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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Effects of Vegetative Buffers on Reducing Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss of Highland Field in Korea
Jin, Yong-Ik ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Park, Chang-Young ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Jeong, Jin-Cheol ; Chung, Ill-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 231~238
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vegetative buffer to reduce runoff and soil and nutrient loss at highland agricultural area. The soil of experimental field was classified as Ungyo series (Fine, Humic Hapludults). An area of each field with lysimeter was
and was a gradient of 17%. Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) was cultivated by general management in each field. For establishing vegetative buffer, rye (Secalecereale L.), tall fescue (Festucaarundinacea Schreb) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were planted at the edge of field. Rye buffers were 1m, 2m and 4m wide. Both orchard grass and tall fescue buffers were 2m wide. Vegetative buffers were set up in September 2005 and chinese cabbage was planted in June 2006. Soil loss, runoff and nutrient loss were measured from June to August in 2006. Since the precipitation amount was heavy in July, amounts of runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss were the highest in July during this study period. In comparison with control, vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m reduced runoff by 3%, 1% and 2%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, rye 1m, rye 2m, and rye 4m reduced by 1%, 4% and 13%, respectively. Vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m showed the reducing of soil loss by 59%, 46% and 28%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, the highest reducing effect of 88% was observed in 4m treatment. Additionally, vegetative buffer reduced N, P and K losses in runoff and eroded soil which were 10 to 54%, 7 to 24% and 11 to 21%, respectively. In different widths, wider vegetative buffer showed lower loss of N, P and K in runoff and eroded soil. As a result of this study, the vegetative buffer of rye was most effective for reducing runoff and soil loss in comparisons with other plants. In addition, wider range of buffers recommended for reducing runoff and soil loss, if possible.
Influence of the Starting Materials and Sintering Conditions on Composition of a Macroporous Adsorbent as Permeable Reactive Barrier
Chung, Doug-Young ; Lee, Bong-Han ; Jung, Jae-H. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 239~248
In this investigation, we observed surface morphology and porosity of a macroporous adsorbent made of Na-bentonite and Ca-bentonite as structure formation materials and grounded waste paper as macropore forming material for the development of a permeable reactive barrier to remove heavy metals in groundwater. Therefore, we selected minerals having higher cation exchange capacity among 2:1 clay minerals and other industrial minerals because sintering can significantly influence cation exchange capacity, resulting in drastic decrease in removal of heavy metals. The results showed that the increasing sintering temperature drastically decreased CEC by less than 10 % of the indigenous CEC carried by the selected minerals. One axial compressibility test results showed that the highest value was obtained from 5% newspaper waste pulp for both structure formation materials of Na-bentonite and Ca-bentonite although there were not much difference in bulk density among treatments. The pore formation influenced by sintering temperature and period contributes removal of heavy metals passing through the sintered macroporous media having different water retention capacity.
Effects of Natural Wetland in Reducing Nutrient Loadings from Rice Culture - Free-Range Ducks (RCFD) Paddy fields in Korea
Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Jung, Ki-Youl ; Choi, Young-Dae ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Nam, Min-hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 249~256
The amount of nutrients from the effluents of rice culture - free-range ducks (RCFD) paddy fields and the effects of natural wetlands located at downstream of RCFD on water quality and aquatic plants was evaluated. This was carried out in a 61.9 ha paddy fields in Ulsan, Gyeongnam, where downstream is a 5.9 ha natural wetland, 61% of which was covered with well-developed aquatic plants. The amounts of T-N and T-P in the effluent from paddy field with RCFD were 13.7 and
, respectively, which is 1.2~2.5 times higher than those observed in conventional rice culture practice. The amount of runoff from the RCFD area, calculated using the revised TANK model, was
with 808 kg of T-N and 130 kg of T-P during rice cultivation period. The dominant aquatic plants in the wetland includes Phragmites communis, Zizania latifolia, Persicaria thunbergii. etc. The nutrient contents of the aquatic plants which amounted to 761 kg of T-N and 103 kg of T-P were almost equivalent to 94% and 79% of the T-N and T-P in RCFD and CRC effluent. Therefore, the use and maintenance of wetlands in RCFDs area could be a good solution to management the non-point pollution from duck feces in RCFD paddy fields.
