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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 44, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Surface Covering Methods for Reducing Soil Loss of Highland Slope in Radish Cultivation
Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Park, Suk-Hoo ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 667~673
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.667
There is relatively high vulnerability of soil erosion in slope highland agriculture due to a reclamation of mountain as well as low surface covering in early summer season with high rainfall intensity time. The aim of this study was to evaluate various surface covering methods for reducing soil loss in highland radish cultivation in highland. The experiment was conducted in 17% sloped lysimeter (
) with 8 treatments including covering with cut rye, sod culture of rye, Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai, Arachniodes aristata Tindale, Aster koraiensis Nakai, Festuca myuros L. and mulching with black polyethylene film, and runoff water, eroded soil and radish growth were investigated. Surface covering with sod culture and plant residue, especially cut rye treatment, had lower runoff water than non-covering, whereas black polyethylene film mulching had the reverse. The amount of eroded soil was also lowest in cut rye treatment,
, and increased in the order of rye sod culture, Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai, Aster koraiensis Nakai, Festuca myuros L., Arachniodes aristata Tindale, black polyethylene film, and non-covering,
. The results showed that surface covering with sod culture or plant residue could be effective for reducing runoff water and soil erosion in the radish field, significantly in cut rye treatment. On the other hand, in sod culture of rye, Aster koraiensis Nakai and Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai, radish yields were lower than in the non-covering. Unlike this, covering with cut rye, sod culture of Festuca myuros L. had similar radish yield to the non-covering radish yield. In conclusion, covering with cut rye and sod culture of Festuca myuros L. were beneficial for reduction of soil loss without decreasing in radish yield in highland sloped fields.
Development of the Model to Estimate Potential Evapotranspiration in Korea
Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Jung, Pil-Kyun ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ; Park, So-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 674~678
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.674
The model to estimate potential evapotranspiration (PET) was developed using periodic function. Average PET during 30 years for 67 areas was
, and those were distributed with the range of
. The period of PET change was 16~32 years according to area.
Water Saving Irrigation Manual of Autumn Chinese Cabbage
Jung, Pil-Kyun ; Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Son, Yeon-Ku ; Koh, Mun-Hwan ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Park, So-Hyun ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 679~687
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.679
The water management of crop is different according to the area as well as climate condition and growth stage, however it is the most important and difficult problems for the farmers. The optimum irrigation manual those irrigation interval and amount of irrigation as water saving, are developed based on the lysimeter experiments carried out by the RDA for 11 years about PET (Potential Evapo-Transpiration), crop coefficient (Kc). The average PET (Potential Evapo-Transpiration) during 30 years of 45 regions for the autumn chinese cabbage cultivation was a
Compaction Characteristics of Multi-cropping Paddy Soils in South-eastern Part of Korea
Yun, Eul-Soo ; Jung, Ki-Yeul ; Park, Ki-Do ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chang-Yeong ; Hwang, Jae-Bog ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 688~695
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.688
This study was carried out for some survey about soil compaction in the multi-cropping system of paddy field. Investigated sites were 90 farmer's fields in south-eastern part of Korea. The tillage practices season was different according to cropping system of paddy; in spring for mono rice cultivation and in autumn for the multi-cropping field. The average tillage depth in investigated sites was about 25 cm, however, it is different between the farmer's tillage practices and soil characteristics. It is high correlation to tillage deep and minimum resistance of penetration. The reaching soil deep to maximum resistance of penetration was about 27 cm, and average penetration resistance of the deep is 1.8~2.0 MPa for moderately fine-textured soils and more than 3.0 MPa for moderately coarse-textured soils. The difference of penetration resistance between cultivating and compacted layer was in order to sandy loam > clayey loam > clayey, and the difference was lesser in poorly drained soils than somewhat poorly ones. In the rice mono cropping field, the maximum resistance in no-tillage for 15 years was 1.18~1.25 Mpa at 20~25 cm in soil deep, however, the resistance of field with every year tillage practices was 2.03~2.21 Mpa. In the extremely compacted sandy loam textured soils, the penetration resistance at 30 cm in soil depth was drastically reduced by the subsoil from 5.2 Mpa to 3.2 Mpa, and the watermelon root in plastic film house was deep elongated.
Response of Microbial Distribution to Soil Properties of Orchard Fields in Jeonbuk Area
Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Han, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Young-Han ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 696~701
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.696
This study was conducted to investigate impacts of soil properties on microbial distribution in Jeonbuk orchard fields. Soil samples were collected from 110 sites cultivated with different fruit plants. The population of aerobic bacteria and fungi and the content of soil microbial biomass carbon (C) were found to increase with increasing silt content in the soils. Different activity of dehydrogenase was not observed among the different textures of soil. Microbial distribution, amount of microbial biomass C, and dehydrogenase activity in the soils were not significantly different among the topographic sites. However, in pear and grape fruit plant fields, coliform group of bacteria was found in relatively higher population,
, respectively. Microbial groups were simplified and their density was reduced with increasing the cultivation periods of fruit plants. The soil microbial distribution was proportionally correlated with some of soil properties such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) content, and exchangeable Mg content; in particular, the population of Bacillus sp. was proportionally correlated with soil pH and exchangeable Mg content. The amounts of microbial biomass C and the dehydrogenase activity in the soils were significantly correlated with the contents of SOM and exchangeable Ca ion (p<0.01).
Stress Day Index to Predict Soybean Yield Response by Subsurface Drainage in Poorly Drained Sloping Paddy Fields
Jung, Ki-Yuol ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Park, Chang-Young ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Choi, Young-Dae ; Park, Ki-Do ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 702~708
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.702
There are considerable areas of wet paddy fields in Korea that requires improvement of its drainage system. In poorly drained sloping paddy fields, upland crops can be damaged by either rainfall or capillary rise of the water table caused by percolating water beneath the upper fields during summertime rainy season. The purpose of this study is to evaluate excess water stress of soybean yield by drainage systems. Four drainage methods namely open ditch, vinyl barrier, pipe drainage and tube bundle were installed within 1-m position at the lower edge of the upper paddy fields. Stress Day Index (SDI) approach was developed to quantify the the cumulative effect of stress imposed on a soybean yield throughout the growing season. SDI was determined from a stress day factor (SD) and a crop susceptibility factor (CS). The stress day factor is a measure degree and duration of stress of the (
). The crop susceptibility factor (CS) depends of a given excess water on crop stage. The results showed that SDI used to represent the moisture stress index was most low on the pipe drainage 64.75 compared with the open ditch 355.4, vinyl barrier 271.55 and tube bundle 171.55. Soybean grain yield increased continuously with the rate of 3% in Vinyl Barrier, 32% in Pipe Drainage and 16% in Tube Bundle.
