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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 44, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics of River-Bed Sediments in River Basins
Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Gye ; Park, Chan-Won ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Moon, Yong-Hee ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 963~969
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.963
The river-bed sediments from the major river basins were analysed for the chemical and physical properties to evaluate environmental safety for the agricultural uses. The samples were taken from 16 sites of Han river, 36 of Geumgang river, 27 of Yeongsan river, and 140 of Nakdong river. The total of 219 samples from the 28 counties were taken from the surface of the sediments at the depth of 50 cm. The particle density of the sediments was greater than
and the whole range of the density was
, the average particle size was 0.7 mm whereas the size range was 0.075~0.85 mm. The analyses of the particle sizes by basins showed that Han and Geumgang river had particle sizes of 0.075~0.85 mm, while Geumgang and Yeongsan river had particle sizes of 0.25~0.85 mm. Geumgang and Yeongsan river tended to have greater particle sizes. The average values of the chemical properties were 6.3 for pH,
for organic matter,
for available phosphate, 0.39, 3.47, and
for exchangeable potassium, calcium, and magnesium respectively. The greatest property at each basin was pH for Han river, Ec, available phosphate and exchangeable sodium for Geumgang river, organic matter, exchangeable calcium and magnesium for Yeongsan river, and exchangeable potassium for Nakdong river.
Application of Reduce Tillage with a Strip Tiller and its Effect on Soil Erosion Reduction in Chinese Cabbage Cultivation
Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ; Park, Suk-Hoo ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Jeong, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 970~976
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.970
Strip tiller equipment was developed to reduce soil erosion in the slope land for highland agricultural area. The equipment consisted of 4 rows strip tillage device and fertilizer applicator. The field was tilled in 10 cm width and in 10 cm depth by the equipment, of which tilled surface was 16.7% of full-width tillage. The working time and fuel consumption of the equipment were
respectively, which were 59% and 74% less than those of the conventional tillage. Fertilizer efficiency of the equipment in cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.7, 1.6 and 1.5 times higher in nitrate, phosphorous and potassium respectively, than conventional tillage. When the equipment was used after covering of rye residue, the quantity of runoff was 49~67% lower than the conventional tillage. And the quantity of soil loss were 1.3 and
at right after and 30 days after planting of Chinese cabbage respectively, while 11.5 and
in conventional tillage. In conclusion, the strip tillage equipment developed in this study can be applicable to slope land, so that soil loss of 90% can be reduced.
The Redetermination of USLE Rainfall Erosion Factor for Estimation of Soil Loss at Korea
Park, Chan-Won ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Moon, Young-Hee ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 977~982
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.977
This study was conducted to redetermine the rainfall erosion factor (R factor) in USLE for the estimation of soil loss at Korea. The redetermined R factor may be applied more precisely to interpret the changes of regional/yearly/seasonal patterns, including the amount of rainfall and the kinetic energy of rainfall, in Korea. This study calculated the R factors based on 60-minute precipitation data from 60 sites covering the whole country for 30 years from 1981 to 2010. As a result, the annual mean rainfall was
in Korea. Coastal regions of Jeonnam and Gyeongnam, northwest regions of Gyeonggi, and Seoul had the greater values of R factor compared to other regions. The annual mean R factors for every decade were 3,988, 4,085, and
in 1981~1990, 1991~2000, and 2001~2010, respectively. Generally, the R factors had an increasing tendency over and over pest decades. The ratios of summer R factor to total annual mean R factor were 69.8% (1981~1990), 73.7% (1991~2000), and 74.2% (2001~2010). We found that the absolute values and the relative ratios of summer rainfall are gradually increased.
Development of SATEEC R Module using Daily Rainfall Data
Jang, Chun-Hwa ; Ryu, Ji-Chul ; Kang, Hyun-Woo ; Kum, Dong-Hyuk ; Kim, Young-Sug ; Park, Hwa-Yong ; Kim, Ki-Sung ; Lim, Kyoung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 983~990
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.983
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) has been used to estimate potential long-term soil erosion in the fields. However, the USLE does not estimate sediment yield due to lack of module considering sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for watershed application. For that reason, the Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC) system was developed and applied to compute the sediment yield at watershed scale. However, the R factor of current SATEEC Ver. 2.1 was estimated based on 5-day antecedent rainfall, it is not related with fundamental concept of R factor. To compute R factor accurately, the energy of rainfall strikes should be considered. In this study, the R module in the SATEEC system was enhanced using formulas of Williams, Foster, Cooley, CREAMS which could consider the energy of rainfall strikes. The enhanced SATEEC system ver. 2.2 was applied to the Imha watershed and monthly sediment yield was estimated. As a result of this study, the
and NSE values are 0.591 and 0.573 for calibration period, and 0.927 and 0.911 for validation period, respectively. The results demonstrate the enhanced SATEEC System estimates the sediment yield suitably, and it could be used to establish the detailed environmental policy standard using USLE input dataset at watershed scale.