Impact of Amendments on Microbial Biomass, Enzyme Activity and Bacterial Diversity of Soils in Long-term Rice Field Experiment
Suh, J.S. ; Noh, H.J. ; Kwon, J.S. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 257~265
The long-term effects of soil management history on microbial communities are still poorly understood. Our objectives were to determine the impact of long-term application of soil amendments on microbial communities in rice paddy fields. The treatments selected were control where crops were grown without any nutrient application (CON); nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK); NPK plus compost (CNPK); NPK plus lime (LNPK); and NPK plus silicate (WNPK). The long-term addition of organic and inorganic amendments significantly changed soil chemical properties. The amount of organic carbon increased in the treatments with fertilizer and amendments over that in the soil without inputs. However, we could not observe the differences of bacterial population among the treatments, but the number of aerobic bacteria increased by the addition of amendments. Isolates from the rice paddy soils before irrigation were Dactylosporangium, Ewingella, Geobacillus, Kocuria, Kurthia, Kytococcus, Lechevalieria, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Paenibacillus, Pedobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, Rothia, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Variovorax. Dominant genera were Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Kurthia, and Bacillus in the long-term field. Microbial biomass was the highest in the compost treatment (CNPK), and was the lowest in the CON. Dehydrogenase activity in soils treated with rice compost straw was the highest and the activity showed an increasing trend according to treatment as follows: CON < WNPK < NPK = LNPK < CNPK. These results demonstrate that soil management practice, such as optimal application of fertilizer and amendment, that result in accumulations of organic carbon may increase microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity in long-term rice paddy soils.
Inoculation Effect of Methylobacterium suomiense on Growth of Red Pepper under Different Levels of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers
Lee, Min-Kyoung ; Lee, Gil-Seung ; Yim, Woo-Jong ; Hong, In-Soo ; Palaniappan, Pitchai ; Siddikee, Md. Ashaduzzaman ; Boruah, Hari P. Deka ; Madhaiyan, Munusamy ; Ahn, Ki-Sup ; Sa, Tongmin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 266~273
Use of plant growth promoting symbiotic and non-symbiotic free-living beneficial bacteria as external source of nitrogen is a major research concern for sustainable crop production in the
century. In view of this, an experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to determine the effects of inoculation with Methylobacterium suomiense CBMB120, a plant growth promoting (PGP) root and shoot colonizer on red pepper, for the purpose of reducing external chemical nitrogen fertilization. Amendments with organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer in the form of NPK were made at dosages of 50%, 75% and 100%, at 425 and
measurements. The soil type used was loam, with a pH of 5.13. The growth responses were measured as plant height at 19, 36 and 166 days after transplantation and final biomass production after 166 days. It was found that inoculation with M. suomiense CBMB120 promotes plant height increase during the active growth phase at 19 and 36 days by 14.17% and 10.03%, respectively. Thereafter, the bacteria inoculated plantlets showed canopy size increment. A highly significant inoculation effect on plant height at p<0.01 level was found for 100% level of organic matter and chemical amendment in red pepper plantlets after 36 days and 19 days from transplantation. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher (10.30% and 6.84%) dry biomass accumulation in M. suomiense CBMB120 inoculated plants compared to un-inoculated ones. A 25% reduction in the application of chemical nitrogen can be inferred with inoculation of M. suomiense CBMB120 at with comparable results to that of 100% chemical fertilization alone. Enumeration of total bacteria in rhizosphere soil confirms that the introduced bacteria can multiply along ther hizosphere soil. Large scale field study may lead to the development of M. suomiense CBMB120 as an efficient biofertilizer.
