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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Long-term Composting and Fertilization Impact on Dehydrogenase-producing Bacteria and Dehydrogenase Activity in Rice Paddy Soil
Suh, Jang-Sun ; Kim, Su-Jung ; Noh, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, Jang-Sik ; Jung, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 229~233
A long-term rice paddy field, which is located in the National Institute of Crop Science (Suwon city, Korea) has been managed for studying of fertilization and composting impact on paddy soil fertility since 1954. The objective of this research was to evaluate soil quality through dehydrogenase analysis in long-term paddy soil treatment plots, such as control, N fertilization (N), NPK fertilization (NPK), and rice straw compost with NPK (CNPK). Dehydrogenase-producing bacterial population developing red-colored triphenyl formazan (TPF) was highly correlated to the dehydrogenase activity in rice paddy soils sampled prior to waterlog. The dehydrogenase-producing bacterial population and dehydrogenase activity was comparatively high in plots of NPK, and CNPK, which organic matter content was relatively high.
Effects of a Biological Amendment on Chemical and Biological Properties and Microbial Diversity in Soils Receiving Different Organic Amendments
Park, Kee-Choon ; Kremer, Robert J. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 234~241
Biological amendments consisting of suspensions of selected microorganisms are often used in conjunction with various organic materials for amending soils to improve soil quality and plant growth. The effects of the biological amendment on chemical and biological properties of soil were investigated for a biological amendmentalone and when combined with different organic materials includingmunicipal compost (MC), poultry litter (PL), and cover crops (red clover (RC) and spring oats). A liquid preparation of a biological amendment called Effective Microorganisms was sprayed on the tested plots three times over a two-year period. Effective Microorganisms alone did not influence pH, K, or organic matter content in soil. However, increases in P in PL-treated soils in fall of both years andCa in MC-treated soil in fall 2001, and decreases in Ca, Mg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in RC-planted soil were associated with EM. Increased dehydrogenase(DH) activitiesassociated with Effective Microorganismswere only detected in July (P=0.0222) and October (P=0.0834) for RC-planted soils in the first year. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysisappeared to be enhanced by Effective Microorganisms in soils untreated or treated with MC and oatsbut only sporadically during the sampling period. FDA hydrolysis in both PL- and RC-treated soils as well as DH activity in PL-treated soils decreased with Effective Microorganisms treatment. Effective Microorganisms did not influence substrate utilization patterns expressed by the BIOLOG assay. We conclude that Effective Microorganisms effects on soil chemical and biological properties varied depending on the added organic materials. Effective Microorganisms periodically increased soil DH activity and FDA hydrolysis with RC and with MC plus oats, respectively.
Physicochemical Changes of Food Waste Slurry Co-fermented with Pig Manure Slurry
So, Kyu-Ho ; Seong, Ki-Seog ; Hong, Seung-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 242~248
To find a feasibility of utilization of food waste slurry (FWS) generated during composting, FWS was combined with pig manure slurry (PMS) in various ratios and the change of nutrient contents and offensive odor of the combined slurries before and after fermentation were studied. The initial pH was 7.67 for PMS and 8.45 for FWS. However, during the fermentation, pH increased in the combined slurries with the higher FWS rate among the treatments while decreased in thosewith higher PMS rate. EC of each slurry sample showed that the difference among combined slurry samples has been reduced during fermentation and became stabilized in
after 180 days. After 180 days fermentation, total nitrogen (T-N) decreased. T-N of mixture with a half and more FWS decreased up to 0.1%, less than the critical level (0.3%). The contents of O.M., T-N, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium decreased with fermentation while those of potash and salinity increased. From initial fermentation until 30 days, a lot of
, as an offensive odor, was produced. However, it decreased steadily, except in higher PMS rate. In terms of producing
, the top layer took 30 days after fertilization with FWS only, 45 days for utilized treatment with F75 (25 % of PMS), 75 days for utilized with F50 (50%) and F25 (75%) and 90 days for PMS only, respectively.
