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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Changes of Soil Physical Properties by Glomalin Concentration and Rice Yield using Different Green Manure Crops in Paddy
Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Oh, Gye-Jeong ; Oh, In-Seok ; Kang, Ui-Gum ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 119~123
This experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) in 2007 to 2008 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Three kinds of green manure crops (hairy vetch, barley, rye) incorporated in soil for rice cultivation. 6.3 kg N
, and3.2 kg
were applied to rye and barley plot before rice transplanting. Chemical fertilizers had not been applied to hairy vetch plot. Glomalin concentration, soil bulk density, and porosity were measured in soil from different green manure crops incorporation after rice harvesting in paddy. Soil bulk density and porosity after rice harvesting improved at surface soil of hairy vetch incorporation plot. Degree of water stable aggregates increased all green manure incorporation plots. Glomalin concentrations significantly increased at hairy vetch incorporation treatment. In barley plot, the concentration of glomalin increased at 10-20 soil depth. There were no differences relationship between soil carbon, and glomalin concentration, but relationship between soil aggregate stability, and glomalin concentration significantly positive under green manure crop-rice cropping system. Rice yield decreased at hairy vetch incorporation plot because of field lodging. We suggested that hairy vetch incorporation should be considered about application amount, and water management using rice cultivation because of soil properties changes.
Effects of NaCl Concentration on the Growth of Native Willow Species Collected in a Coastal Reclaimed Land
Yeo, Jin-Kie ; Park, Jung-Hyun ; Koo, Yeong-Bon ; Kim, Hyun-Chul ; Shin, Han-Na ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 124~131
This study was conducted to investigate the potentials for the forest restoration on reclaimed land by using willow trees (Salix koreensis Anderson) selected from a coastal reclaimed land made in inside of the Sihwa tide embankment. We first collected six individual willow trees that were the only tree species grown in the reclaimed land. Total 7 clones from cuttings of the collected trees and the control were grown in a greenhouse for two months prior to applying the different concentrations of NaCl solutions (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%). One month after the NaCl application, the survival rates of clones from both the collected trees, and the control were significantly decreased in a NaCl dose-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference between the collected trees and the control in terms of survival rate, hight and diameter of cuttings, and the numbers of leaves in greenhouse condition. In conclusion, the willow trees collected from the coastal reclaimed land showed no tolerance against NaCl compared to the control grown in ordinary soil, suggesting that further study is required to determine what the most important factor is to select salt tolerant tree species.
Effects of Purifying Rice Paddy in Reducing Nutrient Loadings from Rice Paddy fields area using Free Range Ducks and Rice Bran
Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Kang, Jong-Rae ; Song, Seok-Bo ; Oh, Byeong-Gun ; Jung, Ki-Yeol ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 132~139
To manage the effluent nutrients amounts from rice paddy fields using free range ducks or rice bran, we evaluated the effects of a purifying paddy field which is no fertilizer, no pesticides, and dense rice seedling having a concept of constructed wetland. The experimental paddy field was located at downstream in the watershed of ducks using rice culture area in Milyang. The purifying paddy of land design were treated with seeding method, and vegetation type. As land design, direct seeding on plane, and direct seeding on high-ridge field in 2007. Planting rice only, and planting rice with water hyacinth were treated as vegetation type in purifying paddy in 2008. The purifying paddy fields were effective to reduce amount of T-N and T-P contents in effluent to 33.2~45.3%, and 53.1~55.4%, respectively. The direct seeding on high-ridge treatment, having long residence time of effluent water was more effective than plane plot as T-N 0.29
, and T-P 0.031
. The planting rice with water hyacinth treatment was effective than planting rice only as T-N 0.23
, and T-P 0.049
. The optimum area of purifying paddy field to treats all effluent were found out 3.2~4.7% of rice culture area using free range ducks, and rice bran at upper stream.
