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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Soil and Environmental Characteristics of Schizandra Chinensis Baillon Habitat Located in Jangsu-gun, Jeollabuk-do
Lim, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Kang-Soo ; Jung, Hye-Ran ; Kim, Young-Geun ; Song, Mi-Sun ; Cho, Jae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 771~775
This study was carried out to investigate soil and environment characteristics of Schizandra Chinensis Baillon habitat as a part of establishment of conservation plan for important medicinal crop resources in Jangsu-gun, Jeollabuk-do. These habitats are mostly located on the slopes of mountains facing northwest at an altitude of 500 m to 700 m with angles of inclination ranging from 17.6 to 36.4%. Average yearly precipitation and temperature of Schizandra Chinensis Baillon habitat were 1,493.4 mm and
, respectively. The number of plant species growing in Schizandra Chinensis Baillon habitat was found 55 species. Salix gracilistyla, Lespedeza bicolor, and Artemisia princeps var. were shown higher density and coverage. Chemical quality of Schizandra Chinensis Baillon habitats soils was relatively higher than artificial cultivation soil.
The Comparison of Electrical Conductivity for Soil Solutions Extracted in Field Capacity and Saturation-Paste
Lee, Ye-Jin ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Yang, Jae-E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 776~781
Estimating the electrical conductivity of the saturation-paste (SP) is a common method to assess soil salinity. To assess soil salinity realistically, it is important to extract soil solution under field capacity. However, few studies on salinity assessment have been conducted for soil solution extracted under field capacity (-33 kPa; FC) moisture condition due to difficulty in soil solution extraction. This study was conducted to evaluate whether saturation-paste can represent field condition. Soil solutions were extracted from 22 soils in the plastic film house (PFH) and 18 soils in the reclaimed land (RL) at saturation and field capacity moisture conditions. Those were analyzed for pH, EC, cations (
) and anions (
). Both cations and anions of soil solution extracted from FC showed high correlations with ions extracted from SP in the PFH and the RL, except for
in the RL. Results of the t-test, the ECe and
were not significant at significance level 0.05. The slopes of the equations between
and ECe at more than sand 50% soils were higher than less than sand 50% soils, and differences of saturation percentage between SP and FC showed larger as increasing sand percentage. EC was related to soil water retention by soil texture. To determine the EC, soil texture and other soil properties which effect the soil moisture should be considered.
Contribution Rate on Soil Pysico-Chemical Properties Related to Fruit Quality of 'Kyoho' Grapevines
Kim, Seung-Heui ; Choi, In-Myung ; Han, Jeom-Wha ; Cho, Jung-Gun ; Park, Seo-Jun ; Lim, Tae-Jun ; Yun, Hea-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 782~788
Detail management standard on soil conditions in 'Kyoho' grapes were not yet made. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the optimum soil environmental conditions on production of high fruit quality in 'Kyoho' grapes. We established using correlation between fruit quality and soil condition. These results were used to develop soil management guideline with promoting efficiency and minuteness in grape vineyard. Soil conditions were analyzed at total 80 vineyards in major grape producing areas such as Ansung, and Cheonan (40 orchards an area). The soil environmental factors affected fruit weight were soil pH of 36.6%, cultivation layer depth of 23.3%, and cation of 17.8%. The soil condition factors affected sugar content were soil hardness of 24.4%, cation of 24.1% and organic matter content of 22.1%. Cultivation layer depth, soil texture, and phosphate content were low as relative contribution. Coloring was involved with organic matter content, CEC (cation exchange capacity), and saturated hydraulic conductivity. while soil pH, cultivation layer depth, and phosphate content showed low contribution. Finally, relative contribution on fruit quality related with sugar content, fruit weight, and coloring were soil hardness of 28.0%, organic matter content of 25.0%, soil pH of 12.9%.
Prediction of Soil Erosion from Agricultural Uplands under Precipitation Change Scenarios
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Hur, Seong-Oh ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 789~792
Major impacts of climate change expert that soil erosion rate may increase during the
century. This study was conducted to assess the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion by water in Korea. The soil loss was estimated for regions with the potential risk of soil erosion on a national scale. For computation, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with rainfall and runoff erosivity factors (R), cover management factors (C), support practice factors (P) and revised USLE with soil erodibility factors (K) and topographic factors (LS) were used. RUSLE, the revised version of USLE, was modified for Korean conditions and re-evaluate to estimate the national-scale of soil loss based on the digital soil maps for Korea. The change of precipitation for 2010 to 2090s were predicted under A1B scenarios made by National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea. Future soil loss was predicted based on a change of R factor. As results, the predicted precipitations were increased by 6.7% for 2010 to 2030s, 9.5% for 2040 to 2060s and 190% for 2070 to 2090s, respectively. The total soil loss from uplands in 2005 was estimated approximately
ton. Total soil losses were estimated as
ton in 2010 to 2030s,
ton in 2040 to 2060s and
ton in 2070 to 2090s, respectively. As precipitation increased by 17% in the end of
century, the total soil loss was increased by 12.9%. Overall, these results emphasize the significance of precipitation. However, it should be noted that when precipitation becomes insignificant, the results may turn out to be complex due to the large interaction among plant biomass, runoff and erosion. This may cause increase or decrease the overall erosion.
Correlation between the Factors of Soil Physical Property in Upland Soil
Kim, Chan-Yong ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Kwon, Tae-Young ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Heo, Min-Soon ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 793~797
The investigations were conducted to improve the physical properties by analyzing physico-chemical properties on the different soil families of textures at 20 upland fields located in the parts of Gyengsangbuk-do area. Soil physico-chemical properties were analyzed for bulk density, hardness, porosity, moisture, pH, EC and organic mater by soil depth on the different soil families of textures. Bulk density distributions were higher than 1.2 Mg
in the optimum range. Hardness distributions were lower than 20 mm in the optimum range. Therefore, the physical properties of upland soil was deteriorated. Correlation coefficient of bulk density with hardness and organic mater were higher significantly, that was positive and negative, respectively. The soil hardness had the greatest distribution degree to the crop yield and bulk density and organic matter followed. Conclusively, To improve the physical properties of upland soil was more effective to fertilizing organic matter than other ways.
Effect of Tillage Depth and Amount of Compost on Red Pepper Growth
Lee, Gyeong-Ja ; Kim, Young-Sang ; Song, In-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 798~803
Experiments were conducted to find out the optimum amount of compost and tillage depths in pepper cultivation. Red pepper was grown in different plots with 10 cm, 30 cm, and 50 cm in tillage depth, and was applied with 1 ton, 3 ton, and 5 ton
, respectively. The pH value in soil showed lower level after experiment than before experiment, however, the contents of the EC, Av.
