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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Ammonia Volatilization in Shihwa Wetland Soils
Lee, Sang-Mo ; Kim, Pan-Gun ; Ro, Hee-Myong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~3
Effect of Rice Straw and Woodchip Application on Greenhouse Soil Properties and Vegetable Crops Productivity
Seo, Young-Ho ; Lim, Soo-Jeong ; Kim, Seung-Kyeong ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 4~11
There have been increasing concerns about decreasing crop productivity due to salt accumulation in greenhouse soils. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of rice straw and woodchip application to a salt accumulated greenhouse soil on crop productivity and soil quality. The application of rice straw (RS) and woodchip (W) increased tomato yield and decreased blossom-end rot, and increased yield of Chinese cabbage compared with standard recommended fertilization (
for tomato and
for Chinese cabbage), while less soil residual nitrate, phosphatephosphorus, and potassium. In addition to the organic material application, fertilization reduction based on soil testing may also contribute to relatively low level of soil residual nutrients. Application of the organic material reduced soil bulk density presumably because of improved soil aggregation and structure, and increased biomass C and dehydrogenase activity. In comparison to rice straw, woodchip application resulted in higher crop yield, less amount of soil residual nitrate and lower soil EC, and greater biomass and dehydrogenase activity. The results obtained in this study indicateshowed that woodchip amendment along with reduced fertilization based on soil testing can be one of essential management practices for salt accumulated greenhouse soils.
Estimation of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads for Rural Watershed by AvSWAT
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Han, Kuk-Heon ; Ruy, Jong-Su ; Kim, Suk-Cheol ; Yun, Sun-Gang ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Kwun, Soon-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 12~17
This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of nonpoint source pollutants discharge from a small rural watershed. A typical rural area in Gongju City, Korea, was selected as the research site. Water quality and quantity in streams and rainfall samples were analyzed periodically from May to October 2005. Pollutant loads were estimated from a nonpoint source pollution model (AvSWAT, Arcview Soil and Water Assessment Tool). During the rainy season, from June 26 to 30 September 2005 and the dry season, before 26 June and after 30 September 2005, biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands accounted for 91.3% and 93.7% of annual load, respectively, while total-N and total-P were 97.1% and 91.1% of annual load, respectively. The observed stream flow was
, while simulation stream flow was
. That can be assumed that simulation can be used to estimate the stream flow without practical measurement. However, the runoff trend following the occurrence of a storm event was not recorded properly.
Effluent Characteristics of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads at Paddy Fields during Cropping Period
Han, Kuk-Heon ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Kwang-Sik ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Kim, Won-Il ; Yun, Sun-Gang ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 18~24
Paddy fields are apparently nonpoint source pollution and influence water environment. In order to improve water quality in rivers or lakes, to low nutrient load from paddy fields are required. To establish comprehensive plan to control agricultural non-point source pollution, it is imperative to get a quantitative evaluation on pollutants and pollution load from paddy fields. A field monitoring study was carried out to investigate the water balance and losses of nutrients from fields in Sumjin river basin. The size of paddy fields was 115 ha and the fields were irrigated from a pumping station. The observed total nitrogen loads from paddy fields were larger than those of the unit loads determined by Ministry of Environment data (MOE). It is because the nitrogen fertilization level at the studied field was higher than the recommended rate and the high irrigation and subsequent drainage amount. On the contrary, total phosphorus loads were less than those addressed by MOE since phosphorus fertilization level was lower than that of standard level. Therefore, it was found that fertilization, irrigation, and drainage management are key factors to determine nutrient losses from paddy fields. When the runoff losses of nutrients were compared to applied chemical fertilizer, it was found that 42 to 60% of nitrogen lost via runoff while runoff losses of phosphorus account for 1.3 to 7.6% of the total applied amount during the entire year.