Comparison of Annual Soil Loss using USLE and Hourly Soil Erosion Evaluation System
Kum, Dong-Hyuk ; Ryu, Ji-Chul ; Kang, Hyun-Woo ; Jang, Chun-Hwa ; Shin, Min-Hwan ; Shin, Dong-Shuk ; Choi, Joong-Dae ; Lim, Kyoung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 991~997
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.991
Soil erosion and sediment has been known as one of pollutants causing water quality degradation in water bodies. With global warming issues worldwide, various soil erosion studies have been performed. Although on-site monitoring of sediment loss would be an ideal method to evaluate soil erosion condition, modeling approaches have been utilized to estimate soil erosion and to evaluate various best management practices on soil erosion reduction. Although the USLE has been used in soil erosion estimation for the last 40 years, the USLE model has limitations in estimating event-based soil erosion reflecting rainfall intensity and rainfall duration for long-term period. Thus, the calibrated model, capable of simulating soil erosion using hourly rainfall data, was utilized in this study to evaluate the effects of rainfall amount and rainfall intensity on soil erosion. It was found that USLE soil erosion value is
, while soil erosion values from 2006~2010 were
, respectively. Especially, soil erosion from single storm event for 2008-2010 would be responsible for 30% or more of annual soil loss. As shown in this study, hourly soil erosion estimation system would provide more detailed output from the study area. In addition, the effects of rainfall intensity on soil erosion could be evaluated with this system.
Water Holding Capacity and Hydraulic Conductivity According to Compaction and Saturation Degree for Perlite amended with Ground Coir
Kim, Gi-Rim ; Woo, Hyun-Nyung ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Park, Mi-Suk ; Song, Jin-A ; Song, Tae-Yong ; Jang, Hyo-Ju ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 998~1003
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.998
This investigation was performed to determine the hydraulic conductivity coefficient and water holding capacity for a specified compaction forces which are the amount of mechanical energy applied to the porous granule (PG) volume. Most current specifications of minerals and perlite as growth media require to be compacted to a specified density, which in general is equivalent to a certain percentage of laboratory compaction. The water holding capacity of the saturated PG was very large at potential above -1 bar compared with perlite, but very little water remained below this value. The water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity characteristics of graded PG amended with the ground coir less than 2 mm in diameter were also determined from pressure outflow data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the saturated and compacted PG was slightly lower by more than one tenth order of magnitude at equal matric potentials of perlite, but when expressed on the basis of equal water deficits, the conductivity of PG was higher at all but the smallest deficits than those of perlite.
Estimation of Rainfall Erosivity in North Korea using Modified Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Lee, Joon-Hak ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1004~1009
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1004
Soil erosion in North Korea has been continued to accelerate by deterioration of topographical conditions. However, few studies have been conducted to predict the amount of soil loss in North Korea due to limited data so far. Rainfall erosivity is an important factor to predict the amount of long-term annual soil loss by USLE (universal soil loss equation). The purpose of this study is to investigate rainfall erosivity, which presented the potential risk of soil erosion by water, in North Korea. Annual rainfall erosivities for 27 stations in North Korea for 1983~2010 were calculated using regression models based on modified Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IAS) index in this study. The result showed that annual average rainfall erosivity in North Korea ranged from 2,249 to 7,526 and averaged value was
, which corresponded to about 70% of annual average rainfall erosivity in South Korea. The finding was that the potential risk of soil erosion in North Korea has been accelerated by the increase of rainfall erosivity since the late 1990s.
Characteristics of Soil Chemical Properties in Abandoned Coal Mine Forest Rehabilitation Areas in Hwasun, South Jeolla Province
Jung, Mun-Ho ; Shim, Yon-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Heok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1010~1015
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1010
The objectives of this study were to investigate soil chemical characteristics for forest rehabilitation and suggest management in abandoned coal mine areas in Hwasun-gun, South Jeolla Province. Total study sites were 8 sites, and soil analysis particular were soil pH, TOC, total-N, C/N ratio, Avail.
, and CEC. Average soil pH was 5.8 (4.7~6.4). Average contents of TOC, total-N and C/N ratio were 1.1% (0.2~2.0%), 0.08% (0.02~0.13%) and 15.0 (7.9~31.4), respectively. Average Avail.
(2.7~15.0) and Average CEC was
). Soil pH was decreased according to elapsed time from forest rehabilitation, while TOC, total N and CEC were increased. Av.
did not show any relationship with elapsed time. Soil pH was stable comparing with general forest soil in South Jeolla Province (5.1), while contents of TOC and total N were lower than general forest soil in South Jeolla Province (4.9% and 0.18%, respectively). Therefore, sustainable managements such as fertilization for TOC and total N are necessary for good rooting and growth of vegetation.