, K, Ca, Mg, and Na were increased after experiment. The chemical contents in soil after experiment showed higher level in compost 5 ton
. The growth of red pepper in field was enhanced in the compost treatment of 3 ton, 5 ton
, and tillage 50 cm plot. In tillage 10 cm plot, yields of red pepper showed the highest amount as 5,880 kg
with compost 3 ton
. In tillage 30 cm plot, the yields of red pepper showed the highest as 5,610 kg
with compost 5 ton
. The T-N contents and uptake in the red pepper plant increased in the compost in 3 ton
and 5 ton
compared to 1 ton
. These results suggest that different amounts of compost should be applied when we cultivate crops with different tillage depth.
Evaluation of Drainage Improvement Effect Using Geostatistical Analysis in Poorly Drained Sloping Paddy Soil
Jung, Ki-Yuol ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Park, Ki-Do ; Park, Chang-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 804~811
The lower portion of sloping paddy fields normally contains excessive moisture and the higher water table caused by the inflow of ground water from the upper part of the field resulting in non-uniform water content distribution. Four drainage methods namely Open Ditch, Vinyl Barrier, Pipe Drainage and Tube Bundle for multiple land use were installed within 1-m position from the lower edge of the upper embankment of sloping alluvial paddy fields. Knowledge of the spatial variability of soil water properties is of primary importance for management of agricultural lands. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of drainage in the soil on spatial variability of soil water content using the geostatistical analysis. The soil water content was collected by a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) sensor after the installation of subsurface drainage on regular square grid of 80 m at 20 m paddy field located at Oesan-ri, Buk-myeon, Changwon-si in alluvial slopping paddy fields (
). In order to obtain the most accurate field information, the sampling grid was divided 3 m by 3 m unit mesh by four drainage types. The results showed that spatial variance of soil water content by subsurface drainage was reduced, though yield of soybean showed the same trends. Value of "sill" of soil water content with semivariogram was 9.7 in Pipe Drainage, 86.2 in Open Ditch, and 66.8 in Vinyl Barrier and 15.7 in Tube Bundle.
Water Saving Irrigation Manual of Spring Chinese Cabbage
Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Jung, Pil-Kyun ; Koh, Mun-Hwan ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ; Park, So-Hyun ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 812~822
Water management is the most important and difficult problems in crop cultivation. The farmers are doing irrigation, those when to irrigate and how much to irrigate, depending on their experiences. The irrigation manual as water saving is possible, those irrigation interval and amount of irrigation, are developed based on the lysimeter experiments carried out by the RDA for 11 years about potential evapotranspiration, crop coefficient. The manual can be used with easy to the farmer without soil sampling and any kinds of sensors measuring soil water status.
Application of Analysis Models on Soil Water Retention Characteristics in Anthropogenic Soil
Hur, Seung-Oh ; Jeon, Sang-Ho ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Jo, Hee-Rae ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Kim, Nam-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 823~827
This study was conducted to assess the propriety of models for soil water characteristics estimation in anthropogenic soil through the measurement of soil water content and soil water matric potential. Soil profile was characterized with four different soil layers. Soil texture was loamy sand for the first soil layer (from soil surface to 30 cm soil depth), sand for the second (30~70 cm soil depth) and the third soil layers (70~120 cm soil depth), and sandy loam for the fourth soil layer (120 cm < soil depth). Soil water retention curve (SWRC), the relation between soil water content and soil water matric potential, took a similar trend between different layers except the layer of below 120 cm soil depth. The estimation of SWRC and air entry value was better in van Genuchten model by analytical method than in Brooks-Corey model with power function. Therefore, it could be concluded that van Genuchten model is more desirable than Brook-Corey model for estimating soil water characteristics of anthropogenic soil accumulated with saprolite.
Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in the Upper Han River Basis Using Spatial Soil Erosion Map
Park, Chan-Won ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Hong, S.-Young ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Moon, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 828~836
This study was conducted to evaluate soil erosion risk with a standard unit watershed in the upper Han river basin using the spatial soil erosion map according to the change of landuse. The study area is 14,577
, which consists of 10 subbasins, 107 standard unit watersheds. Total annual soil loss and soil loss per area estimated were
and 6.1 Mg
, respectively. A result of analysis with a subbasin as a unit showed that annual soil losses and soil loss per area in Namhan river basins was more than in Bukhan river ones. Predicted annual soil loss according to the landuse ranked as Forest & Grassland > Upland
Urban & Fallow area > Paddy field > Orchard. Upland area covered 6.2% of the study area, but the contribution of total annul soil loss was 40.6% and that of Forest & Grassland was 44.2%. As a evaluation of soil erosion risk using the spatial soil erosion map, we could precisely conformed the potential hazardous region of soil erosion in each unit watersheds. The ratio of regions, graded as higher "Moderate" for annual soil loss, were respectively 8.7%, 7.9% and 7.8% in 1001, 1002 and 1003 subbasins in Namhan river basin. Most landuse of these area was upland, and these area is necessary to establish soil conservation practices to reduce soil erosion based on the field observation.
Clay Activity and Physico-chemical Properties of Korean Soils with Different Clay Minerals
Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Moon, Yong-Hee ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 837~843
This research investigated classification of clay activity degree by different clay mineral components. Based on compositions of different clay and oxide minerals within 390 soil series in Korea, 7 soils were selected to analyze for CEC and specific surface area of clay minerals. As a result, soils were mainly composed with Chlorite originated from sandstone, Smectite originated from Andesite porphyry and combination of Allophane and Ferrihydrite originated from volcanic ash, if the ratio of CEC value to clay content (degree of clay activity) was greater than 0.7. If the degree of clay activity was ranged between 0.3 and 0.7, soils were composed mainly with Kaolin originated from anorthite. Soils with this ratio also was composted with combinations of Kaolin, Illite and Vermiculite originated with river deposits. When the degree of the activity was less than 0.3, soils were commonly red-yellowish color and composed with two different minerals. One type of composition was Kaolin originated from granite and granite gneiss and the soils contained Geothite and Hematite. The other type was composited mainly with Illite and Vermiculite minerals originated from granite. These soils contained Gibbsite, Geothite and Hematite. The degree of clay activity was highly related with CEC and specific surface area. The greater degree of the activity displayed greater values of clay CEC and specific surface area. It is not easy to measure actual quantity and compositions of clay minerals, while the degree of clay activity can be measured from routine soil analyses. As a conclusion, the degree of clay activity may be not just a simple but also powerful tool to estimate physical-chemical properties of soils and to evaluate the soil classification in Korean soils.
