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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Effect of Soil Salinity and Culturing Condition on the Maintenance of Ridge and the Growth of Upland Crops in the Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land
Sohn, Yong-Man ; Song, Jae-Do ; Jeon, Geon-Yeong ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ; Park, Moo-Eon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 529~539
In order to evaluate the effect of soil salinity and culturing conditions including compost application and vinyl mulching on the maintenance of ridge and the growth of upland crops, three crops such as corn, soybean and sweet potato were experimented by using three or four cultivars of crops in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. Average soil salinity before seeding was 2 dS
, which was low enough for general upland crops to grow. However, high soil EC more than 16 dS
was observed in some parts of the experimented field. In the experiment, it was concluded that growth retardation and yield reduction of summer upland crops might be from severe erosion of ridge, soil compaction, flooding or wet soil condition and high salinity of some parts, and then these deteriorations were possibly improved for good crop growth and yield increase by compost application and vinyl mulching cultivation in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land.
Water Saving Irrigation Point in Cucumber Cultivation under Greenhouse
Jeon, Sang-Ho ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Jun, Hyun-Jung ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hee-Rae ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 540~545
This study was conducted to investigate effects of irrigation points on cucumber growth and water saving under greenhouse. Automatic irrigation system and tensiometers were installed at four plots to measure soil water tension and properties of irrigated water. Each plot was irrigated at different irrigation points; soil water tension of 15, 20, 30, and 40 kPa, respectively. Conventional irrigation plot without tensiometer was also investigated. The total yield and sugar contents of cucumber had no significant differences between plots. However, irrigated water volumes were saved most when irrigation points were 30, and 40 kPa. The two plots of 30, and 40 kPa treatments used about 60% less of irrigated water than the plot of conventional practice did. In conclusion, this research suggested that the optimum irrigation point for cucumber cultivation in greenhouse can be soil water tension of 30 kPa based on the results of overall cucumber quality, and Greenhouse water usage.
Characteristics of Soil Chemical and Microbiological Properties in Abandoned Coal Mine Forest Rehabilitation Areas
Jung, Mun-Ho ; Kwon, Hyun-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Heok ; Choi, Gwang-Su ; Kim, Soo-Lo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 546~551
The objectives of this study were to investigate soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in Yeongnam, Honam, Chungcheong and Kangwon for forest rehabilitation and management in abandoned coal mine areas. Average soil pH was 5.5 (4.2 ~ 8.1). Average contents of TOC, total N and available P2O5 were 1.1% (0.1 ~ 2.6%), 0.08% (0.02 ~ 0.14%) and 16.1 ppm (3.4 ~ 63.1 ppm), respectively. Average CEC was 3.4
and total no. of bacteria1 showed
. According to areas, soil pH was the highest in Kangwon (6.1), and Yeongnam (5.7), Honam (5.3) and Chungcheong (4.7), respectively. TOC and total no. of bacteria showed no difference. Total-N was higher in order of Yeongnam (0.10%) > Chungcheong (0.08%) = Honam (0.07%) > Kangwon (0.06%), while Av.
Yeongnam (23.9 ppm) = Chungcheong (24.5 ppm) > Honam (10.9 ppm) = Kangwon (4.9 ppm). Yeongnam showed higher value in CEC (17.5
) than any other areas. Generally, soil characteristic of Yeongnam was better for vegetation growth than any other areas, while Kangwon was worse. According to elapsed time from forest rehabilitation, patterns of soil pH and CEC showed decrease according to time while TOC and total-N increased. There were no significant differences in Av.
and total no. of bacteria. Soil chemical characteristics in abandoned coal mine areas were disadvantageous for vegetation growth in comparison with general forest soils. Therefore, sustainable managements such as fertilization are necessary for good rooting and growth of vegetation.
Salts Reduction Effect of Natural Zeolite in Plastic Film House Soil
Wee, Chi-Do ; Li, Jun-Xi ; Kim, Hong-Lim ; Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 552~557
This study was performed to investigate the effect of zeolite on the reduction of soil EC level in the plastic film house. The EC level of experimental soil was 5.0 dS
and the zeolite was applied to the soil at seven levels (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20%) with three replications. The reduction degree of soil EC level showed positive tendency to the mixing ratio of zeolite. Especially, the EC level reduced rapidly from 5.01 to 2.8 dS
in the plot where zeolite was mixed by 20% 10 days after treatment. The pH level of soil was in positive relation to the mixing ratio of zeolite, contrary to the negative relation to the concentration level of water soluble Ca, Mg and phosphorus (P). The water contents of soil mixed with 15% and 20% zeolite were 14% and 17.3% respectively but it was 12.7% for control soil. Therefore, we expect natural zeolite to salts reduction agent for exchangeable cation and phosphate which is difficult to reduce by watering and other methods.