Assessment of Silicate Fetilizers Application Affecting Soil Properties in Paddy Field
Joo, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Been ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1016~1022
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1016
Application of silicate fertilizers is typically practiced with several year's interval to amend soil quality and improve rice productivity at the paddy field in Korea. Most of silicate fertilizers applied in Korea is slag-originated silicate fertilizer. Some water soluble silicate fertilizers are manufactured and commercially available. The objective of this study was to assess changes of soil chemical properties in paddy field by applying slag-originated silicate fertilizer and water soluble silicate fertilizer. Field experiment was conducted on a silt loam paddy soil, where four levels of each silicate fertilizer were applied in soil at the rate of 0, 1, 2, 4 times of the recommended levels. Application of slag-originated silicate fertilizer increased soil pH, while no significant pH increase occurred with the treatment of water soluble silicate fertilizers. Soil pH increased 0.4~0.5 with the 1 time of recommended level of slag-originated silicate fertilizer. Available
contents also significantly increased with the treatment of slag-originated silicate fertilizer at 15 and 35 days after treatment, while decreased after 60 days after treatment possibly due to rice uptake. Exchangeable Ca, Mg and available phosphate contents in soil increased with application of slag-originated silicate fertilizer, while a little increases for them were shown with the application of soluble silicate fertilizer.
/N ratios in rice straw for 1 time of recommended level of slag-originated silicate fertilizer was 11.5, while that of control was 8.4, which was much lower value. Throughout this study, soil application of slag-originated silicate fertilizer enhanced soil chemical properties, while water soluble silicate fertilizer application in soil needs further study resulting in a little effects on soil property.
Case Study of N Deficiency Symptom of Strawberry in the Soil Applied with Sea Deposit Compost
Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Yoon, Sung-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1023~1026
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1023
Nitrogen content in soil is a major factor for the crop growth. Ammonium nitrogen in soils is volatilized when soil pH is high. The growth and development problem of strawberry such as color of leaves turning into purple was found when soils were treated with the compost prepared from suspended solids of high pH from the sea. From in-situ analysis it was found that soil pH was 8.33 and nitrate, phosphorous, and potassium contents were relatively low. Nitric acid was added to adjust pH of irrigating water as 1.7, 1.9, and 2.3, then
were added. It was resulted that soils with pH 1.7 produced the most developed strawberries. Strawberry was recovered by irrigation containing the same solution. From the results, the growth and development problem of the strawberry resulted from low nitrate absorption rate. It was concluded that the growth and development of strawberries were recovered by the reduced soil pH using nitric acid.
The Monitoring of Agricultural Environment in Daegwallyeong Area
Park, Kyeong-Hun ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Yun, Jeong-Chul ; Lee, Jeong-Ju ; Hwang, Hyun-Ah ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Jin, Yong-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1027~1034
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1027
In order to provide the basic information on the agricultural environment in Daegwallyeong Highland, the characters of weather, water, and soil quality were investigated. The meteorological characteristics was monitored by automatic weather system (AWS) at 17 sites. The quality of water for samples were collected monthly at 24 sites depending on landuse style. Soil samples were collected from a forest, grassland, and the major vegetable cultivation areas such as potato, carrot, Chinese cabbage, onion, head lettuce, and welsh onion field. The weather showed the mountain climate, and the average yearly temperature is
, the average temperature in January is
and the average temperature in July is
, and the change of temperature on the districts of Daegwallyeong is severe. The yearly record of precipitation shows 1717.2 mm. The water quality of crop field was worse than forest or grassland in Daewallyeong highland. In 2005, annual T-N, T-P, SS distribution of Chinese cabbage field showed 7.4~11.3, 0.061~0.1, and
. The potato field showed 3.1~7.2, 0.019~0.056 and
, respectively. Being compared of water quality between potato field and chinese cabbage field, it showed that the water quality of Chinese cabbage field was worse than potato field. On farming, the soil of crop cultivation showed pH 5.6 to 6.8,
. The content of cations showed
of Exch. K,
of Exch. Ca and
of Exch. Mg.
Application of Electrical Resistivity Measurement to an Evaluation of Saline Soil in Cropping Field
Yoon, Sung-Won ; Park, Sam-Gyu ; Chun, Hyen-Jung ; Han, Keung-Hwa ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Myung-Suk ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1035~1041
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1035
Salinity of soil under the plastic film houses in Korea is known as a significant factor to lower the crop production and to hamper the sustainable agricultural land management. In this study we propose a field monitoring technique to examine the methods applied to minimize the adverse effect of salts in soil based on the relationship between soil electrical characteristics and soil properties. Field experiments for 4 different treatments (water only, fertilizer only, DTPA only, and DTPA and fertilizer together) were conducted on soils at the plastic film house built for cultivating a cucumber plant located at Chunan-si, Chungchungnam-do in Korea. The electrical resistivity was measured by both a dipole-dipole and wenner multi-electrodes array method. After the electrical resistivity measurement we also measured the soil water content, temperature, and electrical conductivity on surface soil. The resulted image of the interpreted resistivity by the inversion technique presented a unique spatial distribution depending on the treatment, implying the effect of the different chemical components. It was also highly suspected that resistivity response changed with the nutrients level, suggesting that our proposed technique could be the effective tool for the monitoring soil water as well as nutrient during the cropping period. Especially, subsoils under DTPA treatment at 40 to 60 cm depth typically presented lower soil water accumulation comparing to subsoils under non-DTPA treatment. It is considered that DTPA resulted in increase of a root water uptake. However, our demonstrated results were mainly based on qualitative comparison. Further experiments need to be conducted to monitor temporal changes of electrical resistivity using time lapse analysis, providing that a plant root activity difference based on changes of soil water and nutrients level in time.