Physico-chemical Characteristics of Soil in the Vicinity of King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica
Choi, Ik-Won ; Park, Yang-Ju ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Sung, Hwan-Hoo ; Hur, Tai-Young ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 709~716
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.709
In order to collect basic data of soil environment in the Vicinity of King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica, the physico-chemical characteristics of soils were investigated. Soil samples were collected in Barton Peninsula from 13 sites according to direction from the Sejong Cape. Soils from 13 sites were divided into three groups. The sand percentage of soils were much higher as above 90% than silt and clay percentages of soils at the all sites. Soil texture was classified sandy (10 sites) and loamy sand (3 sites). In distribution characteristics at different soil particles according to direction, large particles (
) were higher in the order of Group 1 (Marian cove coast regions) > Group 2 (Inland regions) > Group 3 (Maxwell bay coast regions). On the other hand, small particles (
) were higher in the order of Group 3 > Group 2 > Group 1. Chemical characteristic of soils showed significant differences at different areas. pH ranged 4.5-6.7, showing it was slightly acid and EC ranged
. T-N, OM and T-C contents were high at #6, #8, #12 and #13 sites. T-P and P2O5 contents were high at #9 and #12 sites. The results of this study will be helpful to understand soil environment in the Antarctic Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Soil Management Techniques for High Quality Cucumber Cultivation in Plastic Film Greenhouse
Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Jung, Yeon-Jae ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Lee, Jae-Kook ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ; Chio, Nag-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 717~721
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.717
In case of plastic film greenhouses cultivating fresh vegetables on paddy soil, soil characteristics must be considered as more important factor than any other factors. Generally after the four years of cultivation, soils tend to increase electrical conductivity value, nutrient unbalance and soil pests. As a result, degradation of agricultural products occurred, therefore it is necessary to improve soil conditions. In this study, yield and economic cost of cucumber were analyzed. The best soil conditions for cucumber cultivation were alluvial or valley in soil topology, moderately or poorly drainage in soil drainage classes, coarse loamy soil in texture. In addition, rich-sunlight and-deep groundwater would be proper for the cucumber cultivation. Good environmental managements of plastic film greenhouse were as follows. The temperature needed to be adjusted three times. The optimal daytime temperature could be
, the one from 12 until night could be
, and the temperature from 24 to sunrise could be
. During plant growth period, soil moisture content was as low as 10~15%, and it needed to be maintained as 15~20% during reproductive growth period. To control pests, catch crop cultivation and solar treatment were carried out, after those EC was reduced and the root-knot nematode was controled too. Cucumber yield from the plot with improved soil managements increased to
, but plot with successive cropping injury yielded
. The income from the plot with improved soil managements was 215,676 thousand won
, the plot with successive cropping injury was 131,649 thousand won
. Income rate of each plot was 51.8% and 38.4%, respectively.
Relative Contribution rate on Soil Physico-chemical properties Related to Fruit Quality of 'Fuji' apple
Kim, Seung-Heui ; Choi, In-Myung ; Han, Jeom-Wha ; Cho, Jung-Gun ; Son, In-Chang ; Lim, Tae-Jun ; Yun, Hea-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 722~726
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.722
The management standard on soil conditions in 'Fuji' apple to produce high quality fruit were not yet made. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the optimum soil environmental conditions of ten contents on production of high quality fruit in 'Fuji' apple. The soil and fruit characteristics were analyzed at total 60 orchards in major apple producing areas such as Chungju, Moonkyeung, yeongju, andong, yeosan and yeongcheon (10 orchards an area). The soil environmental factors affected fruit weight was highest relative contribution in saturated hydraulic conductivity of 36.5%. The bulk density and soil pH were low as relative contribution. The fruit weight was influenced by soil physical properties more than soil chemical properties. The soil environmental factors affected sugar content were hydraulic conductivity of 28.3% and organic matter content of 18.2%. The cultivation layer depth and soil pH were low as relative contribution. The fruit coloring was highest relative contribution in saturated hydraulic conductivity 55.9%. while soil pH, cation and soil texture were low. Fruit coloring was high influenced over 70% by soil physical properties. Finally, relative contribution on fruit quality related with sugar content, fruit weight, and coloring were high influenced by saturated hydraulic conductivity of 21.% and organic matter content of 18.7% but bulk density and cultivation layer depth were low relative contribution. The fruit growth and saturated hydraulic conductivity in 'Fuji' apple were very closely related. Therefore, orchard soil management to produce high quality fruit was very importance drainage management and organic matter application. We concluded that scientific soil management is possible by qualifiable of soil management factors.
Understanding of a Korean Standard for the Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium in Soils and Interpretation of their Results
Kim, Rog-Young ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ; Yun, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Yee-Jin ; Song, You-Seong ; Kim, Won-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 727~733
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.727
A new Korean standard for the determination of Cr(VI) in soils has been officially published as ES 07408.1 in 2009. This analytical method is based on the hot alkaline digestion and colorimetric detection prescribed by U.S. EPA method 3060A and 7196A. The hot alkaline digestion accomplished using 0.28 M
and 0.5 M NaOH solution (pH 13.4) at
determines total Cr(VI) in soils extracting all forms of Cr(VI), including water-soluble, adsorbed, precipitated, and mineral-bound chromates. This aggressive alkaline digestion, however, proved to be problematic for certain soils which contain large amounts of soluble humic substances or active manganese oxides. Cr(III) could be oxidized to Cr(VI) by manganese oxides during the strong alkaline extraction, resulting in overestimation (positive error) of Cr(VI). In contrast, Cr(VI) reduction by dissolved humic matter or Fe(II) could occur during the neutralization and acidic colorimetric detection procedure, resulting in underestimation (negative error) of Cr(VI). Futhermore, dissolved humic matter hampered the colorimetric detection of Cr(VI) using UV/Vis spectrophotometer due to the strong coloration of the filtrate, resulting in overestimation (positive error) of Cr(VI). Without understanding the mechanisms of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) transformation during the analysis it could be difficult to operate the experiment in laboratory and to evaluate the Cr(VI) results. For this reason, in this paper we described the theoretical principles and limitations of Cr(VI) analysis and provided useful guidelines for laboratory work and Cr(VI) data analysis.
