 and 0.46 for sandy loam, loam and clay loam soil. The threshold rainfall amount in which runoff occurs was 10.50 mm in sandy loam, 7.76 mm in loam and 17.40 mm in clay loam. These different phases of water flow by soil texture could be used to suggest guidelines for the best management practice of the farming slope land.
Evaluation of Meteorological Elements Used for Reference Evapotranspiration Calculation of FAO Penman-Monteith Model
Hur, Seung-Oh ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 274~279
The exact estimation of crop evapotranspiration containing reference or potential evapotranspiration is necessary for decision of crop water requirements. This study was carried out for the evaluation and application of various meteorological elements used for the calculation of reference evapotranspiration (RET) by FAO Penman-Monteith (PM) model. Meteorological elements including temperature, net radiation, soil heat flux, albedo, relative humidity, wind speed measured by meteorological instruments are required for RET calculation by FAO PM model. The average of albedo measured for crop growing period was 0.20, ranging from 0.12 to 0.23, and was slightly lower than 0.23. Determinant coefficients by measured albedo and green grass albedo were 0.97, 0.95 and standard errors were 0.74, 0.80 respectively. Usefulness of deductive regression models was admitted. To assess an influence of soil heat flux (G) on FAO PM, RET with G=0 was compared with RETs using G at 5cm soil depth (
) and G at surface (
). As the results, RET estimated by G=0 was well agreed with RET calculated by measured G. Therefore, estimated net radiation, G=0 and albedo of green grass could be used for RET calculation by FAO PM.
Effects of Some Fungicides on Mortality of Earthworm, Eisenia fetida
Na, Young-Eun ; Bang, Hae-Son ; Han, Min-Su ; Ahn, Young-Joon ; Yoon, Seong-Tak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 280~284
The toxic effects of 14 commercially available fungicides on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), were evaluated using surface sprayed soil, immersion and contact filter tests. At recommended dose, the earthworm mortality is 4% on mancozeb, carbendazim, propineb and captan in the surface sprayed soil test, 4% on mancozeb, 6% on propineb and 10% on captan in the immersion test, and no effect on all used chemicals in contact filter test.
Effects of Slope and Fertilizer Application Method on the Behavior of Nitrogen in Saprolite Piled Highland
Kim, Ki-Deog ; Ahn, Jae-Hoon ; Park, Kyung-Hoon ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Park, Chol-soo ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Lee, Sang-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 285~291
The lysimeter (
) experiment using
tracer method was conducted to investigate the influence of slopes (degree 5, 15 and 30%) and fertilizer application methods (solid application and fertigation) on the behavior of applied urea in saprolite piled highland with Chinese cabbage cultivation. NDFFs(nitrogen derived from fertilizer) in soil were increased with decreasing of degree of slope and of depth of soil. The recovery as percentage of fertilizer nitrogen by Chinese cabbage were 69.5% for solid application and 76.5% for fertigation in 5% slope, 65.0% for solid application and 70.2% for fertigation in 15% slope, and 56.1% for solid application and 62.3% for fertigation in 30% slope. There, fertigation will make great contributions to the reduction of environmental contamination by run off and to the increase of fertilizer efficiency in Chinese cabbage cultivated highland.