Influence of Soil pH, Total and Mobile Contents on Copper and Zinc Uptake by Lettuce Grown in Plastic Film Houses
Kim, Rog-Young ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1042~1047
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1042
Copper and Zinc are essential trace elements for all living organisms. When presenting in excess amount in soils, however they can be toxic to plants. In order to examine the transfer of Cu and Zn from soils to plants and to predict their contents in plants using soil factors, we investigated total and mobile contents of Cu and Zn in soils and their uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in plastic film houses. Total Cu and Zn contents in soils were
), respectively. Mobile Cu and Zn contents in soils were
), respectively. Soil pH ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 and OM from 24.1 to
. Mean Cu contents in leaves and roots of lettuce were 9.20 and
, respectively which showed that Cu was accumulated mainly in root parts of lettuce and not easily transported to leaves. In contrast, Zn was fairly evenly distributed in leaves and roots with mean values of 54.5 and
, indicating relative high mobility of Zn in lettuce. Transfer factors of Cu and Zn from soil total contents to roots and leaves of lettuce (
) were between 0.1 and 1, while transfer factors from soil mobile contents to roots and leaves (
) were between 10 and 1000. Transfer factors of Zn were higher than those of Cu, showing Zn was more easily absorbed by plants than Cu. Cu and Zn uptake was stronger influenced by soil pH and mobile contents than total contents and OM and could be significantly described by multiple regression equations including soil pH and soil mobile contents as variables.
Properties and Heavy Metal Contents of Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul
Kim, Hyuck-Soo ; Kim, Young-Nam ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1048~1051
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1048
This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. The investigated urban soils showed
, organic mater 2.22%, available
, cation exchange capacity (CEC)
, total nitrogen 0.15% and exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Na were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and
, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning levels in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09,
Evaluating Heavy Metal Stabilization Efficiency of Chemical Amendment in Agricultural Field: Field Experiment
Oh, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yoon, Hyun-Soo ; Kim, Ha-Na ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Yeon, Kyu-Hun ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Hong, Sung-Jo ; Yang, Jae-E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1052~1062
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1052
Residual of heavy metals originated from abandoned metal mines in agricultural field can cause adverse effect on ecosystem and eventually on human health. For this reason, remediation of heavy metal contaminated agriculture field is a critical issue. In this study, five different amendments, agriculture lime, dolomite, steel slag, zeolite, and compost, were evaluated for stabilization efficiency of heavy metals in agricultural field. Applied mixing ratio of amendments was varied (2% or 6%) depending on properties of amendments. Result showed that soil pH was increased compared to control (6.1-6.7) after mixing with amendments and ordered as dolomite (7.2~8.3) > steel slag (6.7~8.1) > agriculture lime (6.6~7.4) > zeolite (6.2~6.9) > compost (6.1~7.1). Among other amendments, agriculture lime, steel slag, and dolomite showed the highest stabilization efficiency of heavy metals in soil. For Cd, stabilization efficiency was 49~72%, 51~83%, and 0~36% for agriculture lime, steel slag, and dolomite respectively. In case of Pb, 43~64, 37~73%, and 51~73% of stabilization efficiency was observed for agriculture lime, steel slag, and dolomite respectively. However, minimal effect of heavy metal stabilization was observed for zeolite and compost. Based on result of this study, amendments that can increase the soil pH were the most efficient to stabilize heavy metal residuals and can be adapted for remediation purpose in agricultural field.
Determining Kinetic Parameters and Stabilization Efficiency of Heavy Metals with Various Chemical Amendment
Oh, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Hee ; Yeon, Kyu-Hun ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Yang, Jae-E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1063~1070
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1063
In this study, total of 5 different chemical amendments were evaluated for determining kinetic parameters and stabilization efficiency of heavy metals in aqueous phase. Standard solution of Cd and Pb (
) was mixed with various ratio of amendments (1, 3, 5, 10%) and heavy metal stabilization efficiency was monitored for 24hrs. All examined amendments showed over 90% of removal efficiency for both Cd and Pb except zerovalent iron (ZVI) for Cd (43-63%). Based on result of heavy metal stabilization efficiency, it was ordered as
> Dolomite > Zeolite > Steel slag > ZVI for both Cd and Pb in aqueous phase. For kinetic study, first order kinetic model was adapted to calculate kinetic parameters. In terms of reaction rate constants (k), zeolite showed the fastest reaction rate (k value from 0.4882 for 1% to 2.0105 for 10%) for Cd and ZVI (k value from 0.2304 for 1% to 0.5575 for 10%) for Pb. Considering reaction rate constant and half life for heavy metal stabilization, it was ordered as Zeolite >
> Dolomite > Steel slag > ZVI for Cd and
> Dolomite > Steel slag > Zeolite > ZVI for Pb. Overall result in this study can be interpreted that lime containing materials are more beneficial to remove heavy metals with high efficiency and less time consuming than absorbent materials.