Monitoring of Chemical Properties from Paddy Soil in Gyeongnam Province
Lee, Young-Han ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Heo, Jae-Young ; Kim, Min-Geun ; Hong, Kang-Pyo ; Song, Won-Doo ; Rho, Chi-Woong ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Ko, Byong-Gu ; Roh, Kee-An ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 140~146
Monitoring of the dynamic changes at paddy rice agriculture is very important for agricultural sustainability. Field monitoring was performed to evaluate the soil chemical properties of 260 paddy soil samples every four years from 1999 to 2007 in Gyeongnam Province. Soil chemical properties such as pH, organic matter, available phosphate, silicate, exchangeable potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents were analyzed. The contents of exchangeable cations, and available silicate were significantly increased in 2007 compared to 1999. The chemical contents of organic matter, exchangeable potassium, and magnesium were significantly increased in acid sulfate soil, and silty clay loam compared to those of other soil types, and textures. Especially, content of organic matter was significantly increased in hill area compared to other soil topographies, while exchangeable potassium was significantly decreased. Principle component analysis (PCA) of chemical properties in paddy soils was obtained with eigenvalues > 1 summing 39.1%of variance for PC1, 20.4%of variance for PC2, and 59.5%of the total variance in the all of soil chemical properties. Therefore, principal component analysis is more effective for monitoring from chemical properties of paddy soil.
Improvement in Upland Soil Management on Different Topographies and Crops
Kim, Chan-Yong ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Kwon, Tae-Young ; Park, Jun-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 147~152
The investigations were conducted to improve the fertilizer use in upland soil on the different topographies, and crops at 163 upland fields located in the parts of Gyengsangbuk-do area. The soil distribution was based on crops, and topographiese. Soils from these fields were analyzed for pH, organic mater, available phosphorus (
), exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium, and found to have pH5.9, organic mater 23.2 g
, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium were 0.9, 5.6, and 2.3
, respectively. The excessive distribution percent of soil samples for crops were higher than the optimum range in
, and exchangeable potassium. The content of organic matter,
, exchangeable potassium, calcium, and magnesium were increased with the decreasing slope. The major chemical components in fans topographies were 28.4 g
for organic matter, 700 mg
, and 1.0
for exchangeable potassium relatively higher in comparison with other topographies. The content of
were lower in diluvium, and hilly areas than other topographies. The soil of red pepper was more influenced by the amount of applied fertility than the slope, and topographies, On the other hand the crops like soybean and sesame, were more affected by the slope, and topographies.
Relationship between Fertilizer Application Level and Soil Chemical Properties for Strawberry Cultivation under Greenhouse in Chungnam Province
Choi, Moon-Tae ; Lee, Jin-Il ; Yun, Yeo-Uk ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Lee, Bong-Chun ; Yang, Euy-Seog ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 153~159
Nowadays, Korean farmers rely more on chemical fertilizers than low input sustainable agriculture drawn from the farm itself. In order to improve soil nutritional imbalance for environment friendly agriculture in greenhouse, we have carried out a relationship between fertilizer application level, and soil chemical properties for strawberry cultivation at 56 sites in Chungnam Province. Average amount of nitrogen as basal fertilization was 92.3 Mg
which higher 2.6 times compared to standard amount of basal fertilizer. In case of compost application more than 30 Mg
, excessive ratio compared to optimum level was higher 1.8 times for EC value, 3.0 times for available phosphate, 2.6 times for exchangeable potassium, 1.7 times for exchangeable calcium, and 1.6 times for exchangeable magnesium, respectively. Amounts of compost application significantly correlated with available phosphate (r=0.370,
), exchangeable potassium(r=0.429,
), exchangeable calcium(r=0.404,
), exchangeable magnesium(r=0.453,
), and exchangeable sodium(r=0.369,
), respectively. Our results suggest that soil nutrients management for sustainable agriculture was optimum fertilization based on soil testing for strawberry cultivation in greenhouse.
Characteristics of Fertility on Strawberry Cultivated Soil of Plastic Film House in Chungnam Province in Korea
Choi, Moon-Tae ; Lee, Jin-Il ; Yun, Yeo-Uk ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Lee, Bong-Chun ; Yang, Euy-Seog ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 160~165
To reduce the dose of fertilizers is very important to sustainable production of many horticultural crops, including strawberry. In order to practice the environment friendly agriculture of strawberry cultivation in plastic film house, soil chemical properties of 435 soil samples (232 for loam, 83 for sandy loam, and 120 for silt loam) in Chungnam Province from2008 to 2009 were determined. The average of pH, EC, OM, Av.
, and Ex.
was 6.5, 2.28 dS
, 26 g
, 910 mg
, and 0.58
, respectively. The content of Av.
in sandy loam soil was significantly higher than silt loam soil, whereas other properties showed no difference between soil texture. The kinds of strawberry cultivars showed no difference in soil chemical properties. The frequency distribution within optimum range of soil chemical properties was 30.6%, 35.4%, 37.0%, 5.3%, 8.5%, 8.5%, and 17.9% for pH, EC, OM, Av.
, and Ex.
, respectively. Especially, excessive portion of Av.
