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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Water Transport Characteristics of Paddy Plow Pan Soils as Estimated by Particle Size Distribution Fractal Dimension
Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Ha, Sang-Geun ; Cho, Hee-Rae ; Jeon, Sang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~7
This study was carried out to investigate plow pan characteristics and to grasp the relationship between its particle size distribution fractal dimension (
) and water transport in paddy plow pan. Twenty four soil sampling sites with different management groups, ordinary and sandy-textured, were selected and investigated for physical properties of soils such as Yamanaka hardness in April, non-submerged condition, before rice seedling transplanting. The plow pan appearing depth and thickness was determined by penetration resistance profile. Undisturbed core samples with five replicates were sampled at plow pan layerwith 2 inch cores for measuring soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The particle size distribution fractal dimension (
) was calculated by the method following the procedure Tylerand Wheacraft (1992), using the USDA-based particle size analysis datawith fractions of 0-0.002, 0.002-0.053, 0.053-0.1, 0.1-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, and 1.0-2.0 mm. The plow pan of investigated fields appeared at a range from 5 to 30 cm depth, showing minimum value in sandy-textured management group and maximum value in ordinary management group. The thickness of plow pan were distributed from 5 to 17 cm, showing both minimum and maximum values in sandy-textured management group. Averagely, the plow appearing depth were deeper in ordinary management group than in sandy-textured management group, whereas the reverse in the thickness of plow pan. The particle size distribution fractal dimension (
) had higher value with finer textures, with higher fractality in coarser texture. Saturated hydraulic conductivities,
, of plow pan soils distributed from 0.5 to 1420 mm
, having the highest value in sandy skeletal soils. The
decreased with decreasing clay content and
, showing power function relationships. The coefficient of determination,
, of the fitted power functions were higher in
as x-axis than in clay content. This means that
could give us more effective estimation than clay content. Especially, sandy-textured paddy soils had higher
, compared to ordinary paddy soils.
of relatively coarse-textured soils with less than 18%of clay content, therefore, was more dependent on particle size distribution than that of relatively fine-textured soils. From these results, it could be concluded that the fractal scaling gives us a unique quantity describing particle size distribution and then can be applied to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity, especially more effective in coarse-textured soils.
Effect of Soil Salinity and Soil-wetting by Summer-Rising of Water Table on the Growth of Fruit Trees Transplanted at the Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land in Korea
Sohn, Yong-Man ; Jeon, Geon-Yeong ; Song, Jae-Do ; Lee, Jae-Hwang ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ; Park, Moo-Eon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 8~15
The effect of soil salinity and soil-wetting by rise of water table on the growth of fruit trees was studied to obtain information for orchard establishment in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. Survival ratio of trees was 85%for grape, 31%for fig, 15%for apple and pear, and near zero for peach and blueberry. Wet injury induced by water-logged or flooded condition, rather than salt injury(soil EC was lower than 3.0dS
during growing period) is thought to be more responsible for low survival ratio of fruit trees transplanted in Saemangeum area. During the summer raining season in the reclaimed areas, the soil salinity tends to be decreased by natural rainfall effect, and the rainfall acceptable capacity(RAC) of soils dramatically is reduced(10-24 mm) as rainfall is continued to occur. In spite of high hydraulic conductivity(121 cm
) of soils across the area, low RAC of soils might be due to high soil saturation and elevated water table during summer raining season. Therefore, the installation of effective drainage system should be the primary factor determining successful establishment of orchard in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land.