Recommendation Rate of Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Application for Early Dry Seeding Culture of Rice in Honam Plain Area
Kim, Sang-Su ; Choi, Weon-Yeong ; Back, Nam-Hyun ; Choi, Min-Gyu ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Nam, Jeong-Kweon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 292~297
A research was carried out to investigate the release pattern of slow release nitrogen fertilizer compound(SRNC) that is latex coated urea(LCU) and to recommend the application rate of the fertilizer at dry seeding rice culture in Honam plain area. The experiment was conducted at experimental field(Jeonbug series, fine silty, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) of National Honam Agricultural Research Institute. A medium late maturing rice variety (Dongjinbyeo) was seeded at the rate of
by drill seeder on April 1, 1997 and March 30, 1998. Fertilizer application rate was
. Soil ammonium nitrate(
) contents remained higher in all SRNC plots than conventional ones and higher with the increase of SRNC application rate until panicle formation stage, but the contents was higher in the conventional than NRNC plots at the heading stage. The plant hight was taller in SRNC than conventional plots until maximum tiller stage, but became similar in both conventional and SRNC plots at heading stage. The culm and panicle number was greater in SRNC than conventional plots throughout all growth stage, but the effective tiller rate was higher in conventional ones. Nitrogen efficiency was higher in the SRNC than conventional plots, but the efficiency was decreasing with the higher SRNC level. The spikelet number per unit area was greater in SRNC than conventional plots, and increased with higher SRNC level. The more spikelet number with higher NRNC level resulted in lower 1,000-grain weight. The rice yield in conventional plot was similar with only 60% SRNC level, but lower than 80% and 100% SRNC levels. However, slight lodging was observed in 100% SRNC level. In conclusions, we recommend NRNC application level as 80% of standard nitrogen application for early dry seeding culture of rice Honam plain area.
Effect of Band Spotty Fertilization on the Yield and Growth of Peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) in Plastic Film Mulching Cultivation
Yang, Chang-Hyu ; Yoo, Chul-Hyun ; Shin, Bok-woo ; Cheong, Young-Keun ; Kang, Seung-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 298~302
This study was carried out to establish low-input fertilization and seeding technique using the simultaneous with seeding and fertilizer application machine and band spotty applicator which were manufactured for experiment during cultivation of mulching for peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.). The labor hour for seeding by simultaneous with seeding and fertilizing machine was appeared over 90% reduction effect compared with control plot(
). In band spotty fertilization plots, the emergence date was delayed about 4 days and the seedling stand rate was decreased 11~18% compared with control plot(man power). The content of total nitrogen of soil after experiment was increased while the contents of organic matter, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium were decreased than before experiment. The content of nitrogen forming nitrate was increased in band spotty fertilization(BSF) plots by increasing the amount of applied fertilizer from early growth stage till the middle growth stage. Growth rate was increased in band spotty fertilization plots and the absorbed amount of phosphate and potassium for peanut were increased in 70% band spotty fertilization plot compared with control plot. Yield of peanut was increased 70% in band spotty fertilization plot due to high pod kernel ratio and ripened pod rate compared with control plot(
). It was found that 70% band spotty fertilization was more effective as fertilization method to reduce both environmental pollution and chemical nitrogen fertilizer in plastic film mulching cultivation of peanut.
Influence of Water Stress on Growth and Yield in Safflower(Cartamus tinctorius L.)
Kim, Se-Jong ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Kim, Jae-Chul ; Park, So-Deuk ; Song, Kwan-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 303~306
This experiment was investigated the influence of water stress in growth and yields of safflower. The water stress treatment was early growth stage(Mar. 20~Apr. 18), middle growth stage(Apr. 29~May 28) and last growth stage(Jun. 8~Jul. 7) for 30 days, respectively. Stem length of plant was 127 cm in normal irrigation(control) state and that of growth middle stage at drought state was 96 cm, to be shorted more 31 cm than that of normal irrigation state, also other growth rate of plant was decreased, relatively. Number of effective flower bud per
was 224 ea in normal irrigation state, 114 ea in growth middle stage at drought state. Yield of seed at drought state decreased 37% and 13% in growth middle stage(222 kg/10a) and last stage(307 kg/10a) than 353 kg/10a in normal irrigation state. According to the result, it could be estimated that optimum irrigation time(0.05 MPa) was 23days after non-rainfall at early growth stage(from sowing seed time to 30 days after sowing seed), 10 days in middle growth stage(41-70 days after sowing seed) and 9 days in last growth stage(81-110 days after sowing seed), to prevent the damage of drought.