, and Ex.
were high 86.9%, and 86.0%, respectively. EC values of soil samples were significantly positive correlatoin with all chemical properties except soil pH. In principle component analysis of chemical properties in soil samples, the percentage of variance explained by PC 1 was 38.8%, while PC 2 explained 17.8%of the variance, for a cumulative total of 56.6%. These results were able to distinguish between soil textures and strawberry cultivars. Also, these results considered that understanding of soil chemical properties under using principal component analysis be able to improve amounts of fertilizers for sustainable agriculture in plastic film house.
Applications of Different Types of Germanium Compounds on Rice Plant Growth and its Ge Uptake
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Cheon, Yeong-Seok ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Ah-Reum ; Lee, Won-Gyu ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Lee, Young-Han ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 166~173
In order to obtain the basic information for agricultural utilization of germanium (Ge), the growth characteristics, Ge uptake, and grain quality of rice plant (Hopyungbyeo) were investigated under different germanium (
, and commercial Ge) treatments in paddy field. Phytotoxicity was detected in
treatment but not in commercial Ge treatment. The grain yield was greater in the order of control treatment > commercial Ge treatment >
treatment. The dry weight was greater in order of control treatment >
commercial Ge treatment. The Ge content of leaf in
treatment was 6 times (177 mg
) higher than that in commercial Ge treatment. The Ge content in rice bran was not different in
, and commercial Ge treatments. The Ge contents of brown rice in
, and commercial treatments were 40.9, and 31.1 mg
, respectively. The Ge uptake rates in rice plant was higher in the order of leaf > rice bran > brown rice > stem > root. Under
, 15.56% of Ge absorbed into plant with 11.1% in leaf, 1.6% in stem, 0.03% in root, 2.2% in rice bran and 0.73% in brown rice. Under commercial Ge treatment, 5.19% of Ge absorbed into plant with 1.8% in leaf, 0.46% in stem, 0,01% in root, 2.2% in rice bran, and 0.71% in brown rice. Based on these results, the Ge contents in polished rice in commercial Ge treatment were higher than those in
treatment. However, the Ge contents of rice grain (containing rice bran and polished rice) in
treatment were higher than those in commercial Ge treatment.
The Selection of Yield Response Model of Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. Aaron) to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Pig Manure Compost in Reclaimed Tidal Land Soil
Lim, Woo-Jin ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 174~179
In order to interpret yield response of sugar beet to nitrogen fertilizer, and pig manure compost in saline-sodic soil of reclaimed tidal land, 4 kinds of response model, i.e., quadratic, exponential, square root, and linear response, and plateau model, are applied. The root fresh yield of sugar beet decreased exponentially with the increase of soil EC. The root fresh yield of sugar beet to nitrogen fertilizer was fitted best to the linear response, and plateau model among 4 yield response models with highly significant determination coefficient (
). The optimum N rate determined on the model was 138 kg N
. The root fresh yield of sugar beet to pig manure compost was fitted best to the quadratic model among 4 yield response models with highly significant determination coefficient (
). The maximum N rate determined on the model was 9.17 ton
. In conclusion, the proper model to interpret the yield of sugar beet in saline-sodic soil differs with the kinds of nutrient, linear response, and plateau model for fertilizer nitrogen, and quadratic model to pig manure compost.
Microbial Communities in Rice Paddy Soils Following Cultivation of Genetically Modified Leaf Folder-resistant Rice Plants
Kwon, Jang-Sik ; Noh, Hyung-Jun ; Suh, Jang-Sun ; Shin, Kong-Sik ; Kweon, Soon-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 180~187
The study was performed to investigate the property of rhizosphere microorganisms, and community structure during GMO, and Non-GMO rice cultivation. In the dilution plate technique, there were no significant differences in microbial populations of rhizosplane with genetically modified, and non-genetically modified rice cultivation, and rhizosphere were also the same results. Dominant bacterial genera were Afipia 12.5%, Spingomonas 10.0%, Ramlibacter 10.0%, Mycobacterium 7.5%, and Tetrasphaera 7.5% in rhizosphere soil of genetically modified rice plant, while Afipia 7.3%, Spingomonas 12.2%, Ramlibacter 7.3%, Mycobacterium 17.1%, Tetrasphaera 14.6% in non-genetically modified cultivated at Suwon test fields in 2006. Majorgenera isolated from root surface cultivated in Yesan fields were Arthrobacter 12.7% in rhizoplane of genetically modified plant, and Burkholderia 22.2% of non-genetically modified plant in 2007, Paucimonas 26.6% of genetically modified plant, Chryseobacterium 15.4% of non-genetically modified plant in 2008. Also the microbial communities in rhizosphere soils of genetically modified, and non-genetically modified plants were characterized using phospholipid fatty acid, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The phospholipid fatty acid profiles of soils in this condition showed different pattern, but did not show significant differences between soils cultivated with genetically or non-genetically modified rice plants.