Utilization of Biosolid for Enhanced Heavy Metal Removal and Biomass Production in Contaminated Soils
Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Naidu, Ravi ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 558~564
Cleaning up the landfill soil by phytoremediation in association with biomass production and utilization of biosolid as a soil amendment will be an attractive green technology. In order to examine this integrated green technology, in the current study of pot trial, heavy metal removal rate and biomass production were determined following cultivation of three different plant species in the landfill soil incorporated with biosolid at two different levels (25 ton
and 50 ton
). Among the three plant species including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), giant sunflower (Helianthus giganteus. L), and giant cane (Arundo donax. L), sunflower appeared to produce the largest biomass yield (19.2 ton
) and the produced amounts were magnificently increased with biosolid treatment compared to the control (no biosoild treatment). The increased production associated with biosolid treatment was common for other plant species and this was attributed to the biosolid originated nutrients as well as the improved soil physical properties due to the organic matter from biosolid. The elevated heavy metals in soil which was originated from the incorporated biosolid were Cu and Zn. Based on the phytoavailable amount of heavy metals from biosolid, the removed amount by plant shoots were 95% and 165% for Cu and Zn, respectively, when sunflower was grown. This indicated that mitigation of heavy metal accumulation in soils achieved by the removal of metal through sunflower cultivation enables the successive treatment of biosolid to soils. Moreover, sunflower showed heavy metal stabilization ability in the rhizosphere resulting in alleviation of metal release to ground water.
A Modified Methodology of Salt Removal through Flooding and Drainage in a Plastic Film House Soil
Oh, Sang-Eun ; Son, Jung-Su ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Joo, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 565~571
One of the disadvantages of flooding treatment for desalting from soils is that salts move to deep soils after flooding and at the end reaccumulate at the soil surface through capillary movements. This study was carried out to remove salts from soils in plastic film houses by a modified flooding method, drainage after flooding. The method successfully removed salts at the soil surface and salts did not move to the deep soil. Drained water containing N, P and K could be reused as fertilizer. By applying small amount of MgO, turbidity of water flooded decreased in 30 min by 95%. Struvite should be formed since the flooded water contain ammonia and phosphorous and their concentrations were decreased. This could be utilized as fertilizer which provides a slow-release source of phosphorus, magnesium and nitrogen that features low inherent water solubility.
Seasonal Change in the Soil Chemical Properties from Sweet Persimmon Orchard in Gyeongnam Province
Lee, Young-Han ; Choi, Seong-Tae ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Hong, Kang-Pyo ; Song, Won-Doo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 572~577
Field monitoring was performed to evaluate the soil chemical properties of 31 sweet persimmon orchard soil samples every two months from April to October in 2008 at Gyeongnam Province. Soil chemical properties such as pH, organic matter, available phosphate, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable sodium, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were analyzed. The soil chemical properties of both top soil, and subsoil showed that soil pH was significantly increased whereas ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were significantly decreased. The insufficient levels of nutrients in top soil, and subsoil were higher in 69.4%, and 84.7% for pH, 63.7%, and 84.7% for organic matter compared to optimum range. Meanwhile, the excessive levels of available phosphate showed 70.2% in top soil, and 46.8% in subsoil compared to optimum range. The experimental results showed that the optimum fertilization based on soil testing was the most important thing in soil nutrients management for sweet persimmon.
Chemical Properties and Nutrient Loadings of Rainwater during Farming Season
Ko, Byong-Gu ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Park, Seong-Jin ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Jung, Goo-Buk ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 578~583
Acid rain and its problem to environment such as acid precipitation and environmental problems related to the air pollution in East Asia has been emerging. To evaluate the acidity and chemical characteristics of rainwater precipitated in western Korea, Suwon and Taean, its pH and ion concentrations were investigated during farming season (April to November) in 2009. Also, ion composition and cation-affected neutralization were determined to evaluate the contribution of cations on the acidity of rainwater. Ion and electrical conductivity between the measured and the estimated showed high correlation. The
in rainwater was the main cation followed by
. Sum of
contents was over 65% of total cations contents. In the case of anions, the concentration was in order of
among anions in rainwater composed about 61%, which showed on average 130.2
during monitoring at Suwon and Taean, respectively. Also, 89.6 and 88.6% of soluble sulfate in rainwater at Suwon and Taean area was NSS-
(Non-Sea Salt sulfate). Especially,
contributed greatly in neutralizing the acid rain in dry season. Total nitrogen content flowed into soil from rain was around 1~2 kg
in each month, but in July at Suwon, it reached 6 kg
due to heavy rain (over 7.3 mm).
Changes in Fe, and Mn Content and Lime Requirement Based on Soil pH Testing in Sweet Persimmon Fields
Lee, Young-Han ; Choi, Seong-Tae ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Hong, Kang-Pyo ; Song, Won-Doo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 584~589
Sweet persimmon yield can be limited by soil pH. This study was performed to rapidly determine the optimal level of lime requirement in sweet persimmon field. Soil chemical properties such as Fe, Mn, and Zn were analyzed soil samples of 31 sweet persimmon fields at Gyeongnam Province every two months from April to October in 2008. The available Fe, Mn, and Zn content were significantly high top soil (76.5 mg
for Fe, 46.1 mg
for Mn, and 16.9 mg
for Zn, respectively), and subsoil (55.5 mg
for Fe, 35.9 mg
for Mn, and 12.3 mg
for Zn, respectively) in April. Furthermore, the Mn content was significantly decreased since April compared to other micronutrients. We found a significant negative correlation between soil pH and lime requirement (r=0.881,
for top soil, and r=0.855,
for subsoil). We suggest that a conversion factor is -171 top soil pH + 1,148 to lime requirement (kg
) for top soil, and -190 subsoil pH + 1,247 to lime requirement (kg
) for subsoil in sweet persimmon fields. These results supported that the improvement of lime requirement by soil pH value is necessary to rapidly apply to field, and prevent micronutrients over uptake by persimmon plant.