An Investigation of Treatment Effects of Limestone and Steel Refining Slag for Stabilization of Arsenic and Heavy Metal in the Farmland Soils nearby Abandoned Metal Mine
Yun, Sung-Wook ; Kang, Sin-Il ; Jin, Hae-Geun ; Kim, Ha-Jin ; Lim, Young-Cheol ; Yi, Ji-Min ; Yu, Chan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 734~744
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.734
A soil stabilization method is an effective and practical remediation alternative for arsenic (As) and heavy metal contaminated farmland soils nearby abandoned metal mine in Korea. This method is a technique whereby amendments are incorporated and mixed with a contaminated soil. Toxic metal bind to the amendments, which reduce their mobility in soil, so the successful stabilization of multi-element contaminated soil depends on the combination of critical elements in the soil and the type of amendments. The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects and applicability of limestone (LS) and steel refining slag (SRS) as the amendment for farmland soil contaminated with As and heavy metals, and a lab-column test was conducted for achieving this purpose. The result showed that soil treated with LS and SRS maintained pH buffer capacity and, as a result, the heavy metal leaching concentration was quite low below the water quality standard compared to untreated soil which leachate exceeding the water quality standard was observed, however, the arsenic concentration rather increased with increasing mixture ratio of SRS. This was believed to be related to phosphorus (P) contained in SRS, and dominancy in the competitive adsorption relation between As and P binding strongly to iron might be different according to soil characteristic. We suggested that LS is a effective amendment for reducing heavy metals in soil, and SRS should be used after investigating its applicability based on the adsorption selectivity of arsenic and phosphorus in selected soil.
Fate of Nitrogen Influenced by Circumstances of a Reclaimed Tidal Soils
Han, Sang-Gyun ; Kim, Hey-Jin ; Song, Jin-Ah ; Chung, Doug-young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 745~751
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.745
In most agricultural soils, ammonium (
) from fertilizer is quickly converted to nitrate (
) by the process of nitrification which is crucial to the efficiency of N fertilizers and their impact on the environment. However, nitrification studies have been studied extensively in agricultural soils, not in a newly reclaimed tidal soil which show saline-sodic and high pH. Therefore, understanding the fate of nitrogen species transformed from urea introduced into reclaimed tidal soil is important for nutrient management and environmental quality. This paper reviewed studies regarding to transformation and fate of nitrogen sources such as urea under the circumstances of a reclaimed tidal soils located in a western coastal area.
Effect of Difference in Soil Salinity, Compost and Additional Fertilizer on the Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat in the Newly Reclaimed Tidal Lands in Korea
Sohn, Yong-Man ; Song, Jae-Do ; Jeon, Geon-Yeong ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ; Park, Moo-Eon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 752~761
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.752
Recently, upland crops cultivation instead of paddy crops are more popular and highlighted by increase of social demand in agricultural land use. Especially, wheat cultivation for replacing of import food grain are more interested by government, and it is urgently needed that possibility of wheat cultivation is evaluated in the reclaimed tidal land. Crop cultivation is closely related with soil salinity and cultivation method in the reclaimed tidal land. In order to evaluate possibility of wheat cultivation, effect of different application level of compost and nitrogen additional fertilizer, also soil salinity on the grain yield and yield components of three wheat cultivars was studied at the newly reclaimed Saemangeum and Hwanong tidal lands in Korea.
of grain yield were obtained at the experimental site in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land where soil salinity was less than
during growing periods from December, 2009 to June, 2010. However, almost no grain yield was obtained at the experimental site in the Hwaong reclaimed tidal land, where soil salinity was more than average
ranged from 2.0 to
during growing period and then salt demage was severe. Yield was significantly different among application level of compost and nitrogen additional fertilizer in the newly reclaimed Saemangeum tidal land. However, it is considered that three cultivars such as Chopum, Chogyung and Geumgang, have similar sensibility to soil salinity and fertilizer level, because there is statistically no difference among ciltivars in Hwaong and Saemangeum, and also among cultivars in the different levels of compost and fertilizer. Finally, it is concluded that wheat can be possibly produced by reasonable fertilizer application in the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land, but wheat cultivation is impossible because of high soil salinity in the Hwaong reclaimed tidal land.
Case studies for estimation nitrogen and phosphorous balance with different cropping systems in upland
Yun, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Lee, Yeoun ; Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 762~766
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.762
Cropping system is very important for environment conservation and improvement of nutrient recovery rates in agricultural land. This case study was conducted to identify the nutrient balance of major upland cropping types with different districts. Typical cropping systems at MuAn and HaeNam located in the south coast district were cultivated with soybean-chinese cabbage or garlic and garlic-soybean-chinese cabbage-hot pepper. Alpine district, PyeongChang was cultivated with double cropping of chinese cabbage and potato-radish or chinese cabbage for one year. Typical cropping type of AnDong, YeongYang where are well known for hot pepper cultivation was hot pepper's mono cropping and hot pepper-soybean or hot pepper-sesame for one year. But SeoSan and HongSeong, where are located in mid-west coast had variety cropping system compareed to other districts. Double cropping of chinese cabbage, a heavy fertilizing crop, caused higher nutrient balance in the field when it was cultivated consistently. Experiment showed that heavy fertilizing crops, such as chinese cabbage, garlic and onion, need to be rotated with soybean and sesame cultivation which need smaller fertilizer level. Alpine arable land has shown higher nutrient balance than other areas, and the introduction of rotation crops are needed to reduce nutrient balance and environmental protection.
Analysis of Fe-Deficient Inducing Enzyme and Required Time for Recovery of Nutritional Disorder by Fe-DTPA Treatment in the Fe-Deficient Induced Tomato Cultivars
Lee, Seong-Tae ; Kim, Min-Keun ; Lee, Young-Han ; Kim, Young-Shik ; Kim, Yeong-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 767~772
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.767
The purpose of this study was to find out required time for recovery of nutritional disorder by Fe-DTPA treatment in induced Fe-deficient tomato cultivars and to select stable Fe-chelate in high pH of nutrient solution. The pH levels of nutrient solution were amended with 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. Then Fe-EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ferric-sodium salt), Fe-DTPA (Sodium ferric diethylenetriamine pentaacetate), and Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine-N,N-bis (2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) ferric-sodium salt)) were treated as Fe
concentration. The Fe-DTPA and Fe-EDDHA were stable in the nutrient solution of pH 6.0~8.0 but Fe-EDTA in nutrient solution of pH 8.0 was to become insoluble by 25%. The Fe
as Fe-DTPA was treated for recovery of Fe deficient tomato seedlings. In case of Redyoyo and Supersunroad cultivars, total chlorophyll and Fe contents of leaves were recovered as much as those of normal leaves in 5 days. The Rafito cultivar for complete recovery was taken 7 days. When Fe
as Fe-DTPA was supplied to Fe-deficient tomato seedlings, in geotype, heme oxigenase recovered as much as normal leaves in 24 hours in the Rafito and Redyoyo. However, it was not remarkable difference by elapsed time in the Supersunroad.