Water Requirement of Red Pepper in Different Growth Stages
Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Jung, Pil-Kyun ; Choi, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ; Park, So-Hyun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 844~847
Water is the most important factor in crop cultivation. Water requirement of red pepper can be calculated based on the lysimeter experiments carried out by the RDA for 11 years about potential evapotranspiration, crop coefficient with climate data. The mean water requirement and total water requirement of red pepper in different growth stages are evaluated for two kinds of cultivation method.
Water Requirement of Red Pepper Cultivated in House
Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Jung, Pil-Kyun ; Choi, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ; Park, So-Hyun ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 848~851
The essential factor for house cultivation is water management. Water requirement of crop is the most important for the water management. The water requirement of crop is different according to the area as well as climate condition and growth stage. However, the measurement of PET (Potential Evapo-Transpiration) and crop coefficient (Kc) is very difficult especially in house cultivation. Therefore, the PET and Kc of red pepper are estimated based on the lysimeter experiments carried out by the RDA for 11 years about the ratio of house cultivation to wild cultivation. Periodic PET, mean water requirement (MWR) and accumulated water requirement (AWR) of red pepper cultivated in house are evaluated.
Effect of Different Levels of Applications of Illite on the Growth of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Bed Soil
Lee, Seok-Eon ; Kim, Hong-Ki ; Kwon, Sang-Moon ; Kim, Hee-Jung ; Yoo, Ri-Bi ; Baek, Ki-Tae ; Lee, Moon-Soon ; Woo, Sun-Hee ; Park, Man ; Chung, Keun-Yook ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 852~857
This study was performed to explore the effect of the clay mineral illite on the improvement of bed soil and plant growth. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was used as a model vegetable crop. The experiment was performed during the whole six weeks in the glass house of the Chungbuk National University. Its seedlings were cultivated in the bed soil normally used for horticultural purpose. Of the seedlings cultured, the healthy and regular size of seed were selected and cultivated in the pots. They were treated with two forms of illite, particulate (PA) and powder (PW), at the following application rates: standard application[P1 (PA1, PW1), 1:20 (w/w)], two times[P2 (PA2, PW2), 1:10 (w/w)], and four times[P4 (PA4, PW4), 1:5 (w/w)] of standard application. Untreatment (P0) was used as a control pot. At six weeks of cultivation, their growth lengths were correspondingly increased as the application rate was increased ranging from P0, P1, P2, and to P4. Their growth length was a little greater on the application of powder illite (PW) than on the particulate illite (PA). Based on the plant analysis for the root, leaf, stem of red pepper, the uptake amounts of K, Ca, and Mg, were correspondingly increased, as the application rate was increased ranging from P0, P1, P2, and to P4, respectively. At the same application rate, their amounts taken up in the respective parts were higher on the application of PW illite than on the PA one. Especially the amounts of Ca and Mg were higher in the stem, leaf than root. Consequently, it appears that the illite treatment, especially, PW form of illite, enhance the growth of red pepper in the glass house during the whole six weeks of experiment.
Effect of Organic Substrates Mixture Ratio on 2-year-old Highbush Blueberry Growth and Soil Chemical Properties
Kim, Hong-Lim ; Kim, Hyoung-Deug ; Kim, Jin-Gook ; Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Choi, Young-Hah ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 858~863
The blueberry farming requires the soil condition of well-drainage, pH of 4.5 to 5.2, and high in organic matters for stable growth and development. Most of soil type of cultivated land in Korea, however, belongs to alkaline soils with low organic matter content and poor drainage. Therefore, the blueberry farmers use peat moss heavily to improve the soil condition, but the guideline on the effective and economic ratio of peat moss is not established yet. This study was performed to determine the cost effective peat moss ratio for amending soils, and to investigate the feasibility of using sawdust and coco peat as soil amendments. Peat moss, coco peat and sawdust are mixed with soil at the ratio of 0, 12.5, 50 and 100% (v/v). Among 3 organic materials with various mixture ratios, the pH of soil was the lowest in 100% peat moss and sawdust mixtures (pH 3.67 and pH 3.73, respectively), followed by pH 5.30 at 50% peat moss. The soil organic matter content are directly proportional to the mixture ratios in all three organic materials and the same trend was observed in the variation of content of exchangeable potassium in the coco peat treatments. On the contrary, the content of available phosphate, exchangeable calcium and magnesium decreased with increasing the ratio of organic materials. The nitrogen content in the leaves decreased as increasing the ratio of peat moss and coco peat in soil, but not of sawdust. The content of phosphate decreased but potassium increased as the ratio of sawdust and coco peat increased. There was no clear difference in the contents of magnesium and calcium among 3 organic materials. The plant height, stem diameter and dry weight of blueberry plants were the highest in 50 % peat moss, followed by 12.5% peat moss and 12.5% coco peat. The plants in 100% peat moss showed very poor growth. It can be concluded that peatmoss, when applied and managed appropriately, will be a good material for improving soil condition as well as securing desirable growth for blueberry. Upon coupling economic aspect, the optimum mixing ratio of peatmoss for blueberry farming is approximately 25-50%.
Changes in Heavy Metal Phytoavailability by Application of Immobilizing Agents and Soil Cover in the Upland Soil Nearby Abandoned Mining Area and Subsequent Metal Uptake by Red Pepper
Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Park, Jeong-Sik ; Kim, Min-Suk ; Koo, Nam-In ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Lee, Jin-Su ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yang, Jae-E ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 864~871
At the current situation of continuous utilization of heavy metal contaminated upland for agricultural purpose in Korea, minimizing transport of heavy metals from soil to crops is important for securing safety of human health. The present study (in field scale) examined the efficiency of several soil amendments (dolomite, steel slag, lime, zeolite, and compost) on reduction of phytoavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil through comparison with no amendment treatment and clean soil cover treatment. For determination of the phytoavailability, 1 M
extraction and red pepper cultivation were introduced. Among the amendments, in general, dolomite and steel slag were the most effective in reduction of metal (Cd, Pb, and Zn) phytoavailability resulting in less accumulation of these metals in shoot and fruit of red pepper. However, dolomite and steel slag treatment was not as effective as clean soil cover treatment which showed the least metal accumulation in red pepper fruit. Nevertheless, with taking into account the cost, treatment of dolomite or steel slag can be competitive method because the current study showed that dolomite or steel slag treatment reduced accumulated heavy metal concentration effectively in both shoot and fruit of red pepper compared to those from control soil and the concentration in fruit was within the standard value (<0.2 mg
for both Cd and Pb).
Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Copper Hydroxides in Highly Concentrated Solution
Nam, Dae-Hyean ; Choi, Choong-Lyeal ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Park, Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 872~879
Layered copper hydroxides [LCHs,
] has the agricultural potentials as a fungicide because of its high crystallinity, excellent anion exchange capacity, and its regular layered particle size. The study, for the first time, has synthesized LCHs in highly concentrated solution and evaluated its physicochemical properties including the crystallinity and suspension stability. Optimal synthetic condition of LCHs was determined by crystallinity and stability of suspension as follow; 1) concentrations of
and NaOH solutions were 3.0 M respectively, 2) reaction temperature and solution pH were
and 6.0, respectively, and 3) aging time after reaction was 2hr. Crystallinity of LCHs enhanced with increase in pH up to 9.0. Whereas, stability of suspension was decrease by increase in crystal size. Especially, increase in reaction temperature decreased stability of suspension. XRD patterns and SEM images exhibited that LCHs had regular layered particle size with 0.2~0.8
and high crystallinity in optimal synthetic condition. The particle size was increased with increase in reaction temperature and pH. These results showed that LCHs synthesized in highly concentrated solution exhibited high stability of suspension as well as high crystallinity suitable to their potential as a fungicide.
Emissions with Changes of Soil Temperature, Soil Water Content and Mineral N in Red Pepper and Soybean Field
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 880~885
Importance of climate change and its impact on agriculture and environment has increased with a rise of greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration in Earth's atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (
) emission in upland fields were assessed in terms of emissions and their control at the experimental plots of National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) located in Suwon city. It was evaluated
emissions at different soil water content, soil temperature, and mineral N conditions in a upland cultivating red pepper and soy bean. The results were as follows: 1) There were significant correlation between amount of
emissions and soil temperature, soil water content and mineral N conditions showed
in red pepper field and
in soybean field, respectively. 2) From the contribution rate analysis as to contribution factors for
emission, it appeared that contribution rate was in the order of mineral N (71.9%), soil moisture content (23.6%), and soil temperature (4.5%) in pepper field and mineral N (65.5%), soil moisture contents (19.2%), and soil temperature (15.2%) in soybean field.
Assessment of Green House Gases Emissions using Global Warming Potential in Upland Soil during Pepper Cultivation
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 886~891
Importance of climate change and its impact on agriculture and environment have increased with a rise of greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration in Earth's atmosphere, which caus an increase of temperature in Earth. Greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (
), methane (
) and nitrous oxide (
) in the Upland field need to be assessed. GHGs fluxes using chamber systems in two upland fields having different soil textures during pepper cultivation (2005) were monitored under different soil textures at the experimental plots of National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) located in Suwon city, Korea.
emissions were 12.9 tonne
in clay loam soil and 7.6 tonne
in sandy loam soil.
emissions were 35.7 kg
in clay loam soil and 9.2 kg
in sandy loam soil.
emissions were 0.054 kg
in clay loam soil and 0.013 kg
in sandy loam soil. Total emission of GHGs (
) during pepper cultivation was converted by Global Warming Potential (GWP). GWP in clay loam soil was higher with 24.0 tonne
than that in sandy loam soil (10.5 tonne
), which implied more GHGs were emitted in clay loam soil.
Estimation of Carbon Emission and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) From Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Park, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 892~897
LCA (Life Cycle assessment) was carried out to estimate on carbon footprint and to establish of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) database of sweetpotato production system. Based on collecting the data for operating LCI, it was shown that input of organic fertilizer was value of 3.26E-01 kg
and it of mineral fertilizer was 1.02E-01 kg
for sweetpotato production. It was the highest value among input for sweetpotato production. And direct field emission was 2.47E-02 kg
during sweetpotato cropping. The result of LCI analysis focussed on greenhouse gas (GHG) was showed that carbon footprint was 4.05E-01 kg
for 71% of the GHG emission and the value was 2.88E-01 kg
sweetpotato. Of the GHG emission
were estimated to be 18% and 11%, respectively. It might be due to emit from mainly fertilizer production (32%) and sweetpotato cultivation (28%) for sweetpotato production system.
emitted from sweetpotato cultivation for 90% of the GHG emission. With LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) for sweetpotato production system, it was observed that the process of fertilizer production might be contributed to approximately 90% of GWP (global warming potential). Characterization value of GWP and POCP were 4.05E-01
and 5.08E-05 kg
Estimation of Carbon Emission and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Soybean (Glycine max L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Park, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 898~903
This study was carried out to estimate carbon emission using LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and to establish LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) database of soybean production system. Based on collecting the data for operating LCI, it was shown that input of organic fertilizer was value of 3.10E+00 kg
soybean and it of mineral fertilizer was 4.57E-01 kg
soybean for soybean cultivation. It was the highest value among input for soybean production. And direct field emission was 1.48E-01 kg
soybean during soybean cropping. The result of LCI analysis focussed on greenhouse gas (GHG) was showed that carbon footprint was 3.36E+00 kg
for 71% of the GHG emission. Also of the GHG emission
were estimated to be 18% and 11%, respectively. It might be due to emit from mainly fertilizer production (92%) and soybean cultivation (7%) for soybean production system.
was emitted from soybean cropping for 67% of the GHG emission. In
were 2.36E+00 kg
soybean and 3.50E-01 kg
soybean, respectively. With LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) for soybean production system, it was observed that the process of fertilizer production might be contributed to approximately 90% of GWP (global warming potential). Characterization value of GWP was 3.36E+00 kg
Estimation of Carbon Emission and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Production System
So, Kyu-Ho ; Park, Jung-Ah ; Huh, Jin-Ho ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 904~910
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) carried out to estimate carbon footprint and to establish of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) database of pepper production system. Pepper production system was categorized the field cropping (redpepper) and the greenhouse cropping (greenpepper) according to pepper cropping type. The results of collecting data for establishing LCI D/B showed that input of fertilizer for redpepper production was more than that for greenpepper production system. The value of fertilizer input was 2.55E+00 kg
redpepper and 7.74E-01 kg
greenpepper. Amount of pesticide input were 5.38E-03 kg
redpepper and 2.98E-04 kg
greenpepper. The value of field direct emission (
) were 5.84E-01 kg
redpepper and 2.81E+00 greenpepper, respectively. The result of LCI analysis focussed on the greenhouse gas (GHG), it was observed that the values of carbon footprint were 4.13E+00 kg
for redpepper and 4.70E+00 kg
for greenpepper; especially for 90% and 6% of
emission from fertilizer and pepper production, respectively.
was emitted from the process of N fertilizer production (76%) and pepper production (23%). The emission value of
from greenhouse production was more higher than it of field production system. The result of LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) was showed that characterization of values of GWP (Global Warming Potential) were 4.13E+00 kg
for field production system and 4.70E+00 kg
for greenhouse production system. It was observed that the process of fertilizer production might be contributed to approximately 52% for redpepper production system and 48% for greenpepper production system of GWP.