Vertical Distribution of the Heavy Metal in Paddy Soils of Below Part at Guundong Mine in Milyang, Korea
Yun, Eul-Soo ; Park, Sung-Hak ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Jung, Ki-Yeol ; Park, Ki-Do ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Park, Chang-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 590~595
This study was conducted to investigate form of pollution brought by residual of mine tailing in agricultural land, and get basic information need for environment restoration. Guundong mine was completely restored region by implementation the soil pollution prevention plan. The districts is soils in Guundong mine vicinity the Mahul-ri, Muan-myeon, Miryang city, Gyeongsangnam-do. The nature of soil studied is the Shinra series andesite and mineral deposits which contain brimstone and heavy metals such as gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. The residual mine tailing and around agricultural land of heavy metals analyzed with 0.1N HCI solubility. The chemical properties of surface soil in upper part around mining area were pH 4.3-4.4, organic matter 19-21 g
, exchangeable Ca 0.21-0.25
, exchangeable Mg 0.04
. The pH, exchangeable Ca, and Mg were increased with soil depth. The contents of 0.1N HCl extractable Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni in soil (siteI) which influenced by outflow water from mine tailing were 97, 0.6, 197, 0.28 및 0.12 mg
, respectively. The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil varied considerably among the metals kind. In case of siteI, The content of Cu, Pb, and Cr in soil was highest at surface soil. However, the content of Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn was high at middle part of soil profile.
Patterns of Leaching and Distribution of Cations in Reclaimed Soil according to Gypsum Incorporation Rate
Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Lee, Kyeng-Do ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 596~601
Serious problems in reclaimed land for agriculture are high soil salinity and very poor vertical drainage. However, desalinization in these soils is very difficult. To identify the change of soil permeability by the gypsum incorporation in soils we observed elution patterns and salt distribution of the soil using soil columns packed with reclaimed saline soil with various rates of gypsum amendment. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (
) of the top soil of reclaimed saline soils without gypsum incorporation was close 0 cm
increased up to 0.3 cm
with increasing amount of gypsum for 0.4% or more gypsum. Also
of the reclaimed saline soils for top soil was drastically increased to 1.0 cm
or slightly greater after 141 hour's elution experiment. The cumulative amount of cation recovered in the effluent also increased in the order of gypsum incorporation rate 0.8% > 0.6% > 0.4 > 0.2%. Soil EC in soil columns decreased from initial 33.9 dS
to less than 0.4 dS
and exchangeable Ca 2+ increased by 32~140% according to gypsum incorporation rate.
Leaching and Distribution of Cation in Multi-layered Reclaimed Soil Column with Intermediate Macroporous Layer
Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Kang, Jong-Guk ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 602~609
To investigate desalinization patterns of surface reclaimed saline-sodic soil (RSSS) with subsurface layer of macroporous medium, multi-layered soil columns were constructed. For the multi-layered soil columns, gypsum was treated at the rate of 5 cmolc
in surface (top) while coal bottom ash (CBA) was placed into intermediate layer below the gypsum-treated surface soils followed by the reclaimed saline-sodic soil as bottom layer (BL). The lengths of top soil was 30 cm long while the lengths of the CBA were 20 and 30 cm long. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat) were
for RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)-BL(20 cm) and RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)-RSSS(20 cm), respectively while the lowest
for RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)+BL(20 cm). The time required to reach the lowest EC in eluent, 0.3 dS
from 33.9 dS
was shorter in multi-layered soil columns with GR-CBA than that of RS-SRS, representing that rate of desalinization was greater than 99%. Exchangeable Na decreased by 94.8~96.2 %, while exchangeable Ca increased by 98~129 %.
Effect of Pig Slurry Fertigation on Soil Chemical Properties and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Park, Jin-Myeon ; Lim, Tae-Jun ; Kang, Seok-Boem ; Lee, In-Bok ; Kang, Yun-Im ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 610~615
This study was conducted to evaluate fertigation effects of pig slurry (PS) and chemical fertilizer (CF) in tomato by analyzing the growth and yield, nutrient content and uptake, nutrient use efficiency, and soil characteristics in greenhouse cultivation. The treatments compared were; no-fertilizer, two different levels of PS (26 mg
and 52 mg
), and a control treatment of chemical fertilizer. There was no significant difference in growth and yield between PS and CF treatments. however, yield reduction was observed in PS 26 mg
treatment. The N-utilization efficiency in CF treatment was similar to that of PS 52 mg
treatment. Nutrient utilization efficiency decreased in order of potassium (K), nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) with 29.2~43.3% in K, 15.8~36.7% in N, and 3.0~6.3% in P. In soil chemical characteristics, soil pH in PS treatment was higher than in CF treatment. In contrast, nitrate content in soil was higher in CF treatment than in PS treatment. The content of exchangeable K in soil was higher in PS and CF 52 mg
treatments. There was no significant difference in exchangeable Ca and Mg among those treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that chemical fertilizers can be substituted by PS based on soil chemical analysis in tomato fertigation culture.