Analysis of Elevation Variation within a Rice Paddy Field
Sung, Je-Hoon ; Jang, Soon-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 307~314
Elevation differences within a paddy field relate strongly to plant health, crop homogeneity, and pest control. For precision agriculture (PA), the elevation within a field should be precisely controlled. We analyzed variation in elevation within two rice paddies over one crop cycle. The study took place in two rectangular plots (Field A and Field B, each
). Elevations within the two plots were measured by a laser-equipped surveying instrument, that could determine elevations to precisions of 1 mm. The test fields were divided into grids with 30 squares; elevation was measured at the center of each
grid square. This study measured elevation during nine observation periods from pre-plowing to post-harvest. Descriptive statistics showed the highest elevations after plowing due to soil disturbance. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant elevation differences before and after plowing and transplanting, although elevations were similar over the period of crop growth. Comparison of pre-plowing and post-harvest data showed differences in elevations, indicating that elevation changes occurred during plowing, rice transplanting, plant growth, and harvesting. In summary, the above statistical analyses indicated that elevation changes occurred due to plowing but not during the plant growth season or due to harvesting.
A Precision Test of Hydrometer Method for Determining Soil Texture
Kim, Lee-Yul ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Oh, Dong-Shig ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 315~320
A precision test of hydrometer method, used to determine soil texture, was conducted on selected 10 soil samples, compared to pipette method. Soil texture measurements with hydrometer method were performed with monitoring the temperature of soil suspension in settling cylinder. The temperature and its fluctuation during settling time had a range of
, respectively. The difference of clay content between hydrometer and pipette method were distributed from -6.4% to 4.0%. Positive end of difference in clay content was observed at soil having very low clay content, whereas negative end at soil having high organic matter content and exchangeable cations. Except both ends, difference in clay content of soils was less than 3%, and expecially closed to 0% in soils having clay content more than 25%. The difference of sand content were distributed from -1.5% to 4.2%. Similar to clay content, positive end soil was soil sample having lowest sand content.
Application of OECD Agricultural Water Use Indicator in Korea
Hur, Seung-Oh ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Eom, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 39, issue 5, 2006, Pages 321~327
In Korea, there is a growing competitive for water resources between industrial, domestic and agricultural consumer, and the environment as many other OECD countries. The demand on water use is also affecting aquatic ecosystems particularly where withdrawals are in excess of minimum environmental needs for rivers, lakes and wetland habits. OECD developed three indicators related to water use by the agriculture in above contexts : the first is a water use intensity indicator, which is expressed as the quantity or share of agricultural water use in total national water utilization; the second is a water stress indicator, which is expressed as the proportion of rivers (in length) subject to diversion or regulation for irrigation without reserving a minimum of limiting reference flow; and the third is a water use efficiency indicator designated as the technical and the economic efficiency. These indicators have different meanings in the aspect of water resource conservation and sustainable water use. So, it will be more significant that the indicators should reflect the intrinsic meanings of them. The problem is that the aspect of an overall water flow in the agro-ecosystem and recycling of water use not considered in the assessment of agricultural water use needed for calculation of these water use indicators. Namely, regional or meteorological characteristics and site-specific farming practices were not considered in the calculation of these indicators. In this paper, we tried to calculate water use indicators suggested in OECD and to modify some other indicators considering our situation because water use pattern and water cycling in Korea where paddy rice farming is dominant in the monsoon region are quite different from those of semi-arid regions. In the calculation of water use intensity, we excluded the amount of water restored through the ground from the total agricultural water use because a large amount of water supplied to the farm was discharged into the stream or the ground water. The resultant water use intensity was 22.9% in 2001. As for water stress indicator, Korea has not defined nor monitored reference levels of minimum flow rate for rivers subject to diversion of water for irrigation. So, we calculated the water stress indicator in a different way from OECD method. The water stress indicator was calculated using data on the degree of water storage in agricultural water reservoirs because 87% of water for irrigation was taken from the agricultural water reservoirs. Water use technical efficiency was calculated as the reverse of the ratio of irrigation water to a standard water requirement of the paddy rice. The efficiency in 2001 was better than in 1990 and 1998. As for the economic efficiency for water use, we think that there are a lot of things to be taken into considerations to make a useful indicator to reflect socio-economic values of agricultural products resulted from the water use. Conclusively, site-specific, regional or meteorogical characteristics as in Korea were not considered in the calculation of water use indicators by methods suggested in OECD(Volume 3, 2001). So, it is needed to develop a new indicators for the indicators to be more widely applicable in the world.