Influence of Continuous Application of Low-concentration Swine Slurry on Soil Properties and Yield of Tomato and Cucumber in a Greenhouse
Seo, Young-Ho ; Ahn, Moon-Sub ; Kang, An-Seok ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 773~778
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.773
Long-term continuous application of livestock by-products to agricultural land may adversely affect the soil characteristics and the crop yield. Five year term study from 2007 was carried out to assess the effects of repeated application of low-concentration swine slurry on soil chemical properties including phosphate and heavy metal contents and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a greenhouse. Treatments were conventional chemical fertilizers and three application rates of low-concentration swine slurry (Slurry composting and biofiltration, SCB): 50%, 100%, and 200% of recommended nitrogen fertilization. For swine slurry treatment of 50% nitrogen, deficient nitrogen was supplemented with urea fertilizer. The soil phosphorus and heavy metal contents after five year continuous application of swine slurry were not significantly higher than those of chemical fertilizer use. Repeated application of the swine slurry alone for five years resulted in relatively high soil exchangeable potassium and sodium compared with chemical fertilizer treatment. Contents of heavy metals in leaves of tomato and cucumber did not show significant difference among treatments. Yields of the crops for the swine slurry were not significantly different from that of chemical fertilizer. The results imply that continuous application of the swine slurry may not influence levels of soil phosphate and trace elements in greenhouse soils but could accumulate potassium and sodium in the soil.
Estimation of Nitrogen Uptake and Biomass of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using Ground-based Remote Sensing Techniques
Gong, Hyo-Young ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 779~787
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.779
This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of ground-based remote sensing for the estimation of rice yield and application rate of N-fertilizer during growing season. Dongjin-1, Korean cultivar of rice was planted on May 30, 2006 and harvested on October 9, 2006. Chlorophyll content and LAI (leaf area index) were measured using Minolta SPAD-502 and AccuPAR model LP-80, respectively. Reflectance indices were determined with passive sensors using sunlight and four types of active sensors using modulated light, respectively. Reflectance indices and growth rate were measured three times from 29 days to 87 days after rice plating and at harvesting day. The result showed that values of growing characteristics and reflectance indices were highly correlated. Growing characteristics to show significant correlation with reflectance indices were in order of followings: fresh weight > N uptake > dry weight > height > No. of tiller > N content. Chlorophyll contents measured by chlorophyll meter (SPAD 502) showed high correlation with nitrogen concentration (r=
), although the correlation coefficients between remote sensing data and nitrogen concentration were higher. LAI was highly correlated with dry weight (r=
), but relationship between LAI and nitrogen concentration (r=
) was relatively low. The data of CC-passive sensor were negatively correlated with those of the near-infrared. NDVI correlation coefficients found more useful to identify the growth characteristics rather than data from single wavelength. Both passive sensor and active sensor were highly significantly correlated with growth characteristics. Consequently, quantifying the growth characteristics using reflectance indices of ground-based remote sensing could be a useful tool to determine the application rate of N fertilizer non-destructively and in real-time.
Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Animal Cadavers for Agricultural Recycling
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Sung, Hwan-Hoo ; Hur, Tai-Young ; Yoo, Ji-Young ; Lee, Young-Joon ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Kang, Seog-Jin ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 788~793
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.788
To evaluate fertilizer value of animal cadavers for agricultural recycling, fertilizer components of animal cadavers by pig and poultry were investigated using rendering and alkali (KOH) treatment methods. Total nitrogen concentrations in meat waste by pig and poultry using rendering treatment method were 7.80% and 9.30%, respectively. Total nitrogen concentration in meat waste of pig by KOH treatment method was lower than that by rendering treatment method. Organic matter concentrations in meat waste of pig and poultry ranged 87.8~97.4%. Total phosphorus concentrations in bone waste of pig using rendering and KOH treatment methods ranged 5.59~11.18%. Animal cadavers contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients essential to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that animal cadavers can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and is a valuable fertilizer as well.
Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Biochars Using Water Plants
Han, Jong-Hak ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Kang, Seok-Jin ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Don ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 794~800
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.794
To develop biochar for soil conditioner using water plants, characteristics of nutrients release of biochars were investigated under different water plants, manufacturing times and manufacturing temperatures. Under different water plants for manufacturing biochar, the concentrations of T-N and
in the water with biochars were higher in the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > TYHOR > MISSA. The concentrations of
in the water were in the order of TYHOR
CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > MISSA. Under different manufacturing times for biochar, the concentrations of T-N,
in the water with biochars were higher in the order of 2 hr > 30 min
1 hr. The concentrations of T-N,
in the water with biochars were on the order of
under different manufacturing temperatures. Total amounts of T-N and
releases in the water with biochars were higher in the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > TYHOR > MISSA. Using biochars by water plants, total amounts of
releases in the water with biochars were on the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > MISSA >PHRCO > TYHOR. The results of this study suggest that biochars by water plants can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and can be a valuable fertilizer.
Effect of Consecutive Application of Organic Matter on Soil Chemical Properties and Enzyme Activity in Potato Cultivation Soil
Joa, Jae-Ho ; Moon, Kyung-Hwan ; Seo, Hyeong-Ho ; Choi, Kyung-San ; Kim, Seong-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 801~807
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.801
This study was carried out to evaluate effect of consecutive application of organic matter on soil chemical properties and dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase activity in non-volcanic ash soil during three cropping season. Organic matter mixture and organic fertilizer (MOF,
), food waste compost (FWC,
), and pig manure compost (PMC, 2,000, 4,000, and
) were applied for each cropping season. Soil pH values were increased after three cropping season in all treatment. In the soils of the increased application of PMC, soil pH, total-nitrogen, available phosphate, exchangeable cations (K, Ca, and Mg), and heavy metal (Zn and Cu) contents were increased. In addition, Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased in proportions to PMC application rate and cropping season during potato cultivation period. The activity was two times higher in PMC (
) than control after the third cropping season. Soil dehydrogenase activity was in order of PMC>FWC>NPK+PMC>MOF. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in PMC (
) than other treatment. Soil Zn content and dehydrogenase activity showed linearly correlation, which were MOF (
=0.427), FWC (
=0.427) and PMC (
=0.411, p<0.01), respectively. This study demonstrated that soil chemical properties and enzyme activity could be affected greatly by consecutive application of different organic matter in the potato cultivation field.