Inorganic Nutrient Uptake Pattern of Vegetable Crops in Highland
Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Park, Chol-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 616~623
Plant samples from 49 sites for Chinese cabbage, 28 sites for radish, 16 sites for cabbage, 8 sites for head lettuce, 20 sites for onion from farmers' and experimental fields in highland of Korea were collected and analyzed to find out the uptake patterns of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by altitude. Dry weight and uptake of N, P and K were increased at higher altitude in most vegetable crops. Nutrition uptake by Chinese cabbage was 163 ~ 283 kg
for N, 42 ~ 69 kg
and 146 ~ 270 kg
according to altitude. Nutrient uptake by radish according to altitude was 153~159 kg
for N, 38 ~ 46 kg
, and 151 ~ 185 kg
. In case of cabbage, the plant uptakes of N, P, and K were increased at altitudes of 600 ~ 1,000 m. Nutrient uptake of cabbage was 280 ~ 348 kg
for N, 34 ~ 87 kg
, and 209 ~ 290 kg
according to altitude. Uptakes of N-
by head lettuce at an altitude of 800 ~ 850 m were 93-26-126 kg
, respectively. Uptakes of N-
by onions at an altitude of 600 ~ 800 m were 313-140-234 kg
, respectively, but there was no tendency in nutrition uptake patterns by altitude. Small cultivation areas used for leaf vegetable crops do not have fertilizer recommendation standards in alpine regions. It might be preferable to use a correction factor equivalent to the index of available nutrient uptake for the determination of N, P and K fertilizer application rates.
Effect of Annual and Basal Dressing with Liquid Pig Manure on Growth and Quality of Rice in Double Cropping System of Rice-Malting Barley
Lee, Seong-Tae ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Dahlgren, Randy A. ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 624~630
In order to investigate the effects of continual pre-plant application of liquid pig manure (LPM) on growth and quality of rice in double cropping system of rice and malting barley, the liquid pig manure was applied after harvesting rice and malting barley for 3 years. Field experiment was designed with non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer (CF) 100% recommended by soil testing, rice (LPM 50%+CF 50%)+malting barley (CF 100%), rice (LPM 50%+CF 50%)+malting barley (LPM 50%+CF 50%), rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) and rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%). The yield of rice was increased by 13% with increasing culm length and No. of panicle per hill as 482 kg
in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot compare with 427 kg
in rice (CF 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) plot. Whereas, lodging index was high in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot by increasing of internodes length from 3rd to 4th and decreasing of breaking strength. When the quality of milled rice was compare with rice (CF 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) plot, it was decreased by increasing of protein contents and decreasing of rate of perfect grain in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot. The content of amylose was not significant by 19.4~22.0%. Toyo-taste value was not different in LPM 100% and CF 100% plot. Rice could be grown with only liquid pig manure 100%, but considering yield and quality of rice and lodging risk, basal fertilization by LPM 50% and top-dressing by CF 50% application was recommended for rice cultivation.
Nutrient Contents of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum L.) and Soil Chemical Properties of Its Habitat in the Coastal Area
Lee, Soo-Young ; Park, Kang-Yong ; Park, Yang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 631~636
One experiment was carried out to investigate the soil chemical properties of bracken growth and the inorganic element contents of plant. To the results of soil analysis in native bracken (Pteridium aquilinum L.) growth, soil pH was 5.2, organic matter was 19 g
and available phosphate was 20 mg
, and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium were 0.32, 2.0 and 1.3
, respectively. In the bracken cultivation soil, pH was 5.7, organic matter was 13 g
and available phosphate 367 mg
, and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium were 0.81, 4.0 and 1.4
, respectively. The soil pH, available phosphate and exchangeable calcium were much lower in bracken native soil than those of cultivation soil, while organic matter was a little higher in native soil than that of cultivation soil. In native bracken plants, three major elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, were 4.40, 0.55 and 3.40%, calcium and magnesium were 0.22 and 0.32%, and microelements of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and boron were 126, 210, 23, 75 and 11 mg
, respectively. In cultivation bracken, three major elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, were 5.50, 0.73 and 3.55%, calcium and magnesium were 0.17 and 0.28%, and microelement contents of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and boron (B) were 120, 252, 19, 72 and 20 mg
Relationship between the Incidence of Bitter pit and the Application Level of Crushed Oyster Shell in Apple Orchard
Heo, Jae-Young ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Kim, Min-Geun ; Hong, Kang-Pyo ; Song, Won-Doo ; Rho, Chi-Woong ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 637~643
For enhancement of apple productivity, the calcium fertilizers to increase the calcium content of fruit, and reduce the incidence of bitter pit in apples are applied. Crushed oyster shell contains a plenty of calcium carbonate, and a very small amount of boron, ferrous, and manganese. A field study was conducted to determine the optimum level of crushed oyster shell for soil nutrient management, and its effect on the induction of bitter pit in cultivar 'Gamhong' apple. The application of crushed oyster shell increased organic matter, available phosphate, and exchangeable cation concentration in soil. We found a significant positive correlation between soil pH, and application level of crushed oyster shell in both top, and subsoils. The incidence of bitter pit in apple fruit at the harvest stage was significantly higher in non treatment and calciummagnesium carbonate treatment than on over applications 4 Mg
for crushed oyster shell. However, the optimum level of crushed oyster shell was 2 Mg
, especially considering the soil Ca content, soil pH, fruits weight, and yield. Our results show that the crushed oyster shell can be effective in restoring the soil nutrient balance, and inducing the bitter pit in apple fruit.