Evaluating Stabilization Efficiency of Coal Combustion Ash (CCA) for Coal Mine Wastes: Column Experiment
Oh, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Ko, Ju-In ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Yang, Jae-E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1071~1079
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1071
In this study, coal combustion ash (CCA) was evaluated for its stabilization effect on acidic mine waste with column experiment. Total of six treatments were installed depending on mixing ratio between coal wastes and CCA (0, 20, 40%) and mixing method (completely mixing and layered). Artificial acidic rain (pH 5.6) was used for feeding solution with flow rate of
. Result showed that higher pH of leachate was observed as more CCA was mixed. The highest pH in leachate was measured when 40% of CCA was mixed with coal waste (pH of 5.8). Also, complete mixing with CCA and coal waste was more effective to increase the pH of leachate than layered treatment. Regarding the reduction of soluble Fe amount, the highest efficiency (78%) was observed when 20% of coal ash was completely mixed with mine waste. Based on those result, optimum mixing ratio of coal ash with mine waste can be ranged 20-40% depending on environmental circumstances in the field.
Model Development for Estimating Total Soil Contents of Pb and Cd Using Chemical Properties and Extractable Contents in Paddy Soil
Go, Woo-Ri ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Lee, Eun-Yong ; Lim, Seong-Mook ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1080~1084
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1080
Predictive model for estimating total contents of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was developed by stepwise multiple-regression analysis using chemical properties and extractable contents of metal in paddy soil adjacent to abandoned mines in 2009 and 2010. Soil properties, e.g. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (
), and exchangeable cations (i.e. Ca, Na, K, Mg) were measured. Total contents of Cd and Pb as well as extractable contents of metals were analyzed by ICP-OES. Results showed that the total and extractable contents were estimated to be 3.55 and
in Cd and 83.38 and
in Pb on the average. From stepwise analysis, it was found that the contents of extractable Cd, Zn, Cu, as well as exchangeable Na were significantly influenced on estimation of the total contents of Cd in soil. Moreover, it also showed that the contents of extractable Pb, Zn, and Cu significantly affected estimation of the total contents of Pb in soil. More significant relationship between estimated and measured value in total contents of Pb was observed than those of Cd (
=0.87, p<0.0001). This demonstrates that extractable contents of metal are influenced more on estimation of total contents of Cd and Pb in soil than soil properties.
Chemical Composition and Heavy Metal Contents in Commercial Liquid Pig Manures
Lee, Ji-Ho ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1085~1088
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1085
Heavy metal concentration as well as chemical composition were surveyed in commercial liquid pig manure to provide the basic information for mitigation research of hazardous material to agro-product. Seventy-five samples of liquid pig manure were collected and analyzed from 2009 to 2010 nationwide. Average contents of T-N,
were 0.29%, 0.08%, and 0.11%, respectively. The contents of heavy metals ranged from 0.001~0.083 for As, 0.001~0.108 for Cd, 0.002~0.495 for Cr, 0.07~47.8 for Cu, ND~0.005 for Hg, 0.035~1.033 for Ni, ND~0.291 for Pb, and
for Zn, respectively. It was noted that among 75 samples, only four samples exceeded the Zn guideline (
) of liquid fertilizer derived from livestock manure but others were not exceeded the regulation.
Evaluation of Treatment Efficencies of Pollutants in Bongsan Constructed Wetlands for Treating Non-point Source Pollution
Choi, Ik-Won ; Moon, Sung-Dong ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Lim, Byung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kap-Soon ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1089~1094
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1089
To treat non-point source pollution in Juam lake, removal efficiencies of pollutants were investigated in Bongsan constructed wetlands (CWs) at different treatment time, stages and wastewater loads. The constructed wetlands consisted of forebay,
wetlands. The concentrations of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in inflow were
, respectively. The removal rates of BOD, SS, T-N, and T-P in Bongsan CWs were 26, 18, 16 and 9%, respectively. The removal rates of BOD and T-N were higher than those for SS and T-P. The amounts of pollutant removal in Bongsan CWs were higher in the order of forebay >
wetland for BOD, forebay >
wetland for SS,
wetland > forebay >
wetland for T-N and
wetland > forebay >
wetland for T-P.