Impact of Compost Application on Improvement of Rice Productivity and Quality in Reclaimed Soil
Moon, Young-Hun ; Kwon, Young-Rip ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ; Han, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 808~813
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.808
This study was conducted to reduce the dependability of farmers on chemical fertilizers for rice cultivation. Soil chemical and biological properties were monitored before experiment and at the time of harvesting. The results showed that EC, available
, and exchangeable
were decreased at the time of harvesting while pH, OM, and exchangeable
were remain unchanged, compared with soil before experiment. Population of aerobic bacteria, Bacillus sp., and fungi were also increased at the time of harvesting in the paddy field, compared with before fertilization, in the treatment of 50% soil-testing fertilizer+ 50% compost. Concentrations of N, P, and K in rice leaves increased with the fertilizers application, maximum increase was recorded in 50% soil-testing fertilizer+ 50% compost. Non-significant difference was observed in the morphological parameters of rice among the treatments. The chlorophyll contents of rice leaf increased in a similar fashion up to 60 days, thereafter, sharp decrease was observed in all the treatments. Maximum yield (per 10a) was recorded in the field treated with 50% soil-testing fertilizer+ 50% compost followed by standard applied fertilizer, 70% soil-testing fertilizer+ 30% compost, soil-testing fertilizer and unfertilized plot. Amylose content showed non-significant difference within the treatments. Protein content increased with the use of fertilizers and best protein content was recorded in the treatment of 50% soil-testing fertilizer+ 50% compost. It was concluded that the amount of the chemical fertilizer used was directly proportional to the protein content of rice grain. However, the palatability of rice grown in unfertilized field was better than the treatments but minimum yield was obtained. Hence, the treatment of 50% soil-testing fertilizer+ 50% compost, was the best among the fertilizer combinations for rice cultivation as supported by the yield, protein and palatability index.
Impacts of Organic Farming System on the Soil Microbial Ecology in No-till Paddy
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Ahn, Youn-Sig ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 814~818
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.814
The seasonal changes were evaluated in the soil microbial populations by selected media in an organic farming system (OFS) with no-till management compared to those in a conventional farming system (CFS) with tillage and synthetic amendments in a flooded paddy from 2009 to 2010. The populations of aerobic bacteria and fungi in the OFS were significantly higher than those in the CFS at the harvesting stages, whereas those of Gram-negative bacteria was significantly higher in the OFS than in the CFS before the submerging stages. In addition, populations of aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi tended to rapidly decreased after the submerging stages may be due to insufficient oxygen. Gram-negative bacteria should be considered as potential factor responsible for the microbial population differentiation observed between the OFS and the CFS in flooded paddy fields.
Impacts of Organic Farming System on the Soil Microbial Population in Upland Soil
Lee, Young-Han ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Shin, Min-A ; Kim, Eun-Seok ; Song, Won-Doo ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 819~823
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.819
The present study evaluated the seasonal changes of the soil microbial population by selected media in an organic farming system (OFS) with rye rotation cropping management compared to those in a conventional farming system (CFS) with chemical fertilizers, pesticide and herbicide from May 2009 to October 2010 in an upland field. With the exception of fungi, populations of aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Bacillus spp. were higher in the OFS soil during soybean-growing stages. In addition, populations of aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Bacillus spp. in the OFS soil were nearly two times more than those in the CFS soil on reproductive growth stages. Our findings suggested that Bacillus spp. should be considered as responsible factor for microbial population differentiation observed between the OFS and the CFS in upland fields.
Prevalence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Livestock Manure Compost and Organic Fertilizer
Jung, Kyu-Seok ; Heu, Sung-Gi ; Roh, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Dong-Hwan ; Yun, Jong-Chul ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 824~829
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.824
In recent years, there has been an increasing public concern about fecal contamination of water, air and agricultural produce by pathogens residing in organic fertilizers such as manure, compost and agricultural by-products. Efforts are now being made to control or eliminate the pathogen populations at on-farm level. Development of efficient on-farm strategies to mitigate the potential risk posed by the pathogens requires data about how the pathogens prevail in livestock manure composts and organic fertilizers. Microbiological analysis of livestock manure composts and organic fertilizers obtained from 32 and 28 companies, respectively, were conducted to determine the total aerobic bacteria count, coliforms, Escherichia coli count and the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter sakazakii. The total aerobic bacteria counts in the livestock manure composts and organic fertilizers were in the range of 7 to
and 4 to
, respectively. In the livestock manure composts, coliforms and E. coli were detected in samples obtained from 4 and 2 companies, respectively, in the range of 2 to
. In the organic fertilizers, coliforms and E. coli were detected in samples obtained from 4 and 1 companies, respectively, in the range of 1 to
. In 3 out 32 compost samples, B. cereus was detected, while other pathogens were not detected. In 28 organic fertilizers, no pathogens were detected. The complete composting process can result in the elimination of pathogens in livestock manure compost and organic fertilizer. The results of this study could help to formulate microbiological guidelines for the use of compost in environmental-friendly agriculture. This research provides information regarding microbiological quality of livestock manure compost and organic fertilizer.
Effects of Electrical Conductivity on the Soil Microbial Community in a Controled Horticultural Land for Strawberry Cultivation
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 830~835
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.830
Total soil microbial activities have great impact to soil management for organic farming. This study was evaluated in the soil microbial community by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in a controlled horticultural field for strawberry organic farm. Experimental plots were prepared with a high level of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and a optimum level of soil EC. Soil microbial biomasses and communities of total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the high level of soil EC were significantly larger than those in the optimum level of soil EC. Lower ratios of cy17:0 to 16:
and cy19:0 to 18:
were found in the optimum level of soil EC than those in the high level of soil EC, indicating that microbial stress decreased.
Cellulase and Xylanase Activity of Compost-promoting Bacteria Bacillus sp. SJ21
Shin, Pyung-Gyun ; Cho, Soo-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 836~840
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.836
In order to isolate thermophilic compost-promoting bacteria with high activity of cellulase and xylanase, spent mushroom substrates with sawdust were collected from mushroom cultivation farm, Jinju, Gyeongnam in Korea. Among of the isolates, one strain, designated SJ21 was selected by agar diffusion method. The strain SJ21 was identified as members of the Bacillus lincheniformis by biochemical characteristics using Bacillus ID kit and VITEK 2 system. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain SJ21 formed a distinct phylogenetic tree within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus subtilis with 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity of 99%. On the basis of its physiological properties, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain SJ21 was classified within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus sp. SJ21 is proposed. The cellulase and xylanase activity of Bacillus sp. SJ21 was slightly increased according to bacterial population from exponential phase to stationary phase in growth curve for Bacillus sp. SJ21.