Assessment on Greenhouse Gas (
) Emissions in Korea Cropland Sector from 1990 to 2008
Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 911~916
Rice paddy fields and crop residue burning are a major source of methane (
) emissions, a potent greenhouse in agriculture. This study was conducted to assess
emissions in Korea cropland sector from 1990 to 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from the cropland sector are calculated in two categories: 4C (Rice cultivation) and 4F (Field burning). In 4C: Rice Cultivation, methane emissions from paddy fields (continuously flooded and intermittently flooded) cultivated for rice production had decreased from 395
Mg in 1990 to 297
Mg in 2008.
emissions converted into
equivalent were 8,303
Mg in 1990 and 6,229
Mg in 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from paddy field in Korea showed that it was gradually going down as the cultivation area decreased. In 4F: Field Burning, methane emissions by burning crop residue increased from 2,502
Mg in 1990 to 2,726
Mg in 2008. Emissions converted
equivalent were 53
Mg in 1990 and 57
Mg in 2008. Total emissions of
from the cropland sector declined from 8,356
Mg in 1990 to 6,287
Mg in 2008.
Arsenic Fractionation and Bioavailability in Paddy Soils Near Closed Mines in Korea
Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Jong-Jin ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Paik, Min-Kyoung ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 917~922
To assess the bioavailability of As in soils and to provide a basic information for adequate management of As contaminated fields, paddy soils and rice grains near 5 closed mines were collected and analyzed for As using sequential extraction procedure. The As contents extracted with 1M HCl against total As content in soils were ranged from 5.4 to 41.9% (
). However, these two contents of As in soils were not positively correlated with As concentration in rice grains. Major As fractionation of paddy soils was residual form ranging 38.1 to 84.1% except NS mine. Also, specially adsorbed fraction and fraction associated with amorphous Fe and Al oxyhydroxides, which are partially bioavailable As fractionation to the rice plant, were positively correlated with As in rice grains while fraction associated with crystalline Fe and Al oxyhydroxides and residual form were not correlated.
Investigations of Soil Chemical Properties in the Cultivation Fields of Rubus coreanus with Different Growth Ages
Lee, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Ho ; Kang, Byeong-Suk ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 923~929
This study was conducted to investigate the relations between soil chemical properties and Korean raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) growth. Soils were collected from 54 sampling sites in 1 to 6 years old Korean raspberry cultivation fields (RCFs) at Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-Do, Korea. In RCF with two to six years old plants, soil pH and exchangeable
contents were higher at the leaf-emergence time, but EC, available phosphorus content, CEC, and total nitrogen content were higher at the harvesting time; especially at the harvesting time, the content of available phosphorus in the RCF with 3~6 years old plants were at least three times higher than in the RCF with 2 years old plants. Water-soluble anions (
) in the RCF were also measured. The contents of
were always higher in the RCF with older plants than in the RCF with younger plants, which were not affected by sampling time and sampling locations (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sites). However, soils collected from non-rhizosphere at the leaf-emergence time contained higher
content was higher in the soils collected from rhizosphere at the harvesting time. In general, soils in the RCFs contained excess amounts of inorganic nutrients such as available phosphorus and exchangeable
. Thus, optimal levels of soil properties for Korean raspberry cultivation should be reconsidered.
Long-term Monitoring Study of Soil Chemical Contents and Quality in Paddy Fields
Kim, M.S. ; Kim, W.I. ; Lee, J.S. ; Lee, G.J. ; Jo, G.L. ; Ahn, M.S. ; Choi, S.C. ; Kim, H.J. ; Kim, Y.S. ; Choi, M.T. ; Moon, Y.H. ; Ahn, B.K. ; Kim, H.W. ; Seo, Y.J. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Hwang, J.J. ; Kim, Y.H. ; Ha, S.K. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 930~936
There is very important to investigate long-term trend of soil chemical properties and quality index for sustainable agriculture and production of agricultural safety products. Monitoring on soil chemical properties in paddy soils was conducted as one cycle with 4 years from 1999 to 2007. Paddy soil samples were taken from 4,007, 1,970, 2,070 sites in 1999, 2003 and 2007, respectively. With these data, soil quality index (SQI) was evaluated by method that Yoon et al suggested in 2004. Chemical properties of paddy soils were 5.8 for pH, 24 g
for organic matter, 132 mg
for available phosphate, 0.29 cmol_c\; kg-1 for exchangeable potassium, 4.7
for exchangeable calcium, 1.3
for exchangeable magnesium and 126 mg
for available silicate in 2007. Long-term change was shown that pH has increased gradually whereas exchangeable potassium has decreased. However, reasonably large changes were found. Exchangeable calcium and available silicate level in 1999 was 4.0
, 86 mg
, but had risen to 4.7
, 126 mg
in 2007, respectively. The change of paddy soils quality index was increased gradually and increasement of silicate quality index was higher than other quality indicators.
Accumulation, Mobility, and Availability of Copper and Zinc in Plastic Film House Soils Using Speciation Analysis
Kim, Rog-Young ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 937~944
Cu and Zn can be accumulated in plastic film house soils by long-term application of livestock manure or compost. The mobility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn accumulated in soils are strongly influenced by their chemical or geochemical species in soils. In order to assess the accumulation, mobility, and bioavailability of Cu and Zn in plastic film house soils, we determined their geochemical species using a sequential extraction, grouped into three pods: the total pool, the potentially mobil pool, and the mobil pool. Total contents of Cu and Zn, ranged from 14.9 to 53.1 mg
for Cu and from 55.4 to 169 mg
for Zn, lied by far below the soil contamination standards, but exhibited little accumulation compared with their geogenic concentrations. Mobile contents of Cu and Zn and their percentage of total contents were strongly affected by soil pH in addition to total contents and soil organic matter. Mobile contents of Cu, ranged from <0.01 to 1.71 mg
, showed their minimum between pH 5.0 and 6.0 and increased above pH 6.0 to 8.0. In contrast, mobile contents of Zn, varied from <0.01 to 12.4 mg
, showed their minimum above pH 7.0 and increased strongly with decreasing pH below 5.5~6.0. Potentially mobile and total contents of Cu and Zn rose with ascending soil organic matter. To assess ecological and toxic effects of Cu and Zn in soils, mobile and potentially mobile contents, as bioavailable and potentially bioavailable pools, should be considered more important than total contents.