Effect of Flooding Treatment on the Desalting Efficiency and the Growth of Soiling and Forage Crops in a Sandy Soil of the Iweon Reclaimed Tidal Land in Korea
Sohn, Yong-Man ; Kim, Hyun-Tea ; Jeon, Geon-Yeong ; Song, Jae-Do ; Lee, Jae-Hwang ; Park, Moo-Eon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 16~24
Effect of flooding on the desalting efficiency and the growth of sudan grass, barnyard grass, sesbania and corn was studied in a sandy soil of the Iweon reclaimed tidal land. Flooding plots were treated by 400 (one time flooding), 800 (two times flooding), and 1,200 mm(three times flooding) of water, respectively, and then soil salinities of the treated plots were compared with salinity of the control plot (not flooded) for estimation of desalting effect. Desalting ratio of 1,200 mm treatment was 78.3% for depth 0-20 cm, 70.5% for depth 20-40 cm and 60.8% for depth 40-60 cm, and then the soil salinity reached at 3~6 dS
. Consequently, it was considered that sandy saline soil was satisfactorily desalted for upland crops to be cultivated by 1,200 mm flooding, but insufficiently desalted by 400 mm and 800 mm flooding because of high salinity ranged 5~14 dS
even after flooding treatment. In addition, it was estimated that soil salinity should be controled lower than 7.7 dS
in order to obtain more than 80%of crop emergence when four crops are simultaneously cultivated by inter- or mixed cropping in a field. Dry matter yields (kg
) was 1,068 for sudan grass, 696for barnyard grass, 1,426 for sesbania, and 1,164 for corn by 1,200 mm flooding treatment, but only 46.8~74.3% by 800 mm flooding treatment and 2.9~25.5% by 400 mm flooding treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that the flooding treatment more than 1,200 mm is necessary for satisfactory desalinization in order for the low salt tolerance crops to be cultivated in the sandy reclaimed tidal land.
Effects of Rainfall Events on Soil in Orchard Field under Herbicide Treatment. 1. Temporal Characteristics in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties
Chung, Doug-Young ; Kim, Pil-Joo ; Park, Mi-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 25~35
The periodic application effects of two different herbicides on soil physical properties were observed in a slightly hilly orchard of pear tree located on the southestern flank of the Palbong Mountain in Gongju Chungnam : (1) bare surface vegetation; (2) glyphosate-treated plot; (3) paraquat-treated plot. The slope of experimental plots ranged from 5.5%to 10.2%at an altitude of 125 mand 896
) in area. The total respective rainfall events were 47, 52, 52 times during experimental period from 2006 to 2008, while approximately 65 percent of daily rainfall intensity from2006 to 2008 was less than 20 mm a day. The organic matter contents on the surface 15 cm soil ranging from1.23%to 1.84%in 2006 were changed into from1.35 %to 2.28%in 2008 in the order of control > glyphosate > paraquat > bare plot in 2008, indicating that the herbicide treatment influenced the accumulation organic matter in soil. The changes in soil particle contents showed that the loss of soil particles in top 5 cm soil depth was greater in a bare soil than in other treatments such as control, glyphosate, and paraquat-treated plot. The net changes in the bulk densities showed that there were little variations between May of 2006 and Nov. of 2008 even though there were some losses of the soil particles. The soil strength of the glyphosate-treated bare plots was much greater than those of other plots such as control, glyphosate, and paraquat plots. However the soil strengths in control plots were lower than those in the plots of glyphosate and paraquat treated ones.
Effects of Rainfall Events on Soil in Orchard Field under Herbicide Treatment. 2. Characteristics of Runoff and Soil Erosion
Chung, Doug-Young ; Park, Mi-Suk ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 36~43
Changes in runoff and soil erosion at slightly hilly erosive plots with pear trees over a three-year period were monitored under two distinct types of weed treatment by herbides : (1) pre-emergence herbicide with glyphosate; (2) post-emergence herbicide with paraquat. The numbers of rainfall events from June to Nov for three years of experimental periods were approximately 50 times in the plots having 5.5%to 10.2%slope at an altitude of 125 m. The steady-state infiltration rate was generally increased in the bare plot from which all weeds were removed while it was decreased in the herbicide treated plots and control. The runoffs from the control plot during the experimental periods were always less than those from plots of the herbicide-treated and the bare. The runoff under the same rainfall intensity was decreased in the order of bare, glyphosate, paraquat, and control. This results indicated that the removal time of weed by the different types of herbicides might influenced the runoff rate. For the first two years of the experimental periods, loss of fine fraction was much greater than that of coarse fraction while soil loss was correlated neither with total rainfall nor amount of runoff. The soil erosion rate under the same rainfall intensity was increased in the order of control, glyphosate, paraquat, and bare plot. However, there were not much differences in the soil loss for all plots under a relatively lower rainfall intensity less than 30 mm
, resulting in rainfall intensity was important factor on soil erosion.