Soil Physico-Chemical Properties and Characteristics of Microbial Distribution in the Continuous Cropped Field with Paeonia lactiflora
Park, Jun-Hong ; Seo, Yeong-Jin ; Choi, Seong-Yong ; Zhang, Yong-Sun ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 841~846
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.841
This study was conducted to obtain the information about injury caused by continuous cropping of peony (Paeonia lactiflora). Soil physico-chemical properties, characteristics of microbial distribution and diversities in the continuous cropped field with peony were analyzed. As the results, pH and organic matter content were higher in the continuous cropping soil than those in the first cropping soil. Bulk density was decreased but porosity was increased in the continuous cropping soil. As the cultivation period was lengthened in years, the populations of bacteria and actinomyces were gradually decreased, whereas fungal population was increased. It was shown that the metabolic diversity patterns of the microbial communities in the continuous cropping soil differed from that of the first cropping soil. These results indicate that deterioration of soil quality such as physico-chemical properties including a soil depth, bulk density, porosity and soil pH is related with a continuous cultivation periods, and also affect a microbial population, especially fungi.
Effect of Monoculture and Mixtures of Green Manure Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum) on Rice Growth and Yield in Paddy
Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Oh, In-Seok ; Choi, Bong-Su ; Kang, Ui-Gum ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 847~852
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.847
Green manure crops are mainly used to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers. Mixture of green manure crops have beneficial effects in agroecosystem. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monoculture and mixtures of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) on rice growth and yield in paddy. This experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) from Oct. 2007 to Oct. 2009 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Seeding rates of crimson clover (CC) were consisted of monoculture (CC2, 3, 4 kg and hairy vetch 5 kg
) and mixtures (CC 2 + barley 7, CC 3 + barley 7, CC 4 + barley 7, and CC2 + hairy vetch
). Seeds were drilled by partial tillage machine on 9th Oct. in 2007. Monoculture and mixture of crimson clover as a green manure crop was incorporated in soil for rice cultivation on 15th May in 2008. Chemical fertilizers had not been applied to monoculture and mixture plots. The biomass and N production of monoculture plots were lower than mixture plots. The biomass and N production of CC 2 + hairy vetch
plot were the highest among mixtures treatments. In rice growing season, ammonium nitrogen concentrations in soil were a little high trends at CC 2 + hairy vetch
plot. And soil bulk density and porosity were improved at mixture plot after rice harvesting. The rice yield of CC 2 + hairy vetch
plot was not significantly different from conventional practice plot. These results indicated that cropping of crimson clover with hairy vetch mixture was better than barley mixture for environmental friendly rice cultivation.
Effect of Biomass and N Production by Cultivation Methods of Leguminous and Gramineae Green Manures on Rice Growth in Central Regions of Korea
Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Oh, In-Seok ; Choi, Bong-Su ; Kang, Ui-Gum ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 853~858
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.853
The cultivation methods are important for determining crop yield of green manure. The effect of cultivation methods of green manure crops (GMC) on biomass and rice yield was investigated. This experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts from Oct. 2007 to Oct. 2008 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Seven GMC (hairy vetch, barley, Chinese milk vetch, rye, crimson clover, oats, rattail fescue) were cultivated and incorporated on paddy soil by broadcasting before rice harvesting (BBRH) and partial tillage seeding (PTS). Among the three leguminous GMC, the biomass and N production were the highest at the hairy vetch of PTS. Among the four gramineae GMC, the biomass and N production tended to be higher in the rye of BBRH and barley of PTS. The C/N ratio (56.5~74.2) of rye was high compared with hairy vetch (14.1). Among the GMC, the incorporation of hairy vetch increased
-N contents in rice paddy soil at 14 and 42 days after transplanting. These results showed that hairy vetch had no significant to rice yield compared with conventional fertilization. Therefore, hairy vetch seems to be the most efficient green manure crop as an alternatives to chemical N fertilizer in the central regions of Korea.
Relationships between Soil Physico-chemical Properties and Topography in Jeonbuk Orchard Fields
Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 859~865
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.859
This study looked into 110 sites of orchard fields to investigate the relationships between the physical and chemical properties of soils, including heavy metal contents, and the topographic characteristics of the fields in Jeonbuk province. The topographic distribution of orchard fields in Jeonbuk province was local valley and fans, hilly and mountains, mountain foot slopes, alluvial plains, diluvium, and fluvio-marine deposits. Forty-six percent (46%) of total orchard fields were located in the hilly and mountains. Soil texture of the local valley and fans was mostly sandy clay loam, and the soil texture of other topographical sites were varied. Bulk density, porosity, and soil hardness were not different among the various topographic sites. The content of plant available water was the highest (19.5%) in the sites of diluvium. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and exchangeable
content were the highest in the sites of fluvio-marine deposits, whereas the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), available phosphorus, and exchangeable
were not significantly different among the topographic sites. Also, soil pH and SOM content were generally in optimal ranges for the fruit plants in the orchard fields, but other values were mostly higher than those in optimum. In addition, the contents of heavy metals were much lower than the levels of Soil Contamination Warning Standard.
Isolation and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Waste Mushroom bed from Agaricus bisporus
Jung, Young-Pil ; Kyung, Ki-Cheon ; Jang, Kab-Yeul ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 866~871
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.866
An auxin-producing bacteria (3YN11-02) was isolated from waste mushroom bed from Agaricus bisporus of Chungnam Buyeo-Gun area. The strain 3YN11-02 was identified as a novel species belongs to Rahnella aquatica by a chemotaxanomic and phylogenetic nalysis. The isolate was confirmed to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) which is one of auxin hormone by TLC and HPLC analysis. When the concentration of IAA was assessed by performing HPLC quantity analysis, the maximal
of IAA detected in ether fraction extracted from the culture filtrate which was cultured in R2A broth containing 0.1% tryptophan for 24 h at
. The molecular weight of the main peak obtained by LC-mass analysis was correspondent well to 175, that of IAA. To investigate the growth promoting effect of crop, when the culture broth of R. aquatica 3YN11-02 was infected onto water culture and seed pot of mung bean, the adventitious root induction and root growth of mung bean were 2.0 times higher than control.
Changes in Soil Biota Affected by the Application of Organic Materials in Reclaimed Upland and Paddy-converted Soils Cultivated with Korea Ginseng
Eo, Jin-U ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Yeon, Byung-Ryul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 872~877
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.872
Cultivation of Korea ginseng in newly reclaimed and paddy-converted fields has been increasing, and evaluation of organic amendment effectiveness is needed in the two soil types. Soil organisms influence organic matter decomposition, and their responses to applications of organic matter were studied. De-oiled cake and compost were applied at
in both soil types. Changes in microflora were assessed by analyzing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA). The abundance of nematodes and microarthropods was measured. Microbial PLFA indicators for microorganisms and microarthropod abundance were greater in reclaimed upland than in paddy-converted soil. There were few differences in the microflora and fauna of reclaimed uplands, regardless of treatment. In paddy-converted soil, the abundance of Oribatida was increased by the application of compost at
and was correlated with PLFA indicators of fungi. The results suggested a minimal influence of organic amendments in reclaimed upland, because the organic matter content and abundance of soil organisms are low in mineral soils. In paddy-converted soil, the effects of organic amendment differ among different soil organisms, and soil properties are important mediators of the effect.