Effects of Organic Materials on Soil Organisms in a Korean Ginseng Field
Eo, Jin-U ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Lee, Sung-Woo ; Bae, Yeoung-Seuk ; Yeon, Byung-Ryul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 188~193
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of organic materials on soil organisms. Changes in the community structure, and population density of soil organisms (microbes, nematodes, and microarthropods) were studied in a Korean ginseng field. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis showed that the relative abundances of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes did not differ significantly. The aerobes/anaerobes ratio was the lowest in soils amended with leaf mold, indicating that the decomposition speed was slow. Further, the addition of leaf mold to the soil enhanced the saturated/monounsaturated fatty acid ratio and cyclopropyl fatty acid/precursor ratio, which indicated an increase in environmental stresses. Application of pig manure compost (PMC) had positive effects on the population density of nematodes, and negative effects on that of oribatid mites. The population densities of nematodes, and microarthropods remained relatively low in the plots that had been treated with leaf mold or pig manure compost. It is suggested that pre-planting soil management directed at enhancing the biological decomposition efficiency should be continued over a long period to increase the soil bioactivity in virgin soils.
Changes of Soil Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Affected by Red Pepper Cultivation and Compost Amendment
Park, Kee-Choon ; Kim, Su-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 194~199
Compost as a soil amendment is of importance in enhancing the soil chemical and microbial qualities; however, soil microbial community can vary depending on the composition, and the amount of compost applied to plant in the soil. Responses of soil microbial properties to compost applications with 0, 30, and 60 Mg
were investigated in silt loam soils where red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) was mainly cultivated in Yeongyang, Gyeongbuk, Korea. The analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) extracted from soil showed that compost amounts significantly increased PLFAs representing as bacteria, fungi, and VAM-fungi as well as the ratio of fungi/bacteria, and monounsaturated/saturated PLFAs. Increasing the amount of compost significantly increased Gram-/Gram+ PLFAs' ratio, but significantly decreased monounsaturated/saturated PLFAs' ratio. Therefore, this result shows that compost would vary to a limited extent the microbial community in red pepper field. However, increase in compost application would change the subgroup structure of microbial community only.
Evaluation of No-tillage Rice Cover Crop Cropping Systems for Organic Farming
Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 200~208
The objectives of this study were to evaluate no-tillage cover crop cropping systems for organic farming in paddy. The experiment was performed at Ihyeon series (silt loam: 9.1% sand, 73.0% silt and 17.9% clay) which affected by different management practices. Planthopper population per 20 plant was significantly higher 65.3 for conventional tillage with chemical compounds (control) compared with 3.4~9.6 for no-tillage treatments (without rice straw or green manure, amended with rice straw, hairy vetch, rape, rye, and Chinese milk vetch). Also, disease severity of sheath blight was significantly higher 10.5% for control compared to 0.7~2.9% for no-tillage treatments. Four weed species, namely Monochoria vaginalis, Ludwigia prostrata, Rotala indica, and Aneilema keisak occurred in no-tillage paddy, whereas Monochoria vaginalis occurred in control only. The pH, available phosphate, and microbial biomass C in paddy were steeply decreased in response to submerging, but increased at first heading stage. Soil
-N content at first heading stage was significantly higher in no-tillage treatments compared with control. The grain yield was significantly higher in 4.30 Mg
for control than other treatments. Meanwhile, rice productivity was significantly higher in 2.69 Mg
for no-tillage amended with Chinese milk vetch compared to other no-tillage treatments. The number of panicle per plant, grain number perpanicle, and percent ripened grain were highly related for increasing the yield of rice. These results show that Chinese milk vetch was optimum cover crop for organic farming in no-tillage paddy.