Evaluating Quality of Fertilizer Manufactured (livestock manure compost) with Different Sources in Korea
Nam, Yi ; Yong, Seok-Ho ; Song, Kyoung-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 644~649
The main objective of this research was to evaluate physicochemical properties of commercially available fertilizer manufactured with different sources (swine, cattle, poultry, and mixed manure) in Korea. Results of this research showed that average content of organics was ranged 39.11-40.78% depending on different sources with the highest value in swine manure. Average water contents in fertilizer was ordered swine > cattle > mixed > poultry, and ranged 37.00-42.16%. Total of 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were investigated and no significant difference was observed for average concentration of heavy metals depending on different sources except Zn and Cu. For both heavy metals, fertilizer manufactured with swine manure showed higher concentration (346.34 mg/kg for Zn and 117.00 mg
for Cu) than other fertilizers mainly due to feed contents. More long term monitoring would be necessary to make best management practice for commercially available fertilizer in Korea.
Effects of Green Manure Crops on Improvement of Chemical and Biological Properties in Soil
Choi, Bong-Su ; Jung, Jung-Ah ; Oh, Mi-Kyung ; Jeon, Sang-Ho ; Goh, Hyun-Gwan ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 650~658
We used green manure crops such as hairy vetch, crimson clover, rye, sorghum, and sudan grass by mixing with soils to assess the effects of green manure crops on nutrient supply and soil quality improvement. Temporal changes in soil inorganic nitrogen, carbohydrate, microbial biomass, and humus content were determined as soil quality indicators. Inorganic nitrogen content of the control maintained similar level during the whole period, but it had continually increased until 4 weeks after incorporation (WAI) of green manure crops. Especially, inorganic nitrogen content sharply increased in sudan grass. After incorporation of green manure crops, temporal change of soluble sugar in soils was as follows: it had gradually increased in legume green manure crops-incorporated soils until 7 WAI, which was the highest, and then showed the tendency to be reduced. Meanwhile, it in non-legume green manure crops-incorporated soils rapidly increased after the incorporation, and reached the maximum around 4 WAI. Humic acid by the decomposition of crop residues in green manure crops-incorporated soils was greatly enhanced with the elapsed time of 4 WAI, although it was low at the same level as the control until 2 weeks. In addition, there was a difference in fulvic acid by incorporated crops, fulvic acid in hairy vetch, sorghum and sudan grass showed a similar tendency with the change in humic acid. Our results suggest that soluble sugar, microbial activity and humic acid could be available indicators to evaluate the fertility of green manure crops-incorporated soils.
Biological Control of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by Lysobacter antibioticus HS124
Kang, Seong-Jun ; Lee, Yong-Sung ; Lee, So-Youn ; Yun, Gun-Young ; Hong, Sung-Hyun ; Park, Yun-Suk ; Kim, Ik-Soo ; Park, Ro-Dong ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 659~666
Lysobacter antibioticus HS124 was isolated from rhizosphere soil in previous experiments, which produced lytic enzymes such as chitinase, gelatinase, lipase and protease. In addition, HS124 released an antibiotic compound, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA). When larvae of P. xylostella was treated with HS124 culture broth, its body was destroyed, and degraded with the increase of incubation time, yielding glycine which was detected from HS124 culture broth. When 4-HPAA produced from HS124 was sprayed, larvae mortality increased with increasing concentration of 4-HPAA. When HS124 culture supplemented with Tween 80 was sprayed, its insecticidal activity against larvae was approximately 1.4 times higher compared to the culture without Tween 80. Insecticide (IS), HS124 culture broth (HS124), Magic-pi (MP) and HS124 culture broth+Magic-pi (HS124+MP) were each treated against larvae of P. xylostella to investigate their insecticidal effect where sterile diluted water (SDW) was used as a control. The highest mortality of larvae was found in HS124+MP, followed by IS, MP, HS124 and SDW respectively. Mortality of larvae in HS124 was 31% higher than that in SDW, but 41% lower than that in HS124+MP, meaning that both enzymes and antibiotics produced from HS124 may synergistically act as active agents with plant extract containing neem oil and turmeric in HS124+MP treatment. These results suggested that L. antibioticus HS124 together with plant extract can be one of candidates for biocontrol agents against Plutella xylostella.