Estimation of Soybean Growth Using Polarimetric Discrimination Ratio by Radar Scatterometer
Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Hong, Suk-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 878~886
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.878
The soybean is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world. Microwave remote sensing is an important tool because it can penetrate into cloud independent of weather and it can acquire day or night time data. Especially a ground-based polarimetric scatterometer has advantages of monitoring crop conditions continuously with full polarization and different frequencies. In this study, soybean growth parameters and soil moisture were estimated using polarimetric discrimination ratio (PDR) by radar scatterometer. A ground-based polarimetric scatterometer operating at multiple frequencies was used to continuously monitor the soybean growth condition and soil moisture change. It was set up to obtain data automatically every 10 minutes. The temporal trend of the PDR for all bands agreed with the soybean growth data such as fresh weight, Leaf Area Index, Vegetation Water Content, plant height; i.e., increased until about DOY 271 and decreased afterward. Soil moisture lowly related with PDR in all bands during whole growth stage. In contrast, PDR is relative correlated with soil moisture during below LAI 2. We also analyzed the relationship between the PDR of each band and growth data. It was found that L-band PDR is the most correlated with fresh weight (r=0.96), LAI (r=0.91), vegetation water content (r=0.94) and soil moisture (r=0.86). In addition, the relationship between C-, X-band PDR and growth data were moderately correlated (
) with the exception of the soil moisture. Based on the analysis of the relation between the PDR at L, C, X-band and soybean growth parameters, we predicted the growth parameters and soil moisture using L-band PDR. Overall good agreement has been observed between retrieved growth data and observed growth data. Results from this study show that PDR appear effective to estimate soybean growth parameters and soil moisture.
Effects of Soil Organic Matter Contents, Paddy Types and Agricultural Climatic Zone on CH
Emissions from Rice Paddy Field
Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Song, Seok-Bo ; Kang, Jong-Rae ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Oh, Byeong-Gun ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 887~894
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.887
To evaluate the effects of abiotic factors of paddy fields on greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from rice paddy fields,
emission amounts were investigated from rice paddy fields by different soil organic matter contents, paddy types, and agricultural climatic zone in Yeongnam area during 3 years.
emission amounts according to soil organic matter contents in paddy field were conducted at having different contents of 5 soil organic matters fields (23.6, 28.7, 31.0, 34.5, and
), The highest
emission amount was recorded in the highest soil organic matters plot of
. High correlation coefficient (r=
) was obtained between
emissions from paddy fields and their soil organic matter contents. According to paddy field types,
emission amounts were investigated at 4 different paddy fields as wet paddy, sandy paddy, immature paddy, and mature paddy. The highest
emissions was recorded in wet paddy (100%) and followed as immature paddy 64.0%, mature paddy 46.8%, and sandy paddy 23.8%, respectively. For the effects of temperature on
emissions from paddy fields, 4 agricultural climatic zones were investigated, which were Yeongnam inland zone (YIZ), eastern coast of central zone (ECZ), plain area of Yeongnam inland mountainous zone (PMZ), and mountainous area of Yeongnam inland mountainous zone (MMZ). The order of
emission amounts from paddy fields by agricultural climatic zone were YIZ (100%) > ECZ (94.6%) > PMZ (91.6%) > MMZ (78.9%). The regression equation between
emission amounts from paddy fields and average air temperature of Jul. to Sep. of agricultural climatic zone was y = 389.7x-4,287 (x means average temperature of Jul. to Sep. of agricultural climatic zone,
Study on Characteristics of Biogas Production and Liquid Fertilizer with Anaerobic Co digestion of Livestock Manure and Food Waste
Park, Woo-Kyun ; Park, Noh-Back ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 895~902
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.895
Objective of this research was to investigate the characteristics of biogas production in anaerobic digestion reactor with different mixing ratio of food waste and swine manure. It was observed that the highest removal efficiency of organic material was 80% at 60 : 40 of mixing ratio (livestock manure : food waste). And also biogas yield was varied due to different mixing ratio of them. The cumulative biogas yield was highest at 60 : 40 of mixing rate (livestock manure : food waste). For use of the liquefied fertilizer as effluent from anaerobic digester, it was the limited ratio for 30% of co-digested food waste based on its salt content.
Biochemical Methane Potential of Agricultural Waste Biomass
Shin, Kook-Sik ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 903~915
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.903
Recently, anaerobic methane production of agricultural waste biomass has received increasing attention. Until now domestic BMP (Biochemical methane potential) studies concerned with agricultural waste biomass have concentrated on the several waste biomass such as livestock manure, food waste, and sewage sludge from WWTP (Waste water treatment plant). Especially, the lack of standardization study of BMP assay method has caused the confused comprehension and interpretation in the comparison of BMP results from various researchers. Germany and USA had established the standard methods, VDI 4630 and ASTM E2170-01, for the analysis of BMP and anaerobic organic degradation, respectively. In this review, BMP was defined in the aspect of organic material represented as COD (Chemical oxygen demand) and VS (Volatile solid), and the influence of several parameters on the methane potential of the feedstock was presented. In the investigation of domestic BMP case studies, BMP results of 18 biomass species generating from agriculture and agro-industry were presented. And BMP results of crop species reported from foreign case studies were presented according to the classification system of crops such as food crop, vegetables, oil seed and specialty crop, orchards, and fodder and energy crop. This review emphasizes the urgent need for characterizing the innumerable kind of biomass by their capability on methane production.
Micromorphological and Mineral Characteristics of the Jang-won Series which have Fragipan in the soil Profile
Moon, Yong-Hee ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Park, Chan-Won ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 916~921
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.916
This study was carry out on a Jang-Won series (fine loamy, mixed, mesic family of typic fragipan) that were established and classified as a fragipan soil in Korea. The morphological, physical, chemical and minerals characteristics of Jang-Won series were studied to determine the genesis of fragipan soils in natural environment. Each sample was analyzed for its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics. The particle size distribution of samples was measured using pipette method. Clay minerals were investigated on parallel-oriented specimens of the clay fraction (
) from each horizon, separated by sieving and centrifugation, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Micromorphological observations were made on thin sections prepared from soil blocks impregnated with Crystic Resin, cut and ground to less than
in thickness, and finally polished with diamond paste. Most horizons have pH values in the range of fewer than 5.0 and have very low base-saturation values. Their textural classification ranges from silt loam to loam, the lower horizons being the finer. The clay fraction revealed the occurrence of illite, kaolinite, chlorite and vermiculite. The micro-morphological analysis carries out thin sections from each soil profile. The silt concentrations occur as extremely dense and homogenous bands or zones of silt-sized materials, brownish in colour in plane-polarized light and anisotropic in cross-polarized light, surrounding or adhering to skeleton grains. The genesis of fragipan in the Jangweon series assumed composition of clay fraction rather than silt concentration. Therefore, this results suggested an authentic interpretation which Jangweon series is classification as Typic Fragiochrepts.