Evaluation of physio-chemical properties and stability of some commercial horticultural substrates by the European Standard Methods
Kim, Hyuck-Soo ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 44~50
This study was carried out to analyze physico-chemical properties and to determine stability of the 19 commercially available horticultural substrates in Korea by European standard methods (EN methods). The average pH, EC, T-N,
were 5.44, 0.62
, 0.98% and 10.54
, respectively. Dry bulk density and particle density were in the range of 124.47~243.16
, respectively. Seventeen out of 19 horticultural substrates used in this study were 'very stable'. The other2 substrates were classified as 'stable'. Korea's own criteria of stability for the organic materials such as growing substrates and compost need to be developed so that farmers can use the optimum organic materials without anxiety.
Arsenic Movement in the Soils around a Closed Zinc Mine
Seo, Young-Jin ; Choi, Jyung ; Kang, Yun-Ju ; Park, Man ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ; Lee, Young-Han ; Komarneni, Sridhar ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 51~59
The sediments and soils around a mine are likely to be exposed to contamination of arsenic (As) through mining operations. In this study, the factors associated with As movement in soils around a closed zinc (Zn) mine were evaluated by the relationship of As distributions to physico-chemical properties of soils. A sequential extraction scheme, based on a soil P fractionation, was used to assess the As distributionsin solid phases. A significant difference in As distributions was found between paddy and upland soils. While As contents of paddy soils increased with soil depth, those of upland soils decreased with soil depth. In upland soils, As showed additional significant relationships to oxides of Si, Al and Fe. Although a major fraction of As in soils was found to be in the NaOH extractable fraction, As exhibited highly significant relationship to the Zn species that apparently originated from the mine. Therefore, As mobility around Zn mine seems to be governed by mass flow of the particulates containing As-associated Zn in paddy soils, whereas retention reactions such as adsorption, complexation, and precipitation seem to predominate in upland soils.
Leaching of Chromium, Copper and Arsenic in Soils and Rapid Identification of CCA-Treated Woods Using Modified PAN Stain
Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. ; Awad, Yasser M. ; El-Azeem, Samy A.M. Abd ; Kim, Min-Su ; Ham, Kwang-Joon ; Lim, Kyoung-Jae ; Yang, Jae-E ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 60~67
Although several studies have reported that Cr, Cu and As can leach from CCA-treated woods, few studies have been conducted on this topic in Korea. Therefore, this study was conducted to monitor Cr, Cu and As leaching from CCA-treated wood products and to develop a rapid identification method for CCA-treated wood products by using indicators such as PAN stain. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-70 cm and wood samples were collected by thickness of wood layer. The soil and wood samples were then digested and analyzed for Cr, Cu and As concentrations using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The As and Cu concentrations decreased sharply with depth from 34.38 and 33.65 mg
at 0-1 cm to 1.72 and 7.84 mg
at 70 cm, respectively. In general, As was more mobile than Cr and Cu in the soil. For wood samples, the Cr, Cu and As concentrations were higher in the outer layer (0-0.5cm) than the inner layers (0.6-4.5cm). Evaluation of rapid identification methods revealed that 100% acetone with 0.1% PAN indicator was the best combination for detection of CCA-treated wood in the field.
Effect of Nitrate in Irrigation Water on Iron Reduction and Phosphate Release in Anoxic Paddy Soil Condition
Kim, Byoung-Ho ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 68~74
is amore favorable electron acceptor than Fe, high
loads function as a redox buffer limiting the reduction of Fe and following release of
in flooded paddy soil. The effect
loaded through irrigation water on Fe reduction and
release in paddy soil was investigated. Pot experiment was conducted where irrigation water containing 5 or 10 mg N
was continuously applied at 1 cm
, and changes of
concentrations in soil solution at 5 and 10 cm depths beneath the soil surface were monitored as a function of time. Irrigation of rice paddy with water containing 5 mg N
led to reduced release of
and prevented solubilization of P at 5 cm depth beneath the soil surface. And application of irrigation water containing 10 mg N
could further suppress Fe reduction and solubilization of P through 10 cm depth soil layer beneath the surface. These results suggest that the introduction of high level
with irrigation water in rice paddy can strongly limit Fe reduction and P solubilization in root zone soil layer in addition to the excessive supply of N to rice plants.