Effect of Swine Liquid Manure on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Lee, Kyu-Hoi ; Yoo, Jae-Hong ; Park, Eun-Ju ; Jung, Yeong-In ; Tipayno, S.C. ; Shagol, C.C. ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 945~953
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of swine liquid manure (SLM) on rice grown in Yeonggwang-gun in 2008. The treatments consisted of SLM and chemical fertilizer (CF) based on the recommended amount of nitrogen (11 kg N
). The Total N content of the SLM used was 2,881 mg
. Plant height at the early stage of growth and tiller number were not significantly different between plots applied with swine liquid manure and those with chemical fertilizer in all areas. Plant height at the later stage of growth, lodging and yield were not significantly different between plots applied with swine liquid manure and those with chemical fertilizer in three areas (Baeksu, Gunnam, Beopseong). Plant height at the later stage of growth, as well as lodging were higher in SLM plots than in chemically fertilized plots in Yeonggwang and Yeomsan. However, grain yield was lower in SLM plots than in chemically fertilized plots in these areas. Soil organic matter content and exchangeable cations increased in the swine liquid manure applied plots. Moreover, heavy metal content did not increase in the plots treated with swine liquid manure. Further research to determine the suitable rate of swine liquid manure is needed to reduce lodging damage and to increase the yield and quality of rice.
Evaluation of Biomass and Nitrogen Status in Paddy Rice Using Ground-Based Remote Sensors
Kang, Seong-Soo ; Gong, Hyo-Young ; Jung, Hyun-Cheol ; Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 954~961
Ground-based remote sensing can be used as one of the non-destructive, fast, and real-time diagnostic tools for quantifying yield, biomass, and nitrogen (N) stress during growing season. This study was conducted to assess biomass and nitrogen (N) status of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under N stress using passive and active ground-based remote sensors. Nitrogen application rates were 0, 70, 100, and 130 kg N
. At each growth stage, reflectance indices measured with active sensor showed higher correlation with DW, N uptake and N concentration than those with the passive sensor. NIR/Red and NIR/Amber indices measured with Crop Circle active sensors generally had a better correlation with dry weight (DW), N uptake and N content than vegetation indices from Crop Circle passive sensor and NDVIs from active sensors. Especially NIR/Red and NIR/amber ratios at the panicle initiation stage were most closely correlated with DW, N content, and N uptake. Rice grain yield, DW, N content and N uptake at harvest were highly positively correlated with canopy reflectance indices measured with active sensors at all sampling dates. N application rate explains about 91~92% of the variability in the SI calculated from NIR/Red or NIR/Amber indices measured with Crop Circle active sensors on 12 July. Therefore, the in-season sufficiency index (SI) by NIR/Red or NIR/Amber index from Crop Circle active sensors can be used for determination of N application rate.
Pig Manure Compost and Urea Application Effects on Chinese Cabbage in Different Soil Fertility
Yun, Hong-Bae ; Han, Seung-Gap ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 962~967
The influences of the different mixture of urea fertilizer and pig manure compost as a nitrogen (N) source on Chinese cabbage yield, N uptake, and N agronomic efficiency (AE) were evaluated in two soils having different soil fertility levels. Increasing urea application level was very effective to improve yield and N uptake of Chinese cabbage, and the highest yield was obtained by urea fertilization alone in two soils. On the other hand, the lowest yield and N uptake was obtained from compost alone application in two soils. There was no significant difference in terms of the nitrogen AE between low and high fertility soils that were fully applied with urea. The AE values of Chinese cabbage applied by compost alone were significantly higher in the soil having a low fertility (28.8 g
) than that in soil with high fertility (16.2 g
), suggesting that N in compost was more responsive in improving the yield of Chinese cabbage in low fertility soils.
Estimation and Mapping of Soil Organic Matter using Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Choe, Eun-Young ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 968~974
We assessed the feasibility of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) applied for the spectral processing to enhance the estimation performance quality of soil organic matters using visible-near infrared spectra and mapped their distribution via block Kriging model. Continuum-removal and
derivative transform as well as Haar and Daubechies DWT were used to enhance spectral variation in terms of soil organic matter contents and those spectra were put into the PLSR (Partial Least Squares Regression) model. Estimation results using raw reflectance and transformed spectra showed similar quality with
> 0.6 and RPD> 1.5. These values mean the approximation prediction on soil organic matter contents. The poor performance of estimation using DWT spectra might be caused by coarser approximation of DWT which not enough to express spectral variation based on soil organic matter contents. The distribution maps of soil organic matter were drawn via a spatial information model, Kriging. Organic contents of soil samples made Gaussian distribution centered at around 20 g
and the values in the map were distributed with similar patterns. The estimated organic matter contents had similar distribution to the measured values even though some parts of estimated value map showed slightly higher. If the estimation quality is improved more, estimation model and mapping using spectroscopy may be applied in global soil mapping, soil classification, and remote sensing data analysis as a rapid and cost-effective method.
Injury Symptom of Egg Plant Grown in a High pH Rockwool Amended with Ammonium Phosphate
Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Lee, Hyeong-Yong ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kang, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 975~977
Ammonium nitrogen is volatilized as ammonia at high pH soil. This study was conducted to observe an injury cause of egg plant grown in a high pH rockwool amended with ammonium phosphate. The etiolation symptom (yellowing) was appeared on veins of a leaf but not in healthy root when nutrient solution containing ammonium phosphate in addition to essential elements was applied in a top soil of which pH was 7.8. However, the same symptom did not appeared in the egg plant from the top soil in which the nutrition solution containing potassium phosphate instead of ammonium phosphate was applied. pHs were similar between these two different solutions. This revealed that the injury was caused by ammonia gas.
The Toxicity of Nitrogen Dioxide Gas on Fig Plant
Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Choi, Byeong-Ryeol ; Kim, Myung-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 978~980
This study was conducted to observe the cause of injury of fig plant. Nitrogen dioxide gas can be evolved at low pH or reduced in soil. Fig plant cultivated with nutrient solution was wilted or withered. Injury symptom for nutrient solution containing nitrous acid was worse as pH of soil decreased. However, increase in pH of nutrient solution treated with increasing
solution prevented nutrient solution from producing nitrogen dioxide gas. Recovery of the fig plant by pH increase indicated that the cause of injury was nitrogen dioxide gas.