also had similar trend with
but it was produced continuously as long fermentation proceeded. In terms of
, the decrease in concentration up to
were; 45 days for FWS only(F100), 105 days for F75 utilization, 120 daysfor F50, 165 days for F25, respectively. ethyl mercaptan was produced in PMS until 180 days after fertilization but it was not produced in FWS. Sensory tests as an integrated test of offensive odor were also done. FWS showed lower than 1 after 30 days from initial fermentation, while PMS had still offensive odor even up to 180 days from initial fermentation. It is probably affected by the continuous production of ethyl mercaptan and amines. However, considering in decrease T-N content caused by volatilization while offensive odor intensity according to official standard of fertilizer is lower than 2. Further study on controlling offensive odor needs to be done.
Optimization of the Inoculation Dose of Plant-Growth Promoting Bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Strain CW903 Assessed by Tomato, Red Pepper and Rice under Greenhouse Condition
Madhaiyan, Munusamy ; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj ; Yim, Woo-Jong ; Kim, Kyoung-A ; Kang, Bo-Goo ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 249~254
Inoculation dose of agriculturally important microbes is an important criterion that decides the establishment and hence their effects on plant growth. Effects of the inoculation dose of Azospirillum brasilense strain CW903 on the growth and nutrient absorption of three different crops, tomato, rice and red pepper were assessed under green house condition. Three different concentrations of A. brasilense strain CW903 (
) were applied through seed treatment and through the soil near the root zone (1 mL per plant) at 20 and 30 days after sowing. Positive effects on the growth of tomato, rice and red pepper were found at
inoculation doses of A. brasilense strain CW903. The inoculation dose of
of A. brasilense strain CW903 recorded the best effects on growth parameters like shoot and root length and the absorption of important nutrients.
Stable Macro-aggregate in Wet Sieving and Soil Properties
Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Lee, Hyub-Sung ; Oh, Dong-Shig ; Kim, Lee-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 255~261
Soil aggregates, resulting from physico-chemical and biological interactions, are important to understand carbon dynamics and material transport in soils. The objective of this study is to investigate stable macro-aggregate (> 0.25mm diameter) in wet sieving (SM) and their relation to soil properties in 15 sites. The clay contents of soils were ranged from 1% to 33%, and their land uses included bare and cultivated lands of annual upland crops, orchard, and grass. Undisturbed 3 inch cores with five replicates were sampled at topsoil (i.e., 0- to 10-cm depth), for analyzing SM and physico-chemical properties, after in situ measurement of air permeability. SM of sandy soils, with clay content less than 2%, was observed as 0%. Except the sandy soils, SM of soils mainly depended on land uses, showing 27%~35% in soils with annual plants such as vegetable and corn, 51% in orchard, and 75% in grass. This sequence of SM is probably due to the different strength of soil disturbance like tillage with different land uses. SM had significant correlation with cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, sand, clay, silt, bulk density, and exchangeable potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg), whereas fluctuating properties with fertilization such as pH, EC, and water soluble phosphorus weren't significantly correlated to the SM. Particularly, exchangeable calcium (Ca) had significant relation with SM, only except soils with oversaturating Ca. This study, therefore, suggested that SM could perceive different land uses and the change of soil properties in soils, necessarily considering soil textures and Ca over-saturation.
Morphological Classification of Unit Basin based on Soil & Geo-morphological Characteristics in the yeongsangang Basin
Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Jung, Suk-Jae ; Hur, Seong-Oh ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 262~268
To characterize morphological classification of the basins, four major basin characteristics of the unit basins, including sinuosity, ratio of forest, ratio of flat area, and tributary existence were selected for cluster analysis. The analysis was carried out using soil map, topographic map, water course map, and basin map of the fifty unit basins in the Yeongsangang Basin. The unit basins could be categorized to five basin groups. The fitness by the Mantel test showed good fit of which r was 0.830. These grouping based on comprehensive soil and topographic characteristics provides best management practices, water quality management according to pollutants, increased water related model application and reasonable availability of water management. For agricultural management of water resources and conservation of water quality from agricultural non-point pollutants, therefore, comprehensive systematic classification of soil characteristics on unit basin might be an useful tool.