Effect of Mixed Cultivation with Green Manure Crops and Liquid Pig Manure on Rice Growth
Kang, Se-Won ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Han, Jong-Hak ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1095~1102
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1095
The effect of mixed cultivation with green manure crops and liquid pig manure on rice growth was investigated. Field experiment in site 1 (Astragalus sinicus L.) and site 2 (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were designed with control (non-green manure crop), PLM 100 (non-green manure crop + liquid pig manure 100%), A(L)PLM 0 (green manure crop + PLM 0%), A(L)PLM 50 (green manure crop + PLM 50%), A(L)PLM 75 (green manure crop + PLM 75%), and A(L)PLM 100 (green manure crop + PLM 100%). The results of 1,000 grain in rice plant were in the order of APLM 100
control for site 1 and LPLM 100
LPLM 75 = LPLM 50 = PLM 100
control for site 2. The yields of rice in site 1 and site 2 were
(increasing yield 10%) for APLM 100 and
(increasing yield 12%) for LPLM 100, respectively.
Optimum Application Level of Liquid Pig Manure for Increasing Green Manure Crop Yield
Lee, Snag-Gyu ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kang, Se-Won ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Choi, Ik-Won ; Kim, Min-Ok ; Jeon, Won-Tai ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1103~1106
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1103
Optimum application level of liquid pig manure for increasing Astragalus sinicus L. (ASASI) and Lolium multiflorum Lam. (LOLMU) yield was investigated. The green manure crop yield were generally high in the order of ALPM 100
APLM 0 in site 1 (ASASI), and LPLM 100
LPLM 75 > LPLM 50
LPLM 0 in site 2 (LOLMU). The optimum application level of liquid pig manure was 100% of nitrogen fertilization level.
Chinese Cabbage Growth Effected by Black Vinyl Mulching and Organic Fertilizer Application in Spring Season
Yun, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Song, Yo-Sung ; Han, Seung-Gap ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1107~1111
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1107
Organic fertilizers application has become a popular alternatives to reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizer in Korean farming systems. In this study, we evaluated the nitrogen (N) use efficiency and growth performance of Chinese cabbage grown by black vinyl mulching after application of organic and chemical fertilizers compared with no-mulching. The treatments included chemical fertilizer alone as control (NPK, N-
), organic fertilizer alone (OF100), 70% organic fertilizer and 30% chemical fertilizer (OF70+N30), and 30% organic fertilizer and 70% chemical fertilizer (OF30+N70), which were all applied in the no-mulching plots and in plots with black vinyl mulching. Daily means soil temperature was
higher in the black vinyl mulched treatments throughout the 54 days compared with no-mulched treatments. OF100 with black vinyl mulching gave highest soil inorganic N content. Also, Chines cabbage yield increased 46% by black vinyl mulched compared with no-mulching in OF100 treatment. Without mulching, N use efficiency was, 44, 26, 29, and 27% in NPK, OF100, OF70+N30, and OF30+N70, respectively. However, black vinyl mulching much more effectively increased N use efficiencies by 56, 55, 51, and 39% in the same treatments in the order as mentioned above. Conclusively, combined organic and chemical fertilizers application with black vinyl mulching could be good practical technique to reduce a amount of used nitrogen because of its greater ability to enhance N use efficiency.
Recommendation of the Amount of Nitrogen Top Dressing based on Soil Nitrate Nitrogen Content for Leaf Perilla (Perilla frutescens) under the Plastic Film House
Kang, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Gong, Hyo-Young ; Jung, Hyung-Jin ; Park, Chang-Hwan ; Yun, Yeo-Uk ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1112~1117
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1112
This study was conducted to recommend nitrogen (N) top dressing based on soil nitrate content for leaf perilla under forcing culture in Gumsan-gun and Milyang-si. Experimental design was the randomized complete block design for five N fertilization levels and conventional fertilization. Dry weight, nitrogen uptake, and the node number of leaf perilla were measured and soil nitrate contents were analyzed monthly. The amount of nitrogen uptake for growth of a node with two leaves was
for Gumsan site and
for Milyang site. Lower level of soil nitrate N concentration for standard N fertilization was determined as
for both sites. Soil depth, bulk density, utilization rate of soil nitrate N, and the amount of N uptake for growth of a node with two leaves were considered for calculation of upper level of soil nitrate N concentration. The upper levels of soil nitrate N concentration for no N fertilization were determined as
for Gumsan site and as
for Milyang site. Consequently the recommendation equations for the N top dressing were Y=-0.157X+4.71 for Gumsan site and Y=-0.1667X+6.6667 for Milyang site.
Rice Yield and Changes of Available Silicate in Paddy Soils from Long-term Application of Chemical Fertilizers and Soil Amendments
Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Yun, Hong-Bae ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Ha, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1118~1123
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1118
The changes of available silicate (Avail.