Influences of Chinese Cabbage Growth and Soil Salinity to Alternative Irrigation Waters
Shin, Joung-Du ; Park, Sang-Won ; Kim, Won-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Yun, Sun-Gang ; Eom, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 25~30
Objective of this experiment was to investigate the growth effects of Chinese cabbage and soil salinity to alternative irrigation waters for drought periods. The treatments were consisted of the discharge water from industrial wastewater treatment plant (DIWT), the discharge water from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DMWT) and ground water as the control. For the chemical compositions of alternative water, it appeared that concentrations of the
and SAR values in DIWT were over the reuse criteria of other countries for irrigation, but CODcr concentration in DMWT was higher than the reuse criteria for agricultural irrigation. According to classification of water by
value, DIWT and DMWT are ranged from 0.7 to
, slight salinity. Average harvest indexes were 0.64 for DIWT and 0.63 for DMWT as compared to 0.61 of the control regardless of irrigation periods. SAR value in soil was increased with prolonging the irrigation periods at head forming stage, but not much difference except for 30 days of irrigation period at harvesting time for DIWT. However, it was not much difference along with irrigation periods through the growth stages for DMWT as compared with the groundwater. At harvesting time, average
for the soil irrigated with alternative agricultural waters was
for its DIMT and
for its DMWT as compared to
of its groundwater as the control. For
concentrations, it observed that there were no differences among the treatments with different irrigation periods at head forming stage in soil after irrigation. Also,
concentration in soil was increased up to 20 days after irrigation, and then decreased at 30 days after irrigation with DMWT at head forming stage. The
concentration in upper layer soil (0-15 cm) irrigated with DIWT was increased with prolonging the irrigation period at head forming stage, but it was dramatically decreased and almost constant in all the treatments at harvesting time. Therefore, it might be concluded that there was potentially safe to irrigate the discharge water from municipal wastewater treatment plant for 20 days after transplanting to drought periods with cultivating the Chinese cabbage.
Investigation of Plant Injury under Ambient Air Pollutants
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 31~35
In order to find out the cause of plant injury, the symptom of plant injury, and contents of element concerned in the plant were analysed. Also, a case study was conducted to find out the factor of plant injury at a agriculture and industry complex in Gyeongsang province in 2004. The distribution of isomeric curve was made with meteorological data, toxic gas concentration exhausted from pollution source. The general symptom of plant injury by ammonia gas was dry and dead of leaves with white color. At low concentration of ammonia gas, plant leaf showed spots of reddish brown. The characteristic of plant injury symptom by hydrogen fluoride gas was that the symptom was appeared at the edge of leaf. The isomeric curve of sulfur dioxide at the region, where the plant was damaged, showed that the area was affected by exhausted gas from the pollution source. Especially, this area was affected more deeply at summer than any other season.
Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Korean Paddy Soils
Jung, Won-Kyo ; Kim, Sun-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 36~42
Korean paddy soils have long been almost uniformly managed throughout the whole country with flooded, deep tillage, puddlling, transplanting, and uncovering after harvest. Management of soil organic carbon could be more important in the sources of green house gases. However, soil organic carbon dynamics were not been studied for Korean paddy soils. Therefore, we evaluated the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) of paddy soils between 1999 and 2003 at the same locations nationwide except islands. Soil organic carbon tends to increase in Inceptisols, which is predominant soil order for Korean paddy soils, from 1999 to 2003. Soil organic carbon increases in topographically plain paddy soils was greater than in valley soils, and was considerably high in predominant types of paddy soils (i.e., well adapted paddy soils, sandy paddy soils, and poorly drained paddy soils) but low and stable in the saline paddy soils. We also found that clay paddy soils are greater in soil organic carbon than sandy paddy soils. Through this study, we concluded that a proper management of paddy soils could contribute to soil organic carbon storage, which imply that the Korean paddy soils could help to enhance carbon dioxide sequestration via soil organic matter into the soil.