The Effect of Some Amendments to Reduce Ammonia during Pig Manure Composting
Joo, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Hoon ; Yoo, Jae-Hong ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 269~273
Occurrence of malodor could cause adverse impacts on human health and increase public interest. Therefore, scientific methods to decrease odor is required. Endeavor to decrease odor from compost however has not fully been successful. The purpose of this research is assessment of some amendments to reduce
from immature composts. Calcium hydroxide was applied to composts due to it's characteristics to increase pH. Activated carbon and zerovalent iron (ZVI) were selected because of their adsorption properties. The research results were as follows: Calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, zerovalent iron increased the composting temperature above
. The addition of calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, and ZVI to compastry process increased pH 8.6 - 8.8 from
day. During the 14 days of composting, addition of calcium hydroxide, activated carbon and ZVI changed EC from
, respectively and
. The difference in EC of the compost was due to irregularities of samples. Organic matter in the compost decreased through out theexcept control. The
ratio of all experimental compost increased through the process. The addition of activated carbon, calcium hydroxide and ZVI decreased
from 0.1ppm, 0.7ppm and 1.7ppm more than the control (pig manure and sawdust), 9.3ppm, in 30 days of composting. In conclusion, odor from prematured compost decreased by addition of chemicals like calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, zerovalent iron. Moreover, use of these
reducers alone or together combined at different periods of composting etc. could decrease
The Assessment of Toxicity on organic Sludge Using Acetylcholinesterase, Cytochrome P
, and Hsp70 Extracted from Earthworm (Eisenia fetida)
Na, Young-Eun ; Bang, Hae-Son ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Kim, Min-Kyoung ; Roh, Kee-An ; Lee, Jung-Taek ; Ahn, Young-Joon ; Yoon, Seong-Tak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 274~279
The toxicitiy of organic sludge such as municipal sewage sludge (MSS), industrial sewage sludge (ISS), alcohol fermentation processing sludge (AFPS) and leather processing sludge (LPS) were evaluated with three environmental biomarkers as acetylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450, and heat shock protein 70 extracted from earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Their toxicities were compared with those of pig manure compost (PMC). MSS, ISS, LPS, and AFPS did not significantly affect the acetylcolinesterase activity, whereas only the elutriate of PMC slightly was increased the activity. MSS, AFPS, and PMC tended to slightly inhibit the cytochrome
activity, but ISS and LPS showed significantly the inhibitory effect on cytochrome
. The hsp70 expression began to increase after treatments and showed high induction at 6 hour, followed by zero level at around 12 hour. The quantity of the hsp70 expressed by elutriate treatments of PMC, AFPS, MSS, ISS, and LPS was 1.9, 3.0, 3.3, 4.4, and 4.7 fold higher than that of distilled water. These results indicate that in toxicity tests of five organic waste materials, four kinds of sludge materials appeared more toxic than PMC. Results of AChE, P450, and hsp70 of earthworm might be useful for expecting or assessing an effect by exposure of organic wastes to earthworms in soil.
Hyperaccumulation mechanism in plants and the effects of roots on rhizosphere soil chemistry - A critical review
Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Owens, Gary ; Naidu, Ravi ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 280~291
Much research has been conducted in the field of phytoremediation since the discovery of the range of plants known as hyperaccumulators. Research has focused simultaneously on elucidating the mechanism of metal(loid) accumulation and development of practical techniques to enhance accumulation efficiency. To date, it is generally understood that there are five specific mechanisms employed by hyperaccumulating plant species that are either not or under utilized by non-hyperaccumulators. These include 1) enhanced metal(loid)s uptake through the root cell, 2) enhanced translocation in plant tissue, 3) detoxification and sequestration, 4) enhanced metal availability in soil:root interface, and 5) active root foraging toward metal(loid) enriched soils. Among these mechanisms, understanding of the plant-root effect on metal(loid) dynamics and subsequent plant uptake is vital to overcome the inherit limitation of phytoremediation caused by low metal(loid) solubility in soils. Plant roots can influence the soil chemistry in the rhizosphere through changes in pH and exudation of organic compounds such as low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) which consequently change metal(loid) solubility. The decrease in soil pH by plant release of
results in increased metal solubility. Elevated levels of organic compounds in response to high metal soil concentrations by plant exudation may also increases metal concentration in soil solution through formation of organometallic complexes.