Relationship Between Color Characteristic and Reflectance Index by Ground-based Remote Sensor for Tobacco Leaves
Hong, Soon-Dal ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Jeon, Sang-Ho ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 274~279
To determine the critical level for optimum maturity of flue-cured tobacco leaves (KF118) at the stalk position from cutter to tips, the reflectance index using ground-based remote sensors and chlorophyll meter were investigated. The sensors estimated were Crop
(Holland Scientific), Green
(Ntech Industries), Spectroradiometer (LICOR, LI-1800), Chlorophyll meter (SPAD502, Minolta), and Field
Chlorophyll meter (CM-1000, Spectrum). The L, a, b values and greenness for flue-cured leaf were measured and estimated for correlation with sensor's measurement of harvested leaf. On a reflectance curve of 340nm~1100 nm, the reflectance peaks on 550nm and 675 nm for the harvested leaf were lowered as change from light green to darker green. Darker green leaf harvested produced darker flue-cured leaf. The reflectance at 675 nm for flue-cured leaf decreased as greenness increased in the harvested leaf. This result means that the red edge band of 675 nm wavelength is related to the absorbance of chlorophyll for photosynthesis. The greenness of flue-cured leaf showed significantly positive correlation with the entire reflectance indexes for harvested leaf while the L value by colorimeter showed negative correlation with greenness of cured leaf. The critical level for optimum maturity of harvested leaf were less than 22, 135, and 0.43 for SPAD reading, CM-1000 reading, and gNDVI by Crop
, respectively. Consequently, ground-based remote sensing providing a non-destructive real-time assessment of plant greenness could be a useful tool in the selection of optimum maturity of flue-cured tobacco leaves in relation to high quality of flue-cured tobacco.
Soil Salinity Influencing Plant Stands on the Reclaimed Tidal Flats of Kyonggi-Bay in the Midwestern Coast of Korea
Kim, Eun-Kyu ; Chun, Soul ; Joo, Young-K. ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 280~288
To identify controlling factors for spatial variation of vegetation in reclaimed tidal flats, plant stands were investigated in a newly reclaimed as well as three matured tidal flats, and a natural tidal flat in the midwest coast of Korea. Electrical conductivity of saturated soil extract (ECe) was measured to assess soil salinity. Soil salinity differed significantly among plant stands. Depending on soil salinity, plant species showed different niches: glycophyte predominated low saline spots, halophyte predominated high saline spots. Soil salinity for each plant habitats was in order of as follow: bare soil or plant wilted > mixed pioneer halophyte > pioneer halophyte > mixed with pioneer halophyte and facultative halophyte > mixed facultative halophyte > facultative halophyte > mixed with facultative halophyte and glycophyte > glycophyte > mixed glycophyte stands. These results suggested that plant distribution might have been influenced by spatial edaphic gradient (soil salinity), and thus it could be utilized as an indicator for field soil salinity gradient. Relationship between soil salinity and plant distribution was not different among the aged reclaimed tidal flats, suggesting that the vegetative population might have changed into a similar direction since the reclamation.
Changes in Flora Dynamics on the Reclaimed Tidal Flats of Kyonggi-Bay in the Mid-west Coast of Korea
Kim, Eun-Kyu ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Chun, Soul ; Joo, Young-K. ; Jeong, Hyeung-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 289~300
Flora distribution was surveyed in the newly reclaimed tidal flats in the west coastal area in Korea to understand changes in flora dynamics after reclamation. The surveyed reclaimed tidal flats were the newly reclaimed tidal flat in Hangdam, the mid Kyonggi Bay in 2002, and three reclaimed lands in Seukmun and Daeho, Chungnam, and Hangdam in Kyonggi Bay, of which reclamation years based on embankment were 7, 9 and 18 years, respectively. In the newly reclaimed tidal flat, the dominant flora was Suaeda japonica and other florae were rare, while various halophytes and glycophytes were distributed in the reclaimed lands. On the newly reclaimed tidal flat, four species of halophytic pioneer florae, Salicornia europaea, Suaeda glauca, Suaeda japonica, and Suaeda maritime occurred, and along with age facultative halophyte and glycophyte occurred sequently. On the reclaimed lands, the florae were more complex with various facultative halophyte and glycophyte, so these were predominated rather than pioneer halophyte, while one of pioneer halophyte that Suaeda japonica was not occurred. Increasing of various facultative halophyte and glycophyte, and decreasing of pioneer halophyte indicated that flora changed toward to increase of facultative halophyte and glycophyte by aged after reclamation. On the newly reclaimed tidal flat the ratio of flora species changed rapidly with the invasion of plant. This implied that the flora had begun to change in the early stage of reclamation. Facultative halophyte and glycophyte started to increase on the early stage of reclamation but relative density and frequency of pioneer halophyte was higher than facultative halophyte and glycophyte. According to the investigation up to 3 years after reclamation, pioneer halophyte predominated on it. Although flora changed, there were common representative halophytes among the reclaimed tidal flats: Salicornia europaea, Suaeda maritima, and Suaeda glauca as pioneer halophyte, Aster tripolium, Sonchus brachyotus, and Phragmites communis as facultative halophytes.