Effect of Long-Term Annual Dressing of Organic Matter on Physico-Chemical Properties and Nitrogen Uptake in the Paddy Soil of Fluvio-Marine Deposit
Yang, Chang-Hyu ; Jeong, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Kim, Sun ; Baek, Nam-Hyun ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Jung, Won-Kyo ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 981~986
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of fertilizer and organic resource annual dressing for 30 years of Jeonbug series (silt loam) on soil properties and rice N uptake in paddy field soil. In the study field, treatments including control (NPK), NPK+rice straw, NPK+rice straw compost and nitrogen fertilization levels at 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 kg
have been imposed for 30 years. Soil hardness and bulk density decreased from 15.7 mm and 1.381 Mg
in the control to 12.5 mm and 1.244 Mg
in NPK+rice straw compost treatment, respectively, indicating improvement of soil physical conditions such as porosity. Co-application of straw compost with NPK also result in a better chemical properties than NPK alone as it increased available phosphate (from 96 to 133 mg
), available silicate (from 81 to 116 mg
), and cation exchange capacity (from 9.8 to 11.4
). Soil organic matter concentration of top soil (0 to 7.5 cm in depth) was higher in NPK+rice straw and NPK+rice straw compost than in control. Fertilizer N uptake amount was much higher in NPK+rice straw (nitrogen fertilization level; 250 kg
) and NPK+rice straw compost (nitrogen fertilization levels; 200, 250 kg
) plots compared to the control (nitrogen fertilization level; 100 kg
) plot. Nitrogen use efficiency was showed significantly high in the NPK+rice straw compost (nitrogen fertilization levels; 100, 150 kg
) plot compared to the control (nitrogen fertilization level; 100 kg
) plot. Therefore, it was suggested that application of organic inputs is helpful in improving soil fertility and physical conditions and thus in N uptake.
Effect of the Long-term Application of Organic Matters on Microbial Diversity in Upland Soils
Suh, Jang-Sun ; Kwon, Jang-Sik ; Noh, Hyung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 987~994
To investigate the effect of long term application of organic matter in upland soils, plots for treatments of NPK, NPK+pig manure compost, rape seed cake, rice straw compost, and green manure were set up. Populations of Bacillus and Gram negative bacteria were high in the plot treated with green manure application, but microbial biomass was increased with chemical fertilizer or pig manure compost in upland soils. Activities of phosphomonoesterase and dehydrogenase were high with organic matter application comparing to control. Cluster patterns analysed using phospholipid fatty acid of plots treated with rice straw and or pig manure compost were clearly different comparing with other treatments. Dominant bacteria in upland soils were Bacillus flexus, B. subtilis and B. megaterium. And the strains isolated from upland soils had amylase, protease and lipase activities.
Distribution Map of Microbial Diversity in Agricultural land
Suh, Jang-Sun ; Noh, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, Jang-Sik ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Hong, Suk-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 995~1001
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of biodiversity over space and time. We report the development of a prototype database that maps of microbial diversity in the context of the geochemical and geological environment and geographic location. It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance in nation wide. Microbial data collected from agricultural land during 1999 to 2007 were categorized for mapping with ArcGIS program. Distribution maps of bacteria, fungi, Bacillus and gram negative bacteria of agricultural land showed different patterns from each other. Microbial biomass content investigated in year of 2007 was higher than in 1999.
Effectiveness on the Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Cutting of Grapevine
Wee, Chi-Do ; An, Gi-Hong ; Kim, Hong-Lim ; Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1002~1007
The study was performed to investigate the influence on growth and development of grape-cuttings by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation, AM colonization rate, and the phenomena of mycorrhizal association. Among the grape-cuttings, 'Kyoho' and 'Tamnara' cultivars inoculated with AM fungi showed significantly increase of leaf area, leaf number, total root length and root surface area than non-infected ones. But 'Cambell Early' did not showed any significant difference in total root length and root surface area even after the inoculation. The AM colonization rates in mycorrhizal inoculation treatment were 22.5-32.5% in total average after 8weeks, and were 29.6%, 28.8%, and 48.8% for 'Cambell Early', 'Tamnara', and 'Kyoho' respectively after 12weeks. The AM colonization rate marked very low level in non-colonization control plot.
Feasibility of a simple determination of soil organic matter content using spectrophotometric method in Korean soils
Seo, Young-Ho ; Mo, Young-Moon ; Cho, Byoung-Ouk ; Kang, An-Seok ; Jeong, Byeong-Chan ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1008~1011
A method currently used to determine soil organic matter (SOM), Tyurin method, is time consuming and expensive while accurate. Recently, a spectrophotometric determination was reported to be rapid, accurate, stable, easy to execute, and amendable to field use for soil samples obtained from Texas, USA. The objective of this study was to test if the spectrophotometric method is applicable to soils in Korea. Soil organic matter was extracted by 1 M HCl followed by a 0.25 M NaOH-0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate solution at a ratio of 1:250 soil:extractant. Soil organic matter determined by Tyurin method was linearly related to the value based on absorbance at 300 nm of the soil extracts with a coefficient of determination (
) of 0.81. Therefore, the result imply that this spectrophotometric method can be used to determine the soil organic matter of agricultural soils in Korea.
Contents of Soil Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Pepper under Upland
Hwang, Jae-Moon ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Kim, Su-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1012~1017
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of continuous cropping of pepper on soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) under upland applied without any pesticides and chemical herbicides from 2000 to 2009. Microbial PLFAs were analysed from soils sampled in 2009. Soil microbial diversities showed PLFAs of monoplanting of pepper were distinct from those of monoplanting of garlic and interplanting of garlic and pepper by principle component 2 (PC2). Furthermore, soil microbial activity of monoplanting of pepper significantly decreased PLFAs representing as VAM-fungi, whereas it significantly increased in actinomycetes and saturated/monounsaturated PLFAs' ratio. The results drove continuous cropping of pepper would vary the microbial community and their specific activity. Soil microbial activities in continuous cropping system would depend on crop root systems.