) contents in paddy soils (sandy loam) were assessed from data of the 41 years fertilization plots in which the continuous rice cropping experiment started in 1954 at the National Academy of Agricultural Science. The treatments were no fertilization (O), inorganic fertilization (NPK), inorganic fertilizer plus rice straw compost (NPK+C), inorganic fertilizer plus silicate fertilizer as a soil amendment (NPK+S), inorganic fertilizer plus rice straw compost and silicate fertilizer (NPK+CS) and inorganic fertilizer plus rice straw compost, silicate fertilizer and lime (NPK+CSL). Available silicate contents in NPK+S, NPK+CS and NPK in surface soil reached at the highest content (
) after 41 years and then levelled off. Available silicate contents in subsurface soil (25~30 cm) were higher in NPK+C and NPK+S treatments than those in other treatments. Continuous application of silicate fertilizer affected significantly on the levels of available silicate in surface and subsurface soils. Silicate uptake of top rice was more increased by 98% in NPK+CS and NPK+CSL over NPK. Grain yield also increased by 37~47% in NPK+CS and NPK+CSL as compared to NPK. The combined applications of inorganic fertilizers with silicate as a soil amendment are recommended as the best fertilization practice for fertilizer use efficiency, enhancement of soil fertility status in the continuous rice cropping system in Korea.
Effects of Customized Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Rice
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Song, Yo-Sung ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Yun, Hong-Bae ; Jang, Byong-Chun ; Kim, Rog-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1124~1129
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1124
The importance of environment-friendly agriculture is being magnified as a new growth engine industry in pursuit of low carbon, green growth policies. In order to provide technical supports for pushing ahead with the environment-friendly agriculture policies, we estimated the effects of customized fertilization on growth and yield of rice and fertilizer reduction compared to conventional fertilization and single-element fertilization. In rice plant growth and rice yield, no statistically significant difference between the three fertilization treatments was observed. In contrast, customized fertilization showed high disaster resistance reducing the damage caused by rice lodging during a typhoon. The average N application in farms showing high rice lodging amounted to
was known as the critical range of rice lodging in Korea. The fertilizer reduction rate of customized fertilization compared to conventional fertilization of investigated farms was on average 22.5%. We estimated the short-term effects of customized fertilization in the first year after application. In future, there is need for continuous examination of rice growth and soil environment change due to successive application of customized fertilizer.
Effects of Liquid Pig Manure on Growth of Potato, Soil Chemical Properties and Infiltration Water Quality
Kang, Ho-Jun ; Yang, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Shin-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1130~1136
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1130
This study was carried out to determine the effects of pig slurry on growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima), soil chemistry properties and infiltration water quality in volcanic ash soil and non-volcanic ash soil of Jeju. Fertilization of liquid pig manure was based on nitrogen. In volcanic ash soil and non-volcanic ash soil, there was no difference in the height and diameter of stems in chemical fertilizer and liquid pig manure application treatments. Also yields of potatoes were no significantly difference in chemical fertilizer and liquid pig manure application treatments. pH in all soil was increased by application of liquid pig manure compared to the chemical fertilizer plot. Contents of exchangeable K in all soil were accumulated excessively by fertilization of pig manure 100% compared to the chemical fertilizer 100%. But there was no difference between the chemical fertilizer 50%+liquid pig manure 50% and chemical fertilizer 100%. No difference between the chemical fertilizer and liquid pig manure was observed in available phosphate, exchangeable Ca and Mg.
-N concentration of infiltration water sample collected at 70cm of soil depth was lower non-fertilizer than chemical fertilizer and liquid pig manure application treatments. In volcanic ash soil, the
-N concentration of infiltration water was decreased from early, except liquid manure 100%. In non volcanic ash soil, the
-N concentration of infiltration water increased until October 8, but then was reduced. In all soils,
-N concentration of infiltration water was higher in the liquid manure 100% than those in the chemical fertilizer 100% and chemical fertilizer 50%+liquid pig manure 50%, but there were no differences. In conclusion, the growth of potato, fertilization of soil and
-N content of infiltration water were not different between chemical 50%+liquid pig manure 50% and chemical 100% plot. So, liquid pig manure could be substituted for some amount of chemical fertilizer.
Soil and Leaf Nutrient Properties by Establishment Periods of Chesnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et. Zucc.) Orchards in Sancheong-gun
Kim, Choon-Sig ; An, Hyun-Chul ; Cho, Hyun-Seo ; Lim, Jong-Taek ; Byun, Jae-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1137~1143
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1137
Optimum soil management of chestnut orchards is important to ensure high quality and yields of chestnut. This study was conducted to evaluate soil and green leaf characteristics by establishment periods of chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et. Zucc.) orchards in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Total 30 plots with the criteria of similar cultivation practices were chosen and classified into two establishment periods by over 20-year-old orchards (17 plots) and below 19-year-old orchards (13 plots). Soil bulk density was significantly higher (p<0.05) in over 20-year-old (
) than in below 19-year-old (
) plots. Soils in over 20-year-old plots were severely acidified with pH 4.56 compared to pH 4.73 in below 19-year-old plots. However, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and potassium were not significantly different (p>0.05) between both establishment periods. Leaf area, leaf mass, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) concentration of green leaves were also not significantly different (p>0.05) between both establishment periods. The results indicate that soil bulk density in chestnut orchards is dependent on the establishment periods, while soil chemical property and leaf nutrient concentration may be little influenced by the establishment periods.