Changes in the Nitrate Assimilation and Ascorbic Acid Content of Spinach Plants Treatmented with Nutrient Solutions Containing High Nitrogen and Low Potassium
Park, Yang-Ho ; Seo, Beom-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 301~306
This study was conducted to determine the physiological differences betweenhealthy and wilted plants with respect to nitrate assimilation and ascorbic acid content. Wilting was artificially induced in spinach plants by treating the seeds with nutrient solution containing high nitrogen and low potassium. The plants were cultured in different plots 4 types of media: 1N-1P-1K (control), 6N-1P-0K (0K), 6N-1P-0.5K (0.5K), and 6N-1P-2K (2K). The rate of wilting among the plants was as follows: control, 0%; 2K, 10%; 0.5K, 40%; and 0K, 70%. This shows that under high nitrogen conditions, the lower the amount of potassium provided, higher was the rate of wilting. There were no differences in plant growth among the plants treated with different levels of potassium under high nitrogen conditions.The nitrate content in both the leaves and the roots was higher in plants grown under high nitrogen media than those in the control. Furthermore, the nitrate level decreased with increasing potassium concentration. The ascorbic acid content of spinach under high nitrogen conditions was lower than those of the control.
Seasonal Dynamics of Enzymetic Activities and Functional Diversity in Soils under Different Organic Managements
Park, Kee-Choon ; Kremer, Robert J. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 307~316
Soil microbial activity and diversity are affected by organic sources applied to improve soil quality and fluctuate seasonally. We investigated the effects of municipal compost (MC), poultry litter (PL), and cover crops of spring oats and red clover (RC) on soil enzyme activities, and soil bacterial community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) in a Mexico silt loam in North Central Missouri, USA. Temporal patterns of these parameters were observed by periodic five soil sampling from spring to fall over a two year period. MC increased soil dehydrogenase (DH) activity consistently beginning about three months after MC application; fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity significantly began to increase by the September of the first year but fluctuated during the following period. DH activity responded more directly to the amount or properties of organic residues in soils while FDA hydrolysis and CLPP were generally influenced by composition of organic sources, and enzyme activities and CLPP showed seasonal variation, which depended on organic sources and soil moisture. MC and cover crops may be useful organic sources for enhancing general soil microbial activity and altering soil microbial diversity, respectively. Because microbial activities and diversity are dynamic and subject to seasonal changes, the effects of organic amendments on these parameters should be investigated frequently during a growing season.
Effect of Methylotrophic Bacteria in Seedling Development of Some Crops under Gnotobiotic Condition
Hong, In-Soo ; Kim, Jun-Seok ; Lee, Min-Kyoung ; Yim, Woo-Jong ; Islam, Md. Rashedul ; Boruah, Hari P. Deka ; Chauhan, Puneet Singh ; Han, Gwang-Hyun ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 42, issue 4, 2009, Pages 317~322
Healthy seedling generation is the major concern in overcoming adverse effects of biotic and abiotic stresses during tender stage of development in vegetables and horticultural crops. Because of this, priority is given to research leading to the generation of healthy seedlings in crops subjected to transplanting and bedding. In this study, growth pouch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of inoculation of six different strains of Methylobacterium sp. namely, M. oryzae CBMB20, M. phyllosphaerae CBMB27, M. suomiense CBMB120, and Methylobacterium strains CBMB12, CBMB15 and CBMB17 on the seedling development of the vegetable crops cabbage, Chinese cabbage and cucumber; and horticultural crops tomato and red pepper. Crops treated with the test strains generally showed higher seedling dry matter accumulation compared to the control. Significantly higher accumulation was exhibited by CBMB12, CBMB17, and CBMB20 in cabbage, as well as for CBMB27 and CBMB120 on tomato and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Furthermore, all the strains promoted root elongation in cucumber and tomato seedlings while in Chinese cabbage and red pepper, root elongation was observed with CBMB120 and CBMB12 inoculation, respectively. Large scale nursery study is needed to develop a thorough protocol for healthy seedling development with the use of these strains.