Rice Growth and Grain Quality in No-till and Organic Farming Paddy Field as Affected by Different Rice Cultivars
Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 209~216
This study was to find out optimum rice cultivars for organic farming in no-tillage paddy. A field research was conducted the yield, yield components, and qualities of thirty two Korean rice cultivars, and two Japanese rice cultivars. The column length of early rice plant was shorter in medium maturing rice cultivars compared to early, and medium-late maturing rice cultivars. Planthopper population per20-plant was lower in Ilpumbyeo, Dongjinbyeo, Hojinbyeo, Donganbyeo, and Sobeebyeo in that order while was higherin rice cultivars of early maturity. The disease severity of sheath blight was higher in Saechucheongbyeo>Chucheongbyeo>Namwonbyeo>Sangmibyeo in that order, on the other hand, that was lowerinHwaseongbyeo>Junambyeo>Saesangjubyeo=Hitomebore>Ilpumbyeo>Hwayeongbyeo in that order, respectively. The grain yield of Korean rice cultivars was significantly higher in 2.95 Mg
for Hwasinbyeo, 2.91 Mg
for Ilpumbyeo, 2.86 Mg
for Sobeebyeo, 2.73 Mg
for Naepungbyeo, and 2.70 Mg
for Saegyehwabyeo compared with 1.38 Mg
for Hwabongbyeo, 1.62 Mg
for Hwayeongbyeo, and 1.78 Mg
for Haepyeongbyeo of medium maturing rice cultivars, respectively. Toyo taste value of medium maturing rice cultivars tended to higher than that of early, and medium-late maturing rice cultivars. Ripening rate of rice cultivars was significantly positive correlated with Toyo taste value while negative correlated with protein content. According to principal component analysis, these results show that Sangmibyeo, Sangsanbyeo, and Odaebyeo for early maturity, Naepungbyeo, and Sobeebyeo for medium maturity, and Hwasinbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, and Sindongjinbyeo for medium-late maturity were optimum rice cultivars for organic farming in no-tillage paddy.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Dongsong Series Distributed on the Lava Plain in Cheolweon
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Park, Chan-Won ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 217~223
This study was conducted to reclassify Dongsong series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Dongsong series distributed on the lava plain at Cheolweon in Korea. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Dongsong series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. The typifying pedon of Dongsong series has brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam Ap horizon (0-16 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam BA horizon (16-22 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay Bt1 horizon (22-50 cm), reddish brown (5YR 5/4) silty clay Bt2 horizon (50-92 cm), and brown (7.5YR 4/3) silty clay loam Bt3 horizon (92-120 cm). It occurs on lava plain derived from baslt materials. The typifying pedon has higher bulk density than 0.90 Mg
. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to more than 120 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol or Alfisol. It has aquic conditions for some time in normal years in one or more horizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface, redoximorphic features between a depth of 25 cm, and a depth of 40 cm from the mineral soil surface, and redox concentrations, and 50%or more redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in the matrix within the upper 12.5 cm of the argillic horizon. Therefore it can be classified as Aquult. It has episaturation, and keys out as Epiaquult. It has 50% or more chroma of 3 or more in one or more horizons between a depth of 25 cm from the mineral soil surface, and a depth of 75 cm. It can be classified as Aeric Aquult. Dongsong series have 35%or more clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore they can be classified as fine, mesic family of Aeric Epiaquults, not as fine, mesic family of Typic Epiaqualfs. The Quarternary volcanic activities occurred in Jeju Island, Ulrung Island, Baekryeong Island, Cheolweon area, and Mt. Paekdu et al. in the Korean Penninsula. Most of them belong to the central eruption type, but Cheolweon area may be of the fissure eruption type. Dongsong series occur on Cheolweon lava plains derived from basaltic materials. Most soils distributed in Jeju Island, and derived from mainly pyroclastics are developed as Andisols. But Dongsong series distributed in Cheolweon lava plains which have a relatively dry climate and derived from basaltic materials are developed as Ultisols.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Cheongpung Series Distributed on Diluvial Terrace
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Park, Chan-Won ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 224~229
This study was conducted to reclassify Cheongpung series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy, and to dicuss the formation of Cheongpung series distributed on the diluvial terrace. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Cheongpung series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Cheongpung series has red (2.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam Ap horizon (0-18 cm), red (2.5YR 4/8) clay BAt horizon (18-35 cm), red (2.5YR 4/2) cobbly clay Bt1 horizon (35-65 cm), and red (2.5YR4/6) cobbly clay Bt2 horizon (more than 65 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from adepth of 18 to more than 65 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Alfisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludults. It has 35% or more clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Cheongpung series can be classified as fine, mesic family of Typic Hapludults, not as fine, mesic family of Ultic Hapludalfs. Cheongpung series occur on moderately elevated diluvial terrace which have relatively stable geomorphic surface. They are developed as Ultisols with clay mineral weathering, translocation of clays to accumulate in an argillic horizon, and leaching of base-forming cations from the profile for relatively long periods under humid, and temperate climates in Korea.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Jeju Series in Jeju Island