Fertilizer Management Practices with Rice Straw Application for Improving Soil Quality in Watermelon Monoculture Greenhouse Plots
Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Young-Han ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 75~82
Indoor cultivation plots for watermelon plant mostly have salt-accumulation problem because of continuous cropping especially with the heavy applications of chemical fertilizers. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate selected soil properties and watermelon growth condition as affected by the application of different farming practices in the salt-affected soils of greenhouse plots used for continuous watermelon production. Five different practice conditions in the experimental plots were applied, 1) a conventional farming practice (CFP), 2) a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer management practice (FMP), and 3) the FMP with different amounts (5, 10, and 15 ton
)of fresh rice straw treatments (FMP-RS), for three years of study. As comparing with CFP plots, soil organic matter content gradually increased during the experimental years, whereas it decreased in the FMP only plot. Soil pH was not changed in the CFP and FMP plot, but it declined in the FMP-RS plots; however, it increased again from the third year in the FMP-RS plots with applying 10 and 15 ton
of RS treatments. The concentrations of exchangeable cations,
, and water-soluble anions,
, markedly decreased in FMP and FMP-RS plots. In particular, the application of rice straw tended to significantly decrease the ion concentrations, especially most anions, in the first year, but there was no more decrease in the second and third study years. With relation to the ion concentrations, the changes of electrical conductivity (EC) after applying the management practices showed very similar to those of the ion concentrations. In addition, incidence of withered watermelon plant after applying the management practices dramatically declined from approximately 20% in the CFP plot to 3.5% in the FMP-RS plots. Water melon fruit weight was also improved by the management practices, especially FMP-RS. Therefore, the fertilizer and/or fresh rice straw application management practices are beneficial to improve salt-affected soils and watermelon plant growth condition.
Influence of Nutrient Supply on Growth, Mineral Nutrients and Carbohydrates in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Park, Sung-Yong ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Jang, Byong-Choon ; Goh, Hyun-Gwan ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Song, Beom-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 83~89
We investigated the growth of cucumber plants, the uptake and use of mineral nutrients, such as
, absorbed from media solution, and the synthesis and distribution of soluble sugars under nutrient-deficient condition. Difference in plant growth revealed after 20 days of treatment. Nitrate uptake in nutrient-deficient condition was significantly reduced compared with nutrient-normal treatment, and its distribution was primarily in petioles, stem, roots and less in leaves. In contrast, ammonium content was markedly predominated in fast growing organs, and it was significantly different in growing leaves, expanded leaves, and roots under similar growth conditions.
, lack by deficient nutrient condition, was found in growing leaves. The
content did not show significant difference between treatments and a substantial portion of
remained in petioles. The
content was significantly higher in the leaves of nutrient-normal condition compared with nutrient-deficient condition while significantly lower in stem and roots. The behavior of
in plant was similar to
although its content was relatively little. The highest
assimilation was observed in fully expanded leaves of nutrient-normal condition, which was 1.7 times higher compared with nutrient-deficient condition. The instantaneous water use efficiency (A/E) and the A/gsratio, which is an index of leaf intrinsic water use efficiency for individual leaves, was 1.2 and 1.1 times higher, respectively. The total soluble sugar (TSS) contents were highest in leaves followed by petioles, stems and roots, and in younger leaves. The growing leaves contained about 7,200 mg
of TSS in nutrient-normal condition whereas the TSS contents in nutrient-deficient condition were not significantly different between leaves. The
- N were positively correlated with the TSS whereas
- N was negatively correlated.
Pathogenic E. coli Inactivation in Upland Soils to a Change of Soil Moisture Content and Temperature
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kim, Min-Young ; Choi, Chul-Man ; Ko, Byong-Gu ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 90~95
The application of livestock manure to cropland is a practice that has been used for centuries. Agricultural crops can utilize nutrients from manure, and the producer can utilize land for disposal, although in a "sustainable system" the concept is manure utilization and not waste disposal. However, meeting regulatory criteria regarding microbial quality remains an expensive and time consuming process. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of environmental impact of soil moisture and temperature on fecal coliform (Escherichia coli or E. coli) survival in upland soils for sound application of livestock manure. Samples were collected up to 30 days depending on the given conditions. The inactivation rate of E. coli increased linearly with increased temperature while the inactivation rate gradually decreased with decreased soil moisture level. The overall findings of this study showed that the temperature was the limited factor on E. coli survival in soils over soil moisture content. This study will provide useful and practical guidelines to applicators of soil in deciding appropriate handling and time frames for land application for sustainable agriculture.