Studies on Early Seedling Establishment and Early Growth Responses of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge with Different Seeding times, Application Conditions, and Green Manure Crops for Developing Organic Agriculture Relating to Cropping System
Song, Beom-Heon ; Lee, Kyung-A ; Chang, Yoon-Kee ; Kim, Young-Gook ; Ahn, Tae-Jin ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Park, Chung-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 667~673
Organic agriculture of especially medicinal crops has been interested and focused in taking the qualitative and safety agricultural products in order to maintain and improve the health and happiness of people. With respect to the organic agriculture relating to cropping system, objectives of this study were to examine the seedling establishment after seed germination and emergence and to investigate the early seedling growths of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge with treating two green manure crops, hairy vetch of legume and rye of gramineae, two different conditions of green manures, fresh and dry, and different seeding times. When the seeds were planted at once after treating the green manures with the fresh condition into the soil, the ratios of seedling establishment were very poor, less than 10% in hairy vetch and 20% in rye, respectively. They were increased gradually with delaying the seeding times after the treatments. With treating the green manures of dry conditions, the ratios of seedling establishment were up more than 50% in both hairy vetch and rye crops, showing that the damages of seedling establishment were more in hairy vetch than those in rye. The early seedling growths were slower in treating the green manures than those in the control, showing slow growth with fresh green manures compared to the dry. It would be very important and considered more to evaluate and utilize well the seed germination and the seedling establishment in cultivation of the organic agriculture using the green manure crops relating to the cropping system.
Suitability Assessment for Agriculture of Soils Adjacent to Abandoned Mining Areas Using Different Human Risk Assessment Models
Lee, Jun-Su ; Kim, Young-Nam ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 674~683
The current study was performed to examine the agricultural suitability of the cultivated upland nearby abandoned mining areas in Korea using three different scientific risk assessment models of Korea, USA and UK. For this, three mining sites DM, MG and KS were selected among 687 abandoned mines through preliminary risk assessment. A wide range of parameters were obtained through analysis of both soil and crop samples from the selected areas for heavy metal concentration and questionnaires to the communities along with the selected mining sites. Heavy metal concentration in soil samples was lower than the values previously reported by the Ministry of Environment (ME, 2002). However, both As and Cd concentration in the soil samples exceeded the concern level for agricultural area of the Soil Environment Conservation Act. Judging from the contaminant criteria for the crops, only Zn level in pepper, soybean and corn from the mining area DM exceeded the criteria whereas As, Cd,
, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb did not exceed the criteria. It was demonstrated that there would be human health risk by Pb accumulated in crops from both mining areas MG and KS when estimated by the risk assessment models of Korea and USA. Against it, results of the risk assessment model of UK showed human health risk by Pb in the crops from all study areas.
Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Soil Science
Hong, Suk-Young ; Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Choe, Eun-Young ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 684~695
Geographic information system (GIS) is being increasingly used for decision making, planning and agricultural environment management because of its analytical capacity. GIS and remote sensing have been combined with environmental models for many agricultural applications on monitoring of soils, agricultural water quality, microbial activity, vegetation and aquatic insect distribution. This paper introduce principles, vegetation indices, spatial data structure, spatial analysis of GIS and remote sensing in agricultural applications including terrain analysis, soil erosion, and runoff potential. National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) has a spatial database of agricultural soils, surface and underground water, weeds, aquatic insect, and climate data, and established a web-GIS system providing spatial and temporal variability of agricultural environment information since 2007. GIS-based interactive mapping system would encourage researchers and students to widely utilize spatial information on their studies with regard to agricultural and environmental problem solving combined with other national GIS database. GIS and remote sensing will play an important role to support and make decisions from a national level of conservation and protection to a farm level of management practice in the near future.
Comparison Between Methods for Suitability Classification of Wild Edible Greens
Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Zhang, Young-Seon ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Kim, Lee-Hyun ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Kwon, Sun-Ik ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 696~704
The objective of this study was analysis of two methods of land suitability classification for wild edible green. One method was Maximum limiting factor method (MLFM) and the other was Multi-regression method (MRM) for land suitability classification for wild edible green. The investigation was carried out in Pyeongchang, Hongcheong, Hoeingseong, and Yanggu regions in Korea. The obtained results showed that factors related to the decision classification of the land suitability for wild edible green cultivation were land slope, altitude, soil morphology and gravel contents so on. The classification of the best suitability soil for wild edible greens were fine loamy (silty), valley or fan of soil morphology, well drainage class, B-slope (2~7%), available soil depth deeper than 100cm, and altitude higher than 501m. Contribution of soil that influence to crop yields using Multi-regression method were slope 0.30, altitude 0.22, soil morphology 0.13, drainage classes 0.09, available soil depth 0.07, and soil texture 0.01 orders. Using MLFM, area of best suitable land was 0.2%, suitable soil 15.0%, possible soil 16.7%, and low productive soil 68.0% in Hongcheon region of Gangwon province. But, area of best suitable land was 35.1%, suitable soil 30.7%, possible soil 10.3%, and low productive soil 23.9% by MRM. There was big difference of suitable soil area between two methods (MLFM and MRM). When decision classificatin of the land suitability for wild edible green cultivation should consider enough analysis methods. Furthermore, to establishment of land suitability classification for crop would be better use MRM than MLFM.