Prioritizing Environmental Risks of Veterinary Antibiotics Based on the Use and the Potential to Reach Environment
Seo, Young-Ho ; Choi, Jun-Keun ; Kim, Seung-Kyeong ; Min, Hwang-Kee ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 43~50
Veterinary antibiotics have been widely used to increase feed efficiency, to prevent disease, and to promote growth as well as to control disease. The antibiotics administered can be excreted through the urine and feces. One of the major routes of veterinary antibiotics entering soil and water environment is via the application of animal manure to agricultural land as an organic fertilizer source. Since little is known about impacts of antibiotics on the environment, this study was conducted to prioritize the veterinary antibiotics based on the consumption and potential to reach the environment. Among 83 veterinary antibiotics consumed in Korea, ten antibiotics were used at the greater dose than 25 Mg in 2004. Potential to reach the environment was determined according to excretion rate after administered to animals and sorption affinity to soil solids after applied to agricultural land. Seventeen antibiotic active ingredients (Ais) were classified as 'High' priority in terms of the potential to reach the environment. An overall priority score was determined by combining priority score based on consumption with the degree of potential environment exposure. Twenty veterinary antibiotic AIs were classified as 'Very high' or 'High' priority requiring detailed assessment. The antibiotic AIs were identified four aminoglycosides, two macrolides, two penicillins, five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines, two quinolones, and two miscellaneous. Eight veterinary antibiotic AIs including amoxicillin, carbadox, chlortetracycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and tylosin were identified to have a greater priority of environmental risk in Korea.
Toxicity of Organic Waste-Contaminated Soil on Earthworm (Eisenia fetida)
Na, Young-Eun ; Bang, Hae-Son ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Ahn, Young-Joon ; Yoon, Seong-Tak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 51~56
The toxicities of contaminated soils with 8 consecutive year applications of three levels (12.5, 25.0, and
) of four organic sludge [municipal sewage sludge (MSS), industrial sewage sludge (ISS), alcohol fermentation processing sludge (AFPS) and leather processing sludge (LPS)] on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were examined by using microcosm container in the laboratory. Results were compared with those of pig manure compost (PMC) treated soil. In tests with three treatment levels (12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 t per plot), ISS treated soil showed higher contents of Cu (18.9~26.2 fold), Cr (7.7~34.7 fold), and Ni (14.8~18.8 fold) at 8 years post treatment, than PMC treated soil. LPS treated soil showed higher contents of Cr (35.7~268.0 fold) and Ni (4.5~7.6 fold) than PMC treated soil. There were no great differences in heavy metal contents among MSS, AFPS, and PMC treated soils. In these contaminated soils, earthworm mortalities of MSS and AFPS treated soils at 8 weeks post-exposure were similar to those of PMC treated soil regardless of each treatment level. Toxic effect (26.7~96.7 mortality) on the ISS and LPS treated soils was significantly higher than one of PMC treated soil, with an exception of LPS soil treated with 25.0 t per plot. At 16 weeks post-exposure, earthworm mortalities of AFPS' 12.5 and 25.0 t treated soils were similar to those of PMC treated soil. Toxic effect (53.3~100 mortality) on the 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 t treated soils of MSS, ISS and LPS, and AFPS' 50.0 t treated soils was significantly higher than those of PMC treated soil. The data suggested that the 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 t of MSS, ISS and LPS, and AFPS' 50.0 t treated soils were evaluated to have toxicity on earthworm.
Relationship Between Soil Water-Stable Aggregates and Physico-chemical Soil Properties
Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyo ; Jung, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 57~63
Soil aggregation has been considered as an important factor not only for increasing soil productivity and soil quality but also improving nutrient use availability and water use efficiency. However, the relationship between soil aggregation and soil properties hasn't well reported for Korean soils. Objective of this research was to identify the relationship among soil water-stable aggregate (WSA), soil properties and soil dispersion ratio. Soil samples were analyzed for water-stable aggregate, Middleton's dispersion ratio, and soil physical and chemical properties. Water-stable aggregate was significantly correlated to soil textural properties, soil organic matter, and exchangeable cations. Middleton's dispersion ratio was significantly correlated with water-stable aggregate (
). Regression equation for water-stable aggregate was estimated by Middleton's dispersion ratio (Y=-0.79X + 96.49;
). In this research, we conclude that water-stable aggregate was significantly correlated with some soil properties and was able to be estimated by rapid and easily measurable Middleton's dispersion ratio.