Long-term Impact of Single Rice Cropping System on SOC Dynamics
Jung, Won-Kyo ; Kim, Sun-Kwan ; Yeon, Byung-Yul ; Noh, Jae-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 292~297
Global warming and climate changes have been major issues for decades andvarious researches have reported their impact on our environment. According to recent researches, increased carbon dioxide (
) concentration in the atmosphere is considered as a dominant contributor to global climate changes and thus numerous researches were conducted to control
concentration in the atmosphere. Soil management practices, such as reducing tillage intensity, returning plant residues, and enhancing cropping system have recommended for restoring organic carbon into the soils effectively. However, few studies on soil carbon sequestration have reported for Korean paddy soils. Therefore, evaluation of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in the long-term single rice cropping system is essential in order to find out potential capacity of paddy field as a carbon sink source. The objective of this research was to evaluate SOC dynamics on the long-term single rice cropping system. Research was conducted in the research farm at National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon. Long-term phosphorus and potassium fertilization and lime application didn't significantly affect on SOC compared to controls. We found that SOC contents were increased continually at the long-term composting plots with enhanced rate of carbon storage. In conclusion, continuous incorporation of plant residues (i.e., composting) is recommended to effectively sequester soil carbon for Korean paddy soils. This result implies that continuous composting in a paddy field may contributenot only for increasing SOC in the soils but also for mitigating global warming through reducing carbon dioxide emission into atmosphere. Therefore, we recommend that a strategy or policy measures to encourage farmers to return plant residues continuously for mitigation of global warming as well as soil fertility is being developed.
Relationship between Extraction Methods of Copper in Soil and the Bioaccumulated Copper in Earthworm
Choi, Youn-Seok ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 298~310
This study compared the correlation between the accumulated copper content in earthworms and the copper concentration rate of soil measured using several methods to extract heavy metals from soil. For the experiment, a microcosm soil test was carried out using copper contaminated soil from the vicinity of copper-roofed buildings and earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Soils from the study area were used to produce 6 treatments; control, 1C (contamination level with the lowest treated copper concentration rate), 2C, 4C, 8C, and 16C (contamination level with the highest treated copper concentration rate). Microcosm soil test using the 6 treatments proved that as the copper content in soil and the experiment time increased, the growth rate of and the accumulated copper concentration rate in earthworms increased as well. The degree of the increase corresponded to the order of the treated copper concentration levels in microcosm soils. Standard method of the ministry of environment and EPA method 3051 were used to obtain the copper concentration in soil and the total copper content in soil, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9875~0.9993 between the copper content extracted by the standard method and the total copper content shows high positive correlation. The correlation coefficient of the copper content in soil extracted by the standard method and the accumulated copper content in earthworms, and the correlation coefficient of the total copper content in soil and the accumulated copper content in earthworms were ranged from 0.9193 to 0.9728 and from 0.9282 to 0.9844, respectively, showing highly significant positive correlation. Due to the high correlation between the copper concentration in soil and the accumulated copper content in earthworms, it is concluded that earthworms are suitable to be used as biological indicator species or for bio-monitoring against copper contamination of soil.