Application of LCA Methodology on Lettuce Cropping Systems in Protected Cultivation
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 705~715
The adoption of carbon foot print system is being activated mostly in the developed countries as one of the long-term response towards tightened up regulations and standards on carbon emission in the agricultural sector. The Korean Ministry of Environment excluded the primary agricultural products from the carbon foot print system due to lack of LCI (life cycle inventory) database in agriculture. Therefore, the research on and establishment of LCI database in the agriculture for adoption of carbon foot print system is urgent. Development of LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology for application of LCA to agricultural environment in Korea is also very important. Application of LCA methodology to agricultural environment in Korea is an early stage. Therefore, this study was carried out to find out the effect of lettuce cultivation on agricultural environment by establishing LCA methodology. Data collection of agricultural input and output for establishing LCI was carried out by collecting statistical data and documents on income from agro and livestock products prepared by RDA. LCA methodology for agriculture was reviewed by investigating LCA methodology and LCA applications of foreign countries. Results based on 1 kg of lettuce production showed that inputs including N, P, organic fertilizers, compound fertilizers and crop protectants were the main sources of major emission factor during lettuce cropping process. The amount of inputs considering the amount of active ingredients was required to estimate the actual quantity of the inputs used. Major emissions due to agricultural activities were
(emission to air) and
(emission to water) from fertilizers, organic compounds from pesticides and air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion in using agricultural machines. The softwares for LCIA (life cycle impact assessment) and LCA used in Korea are 'PASS' and 'TOTAL' which have been developed by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy and the Ministry of Environment. However, the models used for the softwares are the ones developed in foreign countries. In the future, development of models and optimization of factors for characterization, normalization and weighting suitable to Korean agricultural environment need to be done for more precise LCA analysis in the agricultural area.
Estimation of Carbon Emission and Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Park, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Roh, Kee-An ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 716~721
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) carried out to estimate carbon footprint and to establish of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) database of rice production system. The results of collecting data for establishing LCI D/B showed that organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer input to 4.29E-01 kg
rice and 2.30E-01 kg
rice for rice cultivation. It was the highest value among input for rice cultivation. And direct field emission was 3.23E-02 kg
during rice cropping. The results of LCI analysis focussed on greenhouse gas (GHG) was showed that carbon footprint was 8.70E-01 kg
rice. Especially for 80% of
in the GHG and 7.02E-01 kg of its
rice. Of the GHG emission
were estimated to be 13% and 5%, respectively. With LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) for rice cultivation system, it was observed that fertilizer process might be contributed to approximately 80% of GWP (global warming potential).
Estimation of Carbon Emission and Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Park, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Roh, Kee-An ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 722~727
This study was conducted to estimate the carbon footprint and to establish the database of the LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) for barely cultivation system. Barley production system was separated into the naked barley, the hulled barley and the two-rowed barley according to type of barley species. Based on collecting the data for operating LCI, it was shown that input of fertilizer was the highest value of 9.52E-01 kg
for two-rowed braley. For LCI analysis focussed on the greenhouse gas (GHG), it was observed that carbon footprint were 1.25E+00 kg
naked braley, 1.09E+00 kg
hulled braley and 1.71E+00
two-rowed barley; especially two-rowed barley cultivation system had highest emission value as 1.09E+00 kg
barley. It might be due to emit from mainly fertilizer production for barley cultivation. Also
was emitted at 7.55E-04 kg
barley as highest value from hulled barley cultivation system because of high N fertilizer input. The result of life cycle impcat assessment (LCIA), it was observed that most of carbon emission from barely cultivation system was mainly attributed to fertilizer production and cropping unit. Characterization value of GWP was 1.25E+00 (naked barley), 1.09E+00 (hulled barley) and 1.71E+00 (two-rowed barely) kg
Estimation of Carbon Emission and Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Roh, Kee-An ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Park, Jung-Ah ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 728~733
This study was carried out to estimate carbon emission using LCA and to establish LCI database of potato production system. Potato production system was categorized into the fall season potato and the spring season potato according to potato cropping type. The results of collecting data for establishing LCI D/B showed that input of fertilizer for fall season potato production was more than that for spring season potato production. Input of pesticide for spring season potato production was much more than that for fall season potato production. The value of field direct emission (
) were 2.17E-02 kg
for spring season potato and 2.47E-02 kg
for fall season potato, respectively. The result of LCI analysis focussed on the greenhouse gas (GHG), it was observed that carbon footprint values were 8.38E-01 kg
for spring season potato and 8.10E-01 kg
for fall season potato; especially for 90% and 6% of
emission from fertilizer and potato production, respectively.
was emitted from the process of N fertilizer production (76%) and potato production (23%). It was observed that characterization of values of GWP were 8.38E-01 kg
for spring season potato and 8.10E-01 kg
for fall season potato.
Seasonal Monitoring of Residual Antibiotics in Soil, Water, and Sediment adjacent to a Cattle Manure Composting Facility
Lee, Sang-Soo ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yang, Jae-E ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 734~740
Overuse of veterinary antibiotics threats public health and surrounding environment due to the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic's concentrations of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC) in a tetracycline group (TCs), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and sulfathiazole (STZ) in a sulfonamide group, lasalocid (LSL), monensin (MNS), and salinomycin (SLM) in a ionophore (IPs), and tylosin (TYL) in a macrolide (MLs) group from soil, water, and sediment samples adjacent to a cattle manure composting facility. For all samples of soil, water, and sediment, the highest concentrations were detected in TCs among the tested antibiotics because of its higher annual consumption in veterinary farms, Korea and its higher cohesiveness with divalent or trivalent cations in soil. Moreover, the concentrations of residual antibiotics in September were generally higher than in June because of heavier rainfall in June. We suggest that continual monitoring and developing guideline of antibiotics are needed to control residual antibiotics in the environment.