Swelling Indexes and Relevant Removal of Cd and Pb of the Na-bentonite activated with Na
Chung, Doug-Young ; Yang, Jae E. ; Oh, Taek-G. ; Lee, Kyo-S. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 64~70
In this experiment we transformed the Ca-bentonite into Na-bentonite with two inorganic Na-chemicals under different temperatures. These two Na-chemicals were selected among five different Na-chemicals which carries Na as cation. The swelling capacity of the Na chemical-treated bentonite was increased with increasing Na concentration, while the maximum concentration of Na solution decreased with increasing temperature.
was most effective in exchanging Ca ions and resulting in the highest swelling index among the Na-chemicals. The swelling index was significantly increased with increasing temperature to
. But the equilibration time reversely affected the swelling index due to a rapid increase in evaporation of water. Within same amount of Na treatment SI slightly decreased not only with increasing contacting time but also with increasing temperature. The adsorption for the transformed Na-bentonite was increased with increasing equilibrium concentrations of Pb and Cd ions for all the activated Na-B and indigenous Ca-B and Na-B while the adsorbability of
onto each Na-B sample is more than that of
. And the maximum adsorption capacity sequence of Na-B samples for Pb and Cd has been found to be 5 %
- 5 %
> 3 %
> 3 %
> 1 %
> 1 %
> indigenous Na-B > indigenous Ca-B, showing that there are contradictory results about the relationship of cation adsorption to CEC.
Swelling Patterns and relevant Hydraulic Conductivities of Na-Bentonite under Various Acidic and Alkali conditions
Chung, Doug-Young ; Yang, Jae E. ; Oh, Taek-G. ; Lee, Kyo-S. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 71~76
We investigated the effects of solution pH on swelling characteristics and relevant hydraulic conductivity of different particle sizes of Na-bentonite which have significantly high swelling capacity. The results showed that the time taken to reach the maximum swelling indexes for all pH levels ranged from 84 hours and 156 hours for pH 6.5 or above by NaOH and pH 3.5 by HCl, respectively. The maximum swelling index slightly increased with increasing particle size, while the maximum swelling indexes were less or approximately half of that of the indigenous Na-bentonite. The changes in swelling indexes before and after solution treatment were distinctive in acidic condition, especially in pH 3.5 by HCl while there were not much differences in alkali condition. For hydraulic conductivities of fully swelled Na-bentonite in a given solution pH, elution did not occur under pressure below 1 bar. But elution started as the pressure was raised to 1.5 bars or above after 500 seconds. The stabilized hydraulic conductivities observed from 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 bars ranged from
, indicating that the hydraulic conductivities were slightly higher in acidic condition than that of normal condition.
Factors Controlling the Losses of Urea through Ammonia Volatilization
Kim, Su-Jung ; Yang, Jae E. ; Cho, Byong-Ok ; Kim, Jeong-Je ; Shin, Young-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 77~82
Volatilization of ammonia from N fertilizer is the major mechanism of N losses that occur naturally in all soils and is influenced by numerous soils, environmental and N fertilizer management factors. Vegetables are often damaged by
gas volatilized from the high rates of N fertilizer. We determined the rate of
volatilization from urea applied to surface of the alluvial soil (coarse silty, mixed, mesic family of Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts, Ihyeon series) as affected by fertilizer management factors such as rate of urea application, irrigation schedule and temperature. The
volatilization was triggered about 3 d after urea application and reached at maximum level in general within 15 days. Cumulative amounts of 3.0, 4.4, and 8.0 kg of
N after 17 d were volatilized at application rates of 200, 400, and
, respectively, which were equivalent to the N losses of 15.0, 10.9, and 13.0% of N applied. Masses of N volatilization were 5, 21, 75 and
at 5, 8, 22, and 28, respectively. Total amounts of 21.3, 21.2, and
were volatilized at control, 5 and 10 mm water irrigation before fertilization, respectively. However, those at 5 mm irrigation after fertilization were only
. Results showed that urea loss can be avoided by incorporating with the recommended level, applying when temperatures are low or irrigating immediately to carry the urea into soil.