An Analysis of Changes in Rice Growth and Growth Period Using Climatic Tables of 1960s (1931~1960) and 2000s (1971~2000)
Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Na, Young-Eun ; Han, Min-Su ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1018~1023
Climatic change was observed and analyzed in view of impacts on agricultural ecosystem, inter alia on rice cropping. The changed climate gave rise to earlier transplanting of rice seedling and later harvest after 40 years. Also phenological change and prolonged growth duration was observed. The meteorological data was selected from the standardized climatological data of 30 year normals of 1960s and 2000s, which were published by Korea Meteorological Administration. Development stages and growing periods of rice crop were compared by analyzing critical and optimum temperatures of each growth stage during these two periods. The first appearance date of
was ranged from Apr. 29 to May 23 in the year-normals of 1960s and it varied from Apr. 24 to May 16 in the normals of 2000s. The difference of the first appearance date of
was 0~10 days earlier in the year-normals of 2000s than the 1960s. The last harvesting date was determined to be the last appearance date of mean air temperature
. The difference in the last appearance date of
was 1 to 13 days later in the year-normals of 2000s than in 1960s. The plant height of a rice variety, Hwayoung-byeo was 101~109 cm in 4 local areas, Seoul, Kangneung, Kwangju and Daegu. The plant height became 1~4 cm taller under warm condition. Rice grain yields estimated with daily weather data for the year-normals of 1960s and 2000s were 453~580 kg
and 409~484 kg
respectively. Rice grain yield of the former period was 50~100 kg
higher than that hat in the later period.
Soil Survey and Land Evaluation for Establishing the Demonstration Farm in the Oudomxai Province, Laos
Park, Moo-Eon ; Park, Ki-Wook ; Cho, Il-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1024~1034
In order to select the demonstration farm site for agricultural investment by Korean fund, 14 sites were investigated by soil morphological characteristics and were evaluated by rating method in the Oudomxai province of Laos. Land evaluation was carried out by using eight factors, such as site accessibility, soil erosion susceptibility, easiness of farm mechanization, irrigation water obtainability, suitability of soil physical and chemical properties for crop growth, cost for establishment of farm foundation and land obtainability. In addition, one site to have been highly ranked was soil physico-chemically studied for farm planning. The site of heavy clayey soil has hydraulic conductivity of 26.27~40.64 cm
, organic content of lower than 14 g
, available phosphate content of lower than 3 mg
, exchangeable cations of lower than 0.38, 11 and 3.1 cmolc
in K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Major important limitations for establishment of demonstration farm were concluded as heavy soil-texture, high soil erodibility, low organic matter and phosphate contents, and insufficient irrigation water in the Oudomxai province of Laos.
Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in Forest Areas, Korea
Seung-Woo, Lee ; Lee, Choong-Hwa ; Ji, Dong-Hun ; Youn, Hee-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1035~1039
For 65 national forest areas in 1993 to 2008, the ambient sulfur dioxide (
) concentrations were measured monthly using passive samplers and compared to the those of urban areas in order to investigate the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution. In the forest areas, annual average concentration of sulfur dioxide gradually decreased from the beginning year of monitoring to 1997 and then had no significant change, such as the annual trend in urban areas monitored by Ministry of Environment. For the monitoring term, average concentration of sulfur dioxide in the forest areas was 5.6ppb, which was lower than the 10.1ppb in the urban areas and the EC ecological standard level (7.6 ppb). Seasonally, both in forest areas and urban areas the monthly average concentrations were much higher in winter and spring due to much more heating fuel consumption, and lowest in summer. Regional comparison to other regions of Gyeongbuk and Gyeonggi province showed that the concentration of sulfur dioxide was the highest during year. A significant positive correlation between sulfur oxides' emissions and sulfur dioxide concentration by province was observed, reflecting that the size and proximity of sources of atmospheric sulfur oxides could be important factors in determination.
Study on Vegetation Analysis for Indicators Development of Agro-ecosystem Habitat Quality
Park, Kwang-Lai ; Kang, Bang-Hun ; Choi, Jae-Woong ; Kim, Chang-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1040~1046
This research is composed of a series of survey of existing plants species by classifying biotope type of agro-ecosystem of Guksoo village area of Yangpyeong County, to collect and analyze basic data of vegetation analysis for indicators development of agro-ecosystem habitat quality. From the observation area, we found total 141 kinds of tracheophytes (53 Family 114 Genus 124 Species 16 Variety 1 Breed) and they are 3.36% of total Korean tracheophytes (4,191 kinds). Among those 141 tracheophytes, there are 23 kinds of naturalized plants (11 Family 20 Genus 20 Species 2 Variety) and they are 8.61% of total Korean naturalized plants (267 kinds). Among those 141 tracheophytes, they include 0.71% of pteridophyte, 0.71% of gymnosperm, 98.58% of angiosperm. So, most of them are angiosperm. When we classify them according to plant life form characteristics, dormant/diapause type plants include 45 species (31.91%) of annual plant (Th), 19 species (13.48%) of Th (w), 17species (12.06%) of hemicryptophyte (H). Regarding propagation type, as for the Radicoid form, there are 99 species (70.21%) of crumb structure plant, 13 species (9.22%) of
, 12 species (8.51%) of
are the crumb structure does not make any connection on the ground or under ground. As for the Disseminule form of propagation type, there are 62 species (43.97%) of Gravity dispersal type
), 23 species (16.31%) of Wind dispersal type (
), 21 species (14.89%) of
. According to this survey of plant distribution rate by plant life form characteristics, we may acquire many knowledge about species composition of sociability, cluster's reaction against environmental elements, space usage and possible species competition in community. It may be very useful basic data for habitat preservation to keep and promote biological diversity.
Effects of Rice Straw Incorporation by Cutting Methods on Soil Properties and Rice Yield in a Paddy Field
Yang, Chang-Hyu ; Kim, Taek-Kyum ; Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Bog ; Kim, Sun ; Baek, Nam-Hyun ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 43, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1047~1050
This study was to investigate the effects of rice straw incorporation by cutting height on paddy soil fertility. The average residual amount of rice straw by cutting height were showed 1,420 kg
, 1,850 kg
, and 2,400 kg
for depths of 10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm, respectively. For soil physical properties, soil hardness and bulk density were decreased while porosity was increased by rice straw incorporation. But soil organic matter (SOM), available silicate content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly decreased when rice straw was removed from the field. These results indicated that the SOM as residual amount of rice straw was influenced by level of cutting height. Milled rice yield was increased by 28% and 32% for cutting heights of 15 cm and 20 cm, compared with that of control, respectively. The number of spikelets per square meter and the percentage of ripeness were increased with increasing incorporation by lower level of cutting height of rice straw. Therefore, incorporation of rice straw practices under cutting method influenced soil improvement and rice yield in paddy field.