Growth Characteristics and Nutrient Loads of Submerged Plants in Flood Control Reservoir around Juam Lake
Seo, Young-Jin ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Kang, Seok-Jin ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 922~928
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.922
In order to properly manage the quality of water in Juam Lake, distributions and growth characteristics of submerged plants in Boknae flood control reservoir were investigated. In addition, the total amount of nutrient load by submerged plants were investigated. The total vegetation area was
of total flood control reservoirs (
) before flooding. By August 19, all of Boknae flood control reservoir was flooded during rainy season. Dominant plants were MISSA (Miscanthus sacchariflorus), SCPMA (Scirpus fluviatilis) and CRXDM (Carex dimorpholepis) which occupied 87% of all flood control reservoirs. The total amounts of organic matter loads at different submerged plants were great in the order of CRXDM (
) > SCPMA (
) > MISSA (
). The total amounts of nitrogen loads by CRXDM, SCPMA and MISSA under different submerged plants were 56%, 3.9% and 0.8%, respectively. The total amounts of phosphorus loads at different submerged plants were on the order of CRXDM (
) > SCPMA (
) > MISSA (
). Therefore, the results of this study suggest that organic matter, T-N and T-P in water quality of Juam lake were strongly influenced by submerged plants in flood control reservoir.
Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in Dongbokcheon Constructed Wetlands for Treating Non-point Source Pollution at Different Treatment Time and Wastewater Loading
Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 929~936
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.929
To treat non-point source pollution in Dongbok lake, removal efficiencies of pollutants were investigated in Dongbokcheon constructed wetlands (CWs) at different treatment time and wastewater loading. The wetlands consisted of forebay, wetlands (
wetlands) and sedimentation pond. The concentrations of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in inflow ranged
from April to October in 2008, respectively. The removal rates of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in Dongbokcheon CWs were 34%, 5%, 31%, and 13%, respectively. The removal rates of BOD and T-N were higher than those for SS and T-P. The amounts of pollutant removal in Dongbokcheon CWs were higher in the order of forebay > wetlands > sedimentation pond for BOD, sedimentation pond > wetlands > forebay for SS, sedimentation pond > forebay > wetlands for T-N. The amount of T-P removal in wetlands was higher than forebay and sedimentation pond.
Treatment Efficiencies and Decomposition Velocities of Pollutants in Constructed Wetlands for Treating Hydroponic Wastewater
Park, Jong-Hwan ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Ah-Reum ; Kim, Sung-Hun ; Lee, Choong-Heon ; Lee, Seong-Tea ; Jeong, Tae-Uk ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Ha, Yeong-Rae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 937~943
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.937
In order to develop constructed wetlands for treating hydroponic wastewater in greenhouses, removal efficiencies and decomposition velocities of pollutants in constructed wetland were investigated for treating hydroponic wastewater. Removal rates of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P in effluent in constructed wetlands were 88%, 79%, 92%, 64% and 92%, respectively. The decomposition velocities (K;
) of pollutants in
HF bed of constructed wetlands were higher in the order of SS (
) > BOD (
) > COD (
) > T-P (
) > T-N (
HF bed of constructed wetlands, the decomposition velocity of SS was rapid than that for BOD, COD, T-N and T-P in constructed wetland for treating hydroponic wastewater. The decomposition velocity (K;
) of pollutants in
HF bed of constructed wetland were higher in the order of T-P (
) > BOD (
) > COD (
) > T-N (
) > SS (
HF bed of constructed wetlands, the decomposition velocity of T-P was rapid than that for BOD, COD, SS and T-N in constructed wetland for treating hydroponic wastewater.
Use of the Quantitatively Transformed Field Soil Structure Description of the US National Pedon Characterization Database to Improve Soil Pedotransfer Function
Yoon, Sung-Won ; Gimenez, Daniel ; Nemes, Attila ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 944~958
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.944
Soil hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity or water retention which are costly to measure can be indirectly generated by soil pedotransfer function (PTF) using easily obtainable soil data. The field soil structure description which is routinely recorded could also be used in PTF as an input to reduce the uncertainty. The purposes of this study were to use qualitative morphological soil structure descriptions and soil structural index into PTF and to evaluate their contribution in the prediction of soil hydraulic properties. We transformed categorical morphological descriptions of soil structure into quantitative values using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). This approach was tested with a large data set from the US National Pedon Characterization database with the aid of a categorical regression tree analysis. Six different PTFs were used to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity and those results were averaged to quantify the uncertainty. Quantified morphological description was successively used in multiple linear regression approach to predict the averaged ensemble saturated conductivity. The selected stepwise regression model with only the transformed morphological variables and structural index as predictors predicted the
= 0.48 (p = 0.018), indicating the feasibility of CATPCA approach. In a regression tree analysis, soil structure index and soil texture turned out to be important factors in the prediction of the hydraulic properties. Among structural descriptions size class turned out to be an important grouping parameter in the regression tree. Bulk density, clay content, W33 and structural index explained clusters selected by a two step clustering technique, implying the morphologically described soil structural features are closely related to soil physical as well as hydraulic properties. Although this study provided relatively new method which related soil structure description to soil structure index, the same approach should be tested using a datasets containing the actual measurement of hydraulic properties. More insight on the predictive power of soil structure index to estimate hydraulic properties would be achieved by considering measured the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the soil water retention.
Mechanical Test Methods for Compost Maturity
Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 5, 2011, Pages 959~961
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.959
Manure-based composts can have detrimental effects on the agricultural lands and crops if they are applied without proper stabilization process. Composting is well-known method for the stabilization of manure-based composts and the extent of composting could be examined by maturity test. Among various methods to examine compost maturity, the performances of two mechanical methods (Solvita and CoMMe-100) were examined and the test results were compared with seed germination test. The mechanical methods are considered to be simple and relatively objective. Also they are cost- and time-efficient. Ten commercially available composts collected in Korea were used for this study. Basically, the maturity determined with these mechanical methods was in good agreement with the seed germination test. However, it appeared that the index levels of compost maturity indicated more maturity by CoMMe-100 than Solvita for the same compost. The differences between maturity index levels determined by both methods were able to be minimized through extending the reaction time for CoMMe-100 and adjusting index level for maturity determination in the standard color chart.