Storing Carbon in Paddy Land
Jung, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 83~84
Environmental Impacts of Food Waste Compost Application on Paddy Soil
So, Kyu-Ho ; Seong, Ki-Seog ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Hong, Seung-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 85~94
To determine the influence of food waste compost (FWC) application on paddy soil, FWC was applied to the paddy soil and then compared with farmer's practice as to the effects on rice and soil environment. Initially, pig manure compost (PMC) had high content of phosphorus (
) and potassium (
), while FWC had high content of total nitrogen (
) and salinity (
). Comparison was also made between chemical fertilizer and FWC use as a trial in the paddy field under the clay loam and sandy loam soil. In the panicle formation stage, chemical fertilizer application was proper in clay loam while PMC application was proper in sandy loam. However, chemical fertilizer produced higher yield compared to compost treatment, both on clay loam and sandy loam with 20~25% and 17~19%, respectively. The lower yield in sandy loam maybe due to slow mineralization of compost such that the crop did not effectively use it. Organic matter content in paddy soil after experiment was higher in FWC and PMC plots compared to that in chemical fertilizer plots. But the other soil properties were comparable. Therefore, the FWC compost had little effect on soil when it use as a trial in paddy field. Likewise, after the application of FWC as a trial, analysis of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in the surface water and 60 cm depth of paddy soil water nine days after planting was done. Results revealed that concentration of ammonium nitrogen was similar to irrigation water while nitrate nitrogen concentration was not detected, and hence did not contribute to water pollution. It is concluded that the application of FWC in the paddy field had not affected on environmental pollution in the paddy field. But its use as compost during rice culture reduced yield quantity. Such study should include selection of compost material, amount and method of compost application.
Should Acidic and Alkaline Soils be Amended to Neutrality Always?
Hong, Chong-Woon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 95~97
Our understanding on the plant's capability to acquire the nutrients from the soil under harsh circumstance, like unfavorably high pH, and the plant's capability to protect itself under very low soil pH, has been remarkably increased in the recent years. Having those knowledges, it seems not to be wise to abide to the traditional approach to deal the problems of acidic or alkaline soils via chemical methods like liming or using acidic materials. Instead, we may try to select the crops and varieties that can better withstand soil acidity or alkalinity. This stance will be more welcomed when the conservation of environments is high priority issue.
Post Harvest Cropping Impacts on Soil Properties in Continuous Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) Cultivation Plots
Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 98~107
Most of plastic film house plots in Korea have salinity problems caused by salt accumulations associated with continuous cropping including the heavy applications of chemical fertilizers, and high evapotranspiration. The objective of this study was to investigate soil properties and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) productivity in plastic film houses as influenced by the short-term crop rotation in the continuous watermelon-cultivated soils. The short-term rotational crops selected were corn, Chinese cabbage, radish, young radish, lettuce, spinach, and onion. Soil pH increased in most plots where a short-term crop was added to the crop rotation, except where radish was added. The content of soil organic matter significantly decreased in the lettuce-cultivated plot. The available phosphorus content in the soils increased with the cultivations of spinach and onion. Exchangeable Ca and Mg tended to increase in most of plots where a short-term rotational crop was grown, whereas the exchangeable K was clearly reduced by more than 50% in the same plots. Cultivation of rotational crops during the post-harvest season significantly decreased the electrical conductivity (EC) and the concentrations of soluble anions, such as chloride (
), nitrate (
), and sulfate (
) in the soils. In particular, the EC decrease was related with the decrease in soil
ratio. In all plots cultivated with the shot-term rotational crops, the ratios of bacteria to fungi (B/F) increased. However, the improvement in soil properties after adding a rotational crop did not result in a clear improvement in watermelon quantity or quality as measured by fruit weight and sugar content. Therefore, the addition of short-term rotational crops to a continuous watermelon cropping system would be beneficial to improve target soil properties in plastic film house plots studied.