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Moon, Kyung-Hwan ; Jeon, Seung-Jong ; Lim, Han-Cheol ; Lee, Shin-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 230~236
Jeju Island is a volanic island which is located about 96 km south of Korean Peninsula. Volcanic ejecta, and volcaniclastic materials are widespread as soil parent materials throughout the island. Soils on the island have the characteristics of typical volcanic ash soils. This study was conducted to reclassify Jeju series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Jeju series in Jeju Island. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Jeju series were investigated, and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon has dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt clay loam A horizon (0~22 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay BAt horizon (22~43 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay Bt1 horizon (43~80 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay loamBt2 horizon (80~105 cm), and brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay loam Bt3 horizon (105~150 cm). It is developed in elevated lava plain, and are derived from basalt, and pyroclastic materials. The typifying pedon contains 1.3~2.1% oxalate extractable (Al + 1/2 Fe), less than 85%phosphate retention, and higher bulk density than 0.90 Mg
. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 150 cm, and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. That can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol. Its has 0.9% or more organic carbon in the upper 15 cm of the argillic horizon, and can be classified as Humult. It dose not have fragipan, kandic horizon, sombric horizon, plinthite, etc. in the given depths, and key out as Haplohumult. A hoizon (0~22 cm) has a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 Mg
or less, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Thus, it keys out as Andic Haplohumult. It has 35% or more clay at the particle-size control section, and has thermic soil temperature regime. Jeju series can be classified as fine, mixed, themic family of Andic Haplohumults, not as ashy, thermic family of Typic Hapludands. In the western, and northern coastal areas which have a relatively dry climate in Jeju Island, non Andisols are widely distributed. Mean annual precipitation increase 110 mm, and mean annual temperature decrease
with increasing elevation of 100m. In the western, and northern mid-mountaineous areas Andisols, and non Andisols are distributed simultaneously. Jeju series distributed mainly in the western and northern mid-mountaineous areas are developed as Ultisols with Andic subgroup.
Environmental Impact Assessment of Agricultural Systems Using the Life Cycle Assessment
Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Jeong, Ji-Sun ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Lim, Song-Tak ; Roh, Kee-An ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 237~241
Many policies have been implemented to mitigate the greenhouse gases in atmosphere overall of sectors. With considering the distinct characteristics of the food security, agricultural sector is no exception to this situation. To this regard, total amount of carbon which is emitted through all of the agricultural production process is calculated, and being based on this result, the demand for the introduction of agricultural production system with low carbon has been rising. Case studies on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) technique to agricultural sector are found in many countries. For example, life cycle inventory (LCI) data bases of crop, farm infrastructure, fertilizer, farm machinery, and etc., have been constructed and provided by Ecoinvent (Swiss centre for life cycle inventories) of Swiss. In Japan, Top-down typed LCA methodology for agriculture is developed based on the inter-industry analysis, and is evaluated according to the productive method of crop. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment of agricultural system using LCA in Korea is just in the beginning stages. So it is required to assess environmental impact on agricultural fertilizer and pesticide, and to develop their flow modeling, and methodology of LCA of agricultural sector. Environmental impact assessment on agricultural materials, machinery, and infrastructure will also be carried out.
Application of Stable Isotopes in Studies of Gas Exchange Processes Between Biosphere and the Atmosphere
Han, Gwang-Hyun ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 242~251
In comparison with other terrestrial ecosystems, rice paddies are unique because they provide the primary food source for over 50% of the world's population, and act as major sources of global methane. The present paper summerizes a long-term field study that combine carbon isotopes, and canopy-scale flux measurements in an irrigated rice paddy, in conjugation with continuous monitoring of environmental, and vegetational factors. Both
, and methane fluxes were largely influenced by soil temperature, and moisture conditions, especially across drainage events. Soil-entrapped
, and methane showed a gradually increasing trend throughout growing season, but rapidly decreased upon flood water drainage. These variations in flux were well correlated with changes in concentration, and isotope ratio of soil
, and methane, and of atmospheric
, and methane within, and above the canopy. The isotopic signature of the gas exchange process varied markedly in response to change in contribution of soil respiration, belowground storage, fraction of
recycled, magnitude, and direction of
exchange, transport mechanism, and fraction of methane oxidized. Our results clearly demonstrate that stable isotope analysis can be a useful tool to study underlying mechanisms of gas exchange processes under natural conditions.