Comparison of Plant Growth Promoting Methylobacterium spp. and Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Application on Red Pepper and Tomato Seedling Development
Boruah, Hari P. Deka ; Chauhan, Puneet S. ; Yim, Woo-Jong ; Han, Gwang-Hyun ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 96~104
A comparative study was performed in gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of exogenous application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and inoculation of Methylobacterium spp. possessing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and IAA activity on red pepperand tomato seedling growth and development. Application of 1.0
IAA positively influenced root growth while high concentrations (>10.0
) suppressed root growth of red pepper and tomato under gnotobiotic condition. On the other hand, inoculation of Methylobacterium strains with ACCD activity and IAA or without IAA enhanced root growth in both plants. Similarly, under greenhouse condition the inoculation of Methylobacterium sp. with ACCD activity and IAA enhanced plant fitness recorded as average nodal length and specific leaf weight (SLW) but the effect is comparable with the application of low concentrations of IAA. Seedling length was significantly increased by Methylobacterium strains while total biomass was enhanced by Methylobacterium spp. and exogenous applications of < 10.0
IAA. High concentrations of IAA retard biomass accumulation in red pepper and tomato. These results confirm that bacterial strains with plant growth promoting characters such as IAA and ACCD have characteristic effects on different aspects of growth of red pepper and tomato seedlings which is comparable or better than exogenous applications of synthetic IAA.
Effects of Rice Straw Application and Green Manuring on Selected Soil Physical Properties and Microbial Biomass Carbon in No-Till Paddy Field
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 105~112
Applications of plant residues and green manures generally improve the properties of soil under conventional farming system. Therefore, we investigated the improvement of selected soil physical properties, bulk density, porosity, and water content, soil penetration resistance, and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) content as affected by different management practices: 1) conventional tillage without rice straw or green manure crop treatment (TNT, check plot), 2) no-tillage amended with rice straw (NTRS), 3) no-tillage amended with rye (NTR), 4) no-tillage amended with Chinese milk vetch (NTCMV), 5) no-tillage without rice straw or green manure crop treatment (NTNT), The values of bulk density, porosity, and water content ranged from 1.22 to 1.37 Mg
, from 48.3 to 54.0%, and from 35.0 to 40.2%, respectively. The management practices might positively influence the changes in the selected soil properties, especially in the second experimental year. The soil penetration resistance and SMBC content were also improved after applying rice straw and green manure crops as comparing with TNT. Therefore, applications of the rice straw and green manure crop management practices under no-tillage system positively influenced soil physical properties and soil microbial activities in paddy field.
A Brief Review of Soil Systematics in Germany
Kim, Rog-Young ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Kim, Seok-Cheol ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 1, 2010, Pages 113~118
Due to diverse soil-forming environments and different purposes of the soil classification, numerous soil classification systems have been developed worldwide. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) and the Soil Taxonomy of the United States are well-known in Korea. However, the German Soil Systematics based on somewhat different principles from the two former systems is little-known. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short overview of the principles of the German Soil Systematics. The German Soil Systematics consists of a six-level hierarchical structure which comprises soil divisions, soil classes, soil types, soil subtypes, soil varieties, and soil subvarieties. Soils in Germany are firstly classified into one of four soil divisions according to the soil moist regime: terrestrial soils, semi-terrestrial soils, semi-subhydric/subhydric soils, and peats. Terrestrial soils are subdivided into 13 soil classes based on the stage of soil formation and the horizon differentiation. Semi-terrestrial soils are differentiated into four classes regarding the source of soil moist: groundwater, freshwater, saltwater, and seaside. Semi-subhydric/subhydric soils are subdivided into two classes: semi-subhydric and subhydric soils. Peats are classified into two classes of natural and anthropogenic origins. Classes can be compared to orders of the U.S. Taxonomy. Classes are subdivided into 29 soil types with regard to soil forming-processes for terrestrial soils, into 17 types with regard to the soil formation for semi-terrestrial soils, into five types with regard to the content of organic matter for semi-subhydric/subhydric soils, and also into five types with regard to peat-forming processes for peats. The soil mapping units in Germany are types, which can be additionally subdivided into ca. 220 subtypes, several thousands of varieties and subvarieties using detailed nuances of morphologic features of soil profile. Soil types can be compared to great groups of the U.S. Taxonomy.