Growth Response of Hot Pepper Applicated with Ammonium (
) and Potassium (
Li, Jun-Xi ; Wee, Chi-Do ; Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 741~747
The feasibility of using ammonium (
) and potassium (
)-loaded zeolite (NK-Z) as a slow-release fertilizer to control nitrogen and potassium supply was investigated in this study. The growth responses, which were determined in terms of shoot length, shoot fresh weight, and fresh fruit weight, were greater in plants treated with NK-Z than in those treated with chemical fertilizers (CF) after 18 weeks of transplantation. The total fruit weight per plant in treated with NK-Z as the basal and additional fertilizer (ZBAF) was 14.89% higher than that of CF. The nitrogen and potassium contents in NK-Z amended soils were higher than those in CF amended soils in the final stage of plant growth. The ammonium nitrogen (
-N) concentration in ZBAF amended soils was 63.41% higher than that in CF amended soils.
Distribution of Organic Matter and
Contents in Soils Using Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analysis in Jeju Island
Moon, Kyung-Hwan ; Lim, Han-Cheol ; Hyun, Hae-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 748~754
The contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and
in soils are important criteria for the classification of new Andisols in Soil Taxonomy system. There are many soil types in Jeju Island with various soil forming environments. This paper was conducted to estimate the contents of soil organic matter and the content of ammonium oxalate extracted Al and Fe (
) using various environmental variables and to make soil property maps using a statistical analyses. The soil samples were collected from 321 locations and analyzed to measure the contents of SOM and
. It was analyzed the relationships among them and various environmental variables such as temperature, precipitation, net primary product, radiation, evapotranspiration, altitude, soil forming energy, topographic wetness index, elevation, difference surrounded area, and distances from the shore and the peak. We can exclude multi-collinearity among environmental variables with principal component analysis and reduce all the variables to 3 principal components. The contents of SOM and
were estimated by multiple regression models and maps of them were made using the models.
Status of Sediment Dynamics in Lake Takkobu of the Kushiro Mire, Japan, Associated with Forestry and Agricultural Development in the Watershed
Ahn, Young-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 755~763
Fine sediment loadings from agricultural watersheds have led to habitat degradation in Lake Takkobu, northern Japan. Fifteen lake sediment core samples were obtained and analyzed to develop a chronology using physical sediment characters,
, and tephra. The reconstructed sedimentation rates over the past ca 300 years suggested that sedimentation rates increased drastically after land use development. With a natural sedimentation rate of 0.1-1.1 mm
until 1898, lake sedimentation accelerated to 0.6-12.8 mm
after 1898. The sedimentation rates after land use change, such as forestry, river engineering works, and agricultural development, were about 6-12 times higher than that under natural conditions, leading to accelerated lake shallowing over the last ca 100 years. Sedimentation rates between 1898 and 1963 differed with location in the lake because of spatial variation in the sediment flux from the contributing rivers and their watersheds. The sedimentation rate in the southern zone between 1898 and 1963 was significantly higher than that in the middle and northern zones, reflecting active sediment production associated with forestry for charcoal production and canal construction for transportation in the southern watersheds and wetlands. The sedimentation rate after 1963 did not vary among the three zones, because decreasing sedimentation was found in most of the southern sites whereas an increasing trend was observed in the middle and northern sites. This result can be explained by shallowing of lake-bottom morphology with sedimentation and the resultant reduction of sediment retention capacity in the southern zone. Moreover, the sedimentation rate at sampling sites close to river mouths increased by 5-32 times compared with natural rates before 1898. The Kushiro River, into which Lake Takkobu drains under regular flow conditions, further contributed to an increased sedimentation rate, because water from the Kushiro River flows back into Lake Takkobu during floods.
Influence of Continious Application of Gypsum, Popped Rice Hull, and Zeolite on Soil Aggregation of Reclaimed Sandy Loam Soils
Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Lee, Sang-Uk ; Kim, Seong-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 5, 2010, Pages 764~769
We investigated influence of continious application of gypsum (G:
), popped rice hulls (H) and zeolite (Z) on soil aggregation of reclaimed sandy loam soils. The application rates amended to fine sandy loam from reclaimed soils at Kyehwado were varied as follows:1550 (G1), 3100 (G2), 6200 (G3), 1000 (H1), 2000 (H2), 3000 (H3), and 200 (HZ1), 400 (HZ2) and 800 (HZ3) added to 1500(H) kg
, respectively. Soil aggregates were analyzed for 60, 90 and 120 days after treatments (DAT). At 60 DAT, The amount of aggregate from soil samples treated with gypsum was slightly increased with G1 while the aggregation was decreased by 4.66% for G3 for soil aggregates than thar of control. The treatments of H or HZ were effective in soil aggregation. The effect of treatment was in the order of H > HZ > G. At 90 DAT, increasing amount of gypsum attributed to decrease in soil aggregates. Therefore, we could conclude that suitable amounts of gypsum for soil aggregation in fine sandy loam might be 1550 kg
or less. H1 increased aggregation by 7% for aggregate size between 1.0 and 2.0 mm. HZ1 was most effective in aggregation by 52.78% among the treatments while H2 and HZ3 51.50% and 48.51% at 120 DAT, respectively. As a result, we found that the effect of the treatment for soil amendments was in order of H > HZ > G.