Assessment Techniques of Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Soil - A critical Review
Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Owens, Gary ; Naidu, Ravi ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 311~325
The concept of metal bioavailability, rather than total metal in soils, is increasingly becoming important for a thorough understanding of risk assessment and remediation. This is because bioavailable metals generally represented by the labile or soluble metal components existing as either free ions or soluble complexed ions are likely to be accessible to receptor organismsrather than heavy metals tightly bound on soil surface. Consequently, many researchers have investigated the bioavailability of metals in both soil and solution phases together with the key soil properties influencing bioavailability. In order to study bioavailability changes various techniques have been developed including chemical based extraction (weak salt solution extraction, chelate extraction, etc.) and speciation of metals using devices such as ion selective electrode (ISE) and diffusive gradient in the thin film (DGT). Changes in soil metal bioavailability typically occur through adsorption/desorption reactions of metal ions exchanged between soil solution and soil binding sites in response to changes in environment factors such as soil pH, organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), low-molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), and index cations. Increasesin soil pH result in decreases in metal bioavailability through adsorption of metal ions on deprotonated binding sites. Organic matter may also decrease metal bioavailability by providing more negatively charged binding sites, and metal bioavailability can also be decreases as concentrations of DOC and LMWOAs increase as these both form strong chelate complexeswith metal ions in soil solution. The interaction of metal ions with these soil properties also varies depending on the soil and metal type.
Paddy Soil Tillage Impacts on SOC Fractions
Jung, Won-Kyo ; Han, Hee-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 326~329
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been considered to improve our understanding of soil productivity, soil carbon dynamics, and soil quality. And also SOC could contribute as a major soil management factor for prescribing fertilizers and controlling of soil erosion and runoff. Reducing tillage intensity has been recommended to sequester SOC into soil. On the other hand, determination of traditional SOC could barely identify the tillage practices effect. Physical soil fractionation has been reported to improve interpretation of soil tillage practices impact on SOC dynamics. However, most of these researches were focused onupland soils and few researches were conducted on paddy soils. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate paddy soil tillage impact on SOC by physical soil fractionation. Soils were sampled in conventional-tillage (CT), partial-tillage (PT), no-tillage (NT), and shallow-tillage (ST)plots at the National Institute of Crop Science research farm. Samples were obtained at the three sampling depth with 7.5-cm increment from the surface and were sieved with 0.25- and 0.053-mm screen. Soil organic carbon was determined by wet combustion method. Significant difference of SOC contentwas found among sampling soil depth and soil particle size. SOC content tended to increase at the ST plot with increasing size of soil particle fraction. We conclude that quantifying soil organic carbon by physical soil particle fractionation could improve understanding of SOC dynamics by soil tillage practices.
Soil Problems and Agricultural Water Management of the Reclaimed Land in Korea
Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Yoo, Chul-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 330~348
Soil problems and agricultural water management of the reclaimed land in Korea were reviewed through research results conducted in RDA and ADC. According to the Korean Soil Classification and Soil Survey(NIAST, 2002), the 5 soil orders with the 45 soil series were distributed on the fluvio-marine or marine deposit of the west and south coastal plains. Yeompo, Munpo, Hasa, Gwangwhal, and Poseung soil series were most commonly distributed soil on the fluvio-marine deposits, associated with tideland of the sea coast. Former 4 soils were Entisols, and the latest one was the Inceptisols. Buyong soil associated with Poseung series was an Alfisols. Extent of Myeongji soil, a Molisols, and Yongho soil, a Histosol, were minor. Salinity control and management problems were closely related with high water table and low percolation rate due to plow-pan layer developed during the leaching process in the silty textured soil. For evaluation of field salinity, use of an electromagnetic inductance, EM38, with GPS was helpful to understand salinity status and field variability. Deep plowing, subsoiling and drainage improvement by tile drainage might be effective in paddy with plow-pan. New technology such as variable rate fertilization might save fertilizers and thus reduce environmental impact of agriculture on water quality. Water quality of agricultural water resources in reclaimed land was less adequate than that of inland water resources. Proper crop management is necessary depended upon quality for crop growth as well as to match with water quality target.