Aboveground Biomass and Nutrient Distribution of Korea Pine (Pinus koraiensis) Advance Growth in Deciduous Oak Forests
Ji, Dong-Hun ; Byun, Jae-Kyoung ; Jeong, Jin-Hyun ; Yi, Myong-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1144~1149
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1144
The occurrence of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) advance growth has been noticed in the deciduous oak forest being adjacent to the mature Korean pine plantation. the korean pine seedlings in the forest were regenerated naturally from harvested and transported Korean pine seeds and cones by rodents, mainly red squirrels. Mongolian oak (Quercus bariabilis), which formed dominant overstory, had close-to-normal distributions of height, diameter and age classes. Korean pine, which dominated the understory, had the reverse J-shaped height, diameter and age distributions that are expected of a shade tolerant species. Growing in the summer shade of the oak, Korean pine seedling had slow, but steady height growth during the past four decades. Total biomass of Korean pine seedling ranged from
and biomass allocation of Korean pine seedling was follows : stem (with bark) > foliage > branches > roots. Korean pine seedlings allocated more biomass to foliage and branches compare to planted Korean pine. The smaller root/shoot ratio of Korean pine seedling in the site is to believed to be result of competition for light. Contents of N and K for Korean pine seedling were greatest in foliage follow by branches, stem ad roots, while content of P was greater in the order of foliage > roots > stem > branches.
Biological Control of Root-knot Nematode by Streptomyces sampsonii KK1024
Kim, Sang-Su ; Kang, Seon-I ; Kim, Jin-Si ; Lee, Yong-Sung ; Hong, Sung-Hyun ; Naing, Kyaw Wai ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1150~1157
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1150
Streptomyces sampsonii KK1024 having strong chitinolytic activity was isolated from crab-shell rich soil at Muan, Jeolanamdo. The KK1024 produced chitinase, protease, gelatinase and lipase. When 50% of KK1024 culture broth was treated to juveniles and eggs of root-knot nematode, juvenile mortality at 3 days was 81.67% and egg hatch rate at 5 days was 2.00%. When
of crude enzyme produced by KK1024 was treated, juvenile mortality at 3 days was 96.00% and egg hatch rate at 5 days was 5.33%. At 1% of butanol extract from KK1024, juvenile mortality was highest with 90.00% and egg hatch rate was lowest with 0%. The comparison of the effect of KK1024 culture broth with only medium, synthetic fertilizer, and commercial nematicide on tomato growth and nematode infection was examined in pot trials. KK1024 culture broth showed lower number of egg mass and gall in plant, and population of juveniles in soil compared with only medium and synthetic fertilizer treatment, but not in commercial nematicide. However, the highest shoot weight and length was discovered in KK1024 culture broth. These results suggest that Streptomyces sampsonii KK1024 producing lytic enzymes and nematicidal compounds can be one of candidates for biocontrol agents against root-knot nematodes.
Relationship of Topography and Microbial Community from Paddy Soils in Gyeongnam Province
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1158~1163
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1158
The present study was aimed to evaluate the soil microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) method in paddy soils at 20 sites in Gyeongnam Province. The soil microbial biomass carbon content of fan and valley
was higher than alluvial plain
(p<0.05). In addition, The dehydrogenase activity of fan and valley
was higher than alluvial plain
(p<0.05). The communities of total bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in the fan and valley paddy soils were significantly higher than those in the alluvial plain paddy soils (p<0.05). Total bacteria communities should be considered as a potential responsible factor for the obvious microbial community differentiation that was observed between the fan and valley and alluvial plain in paddy soils.
Impacts of Soil Type on Microbial Community from Paddy Soils in Gyeongnam Province
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Shin, Min-A ; Kim, Eun-Seok ; Song, Won-Doo ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1164~1168
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1164
This study evaluated the soil microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) method in soils (6 sites for immatured paddy, 9 sites for normal paddy, and 5 sites for sandy paddy) in Gyeongnam Province. The soil microbial biomass carbon content in normal and sandy paddy were 1,235 and
, respectively, showing the soil microbial biomass carbon content in normal paddy was higher than that in sandy paddy. The soil organic matter contents
of immatured and normal paddy were higher than sandy paddy
(p<0.05). The communities of total bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in normal paddy were significantly higher than those in sandy paddy (p<0.05). Total bacteria communities should be considered as a potential responsible factor for the obvious microbial community differentiation.
Microbial Diversity and Community Analysis in Lettuce or Cucumber Cultivated Greenhouse Soil in Korea
Kim, Byung-Yong ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ; Park, In-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Yeob ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Song, Jae-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1169~1175
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1169
The soil chemical properties, microbial community structures and biochemical properties of lettuce or cucumber-cultivated greenhouse soil samples were analyzed to assess soil health and characterize microbial distribution in 8 locations in Korea. Although most of chemical properties were within the soil management guidelines, the available phosphate, and the contents of exchangeable potassium and calcium were higher than those of recommended levels. In the culture-dependent analysis, 841 bacterial strains were isolated from the greenhouse soils and were identified at the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. The dominant bacterial genera were Bacillus (35.7%), Microbacterium (9.3%), Arthrobacter (5.7%) and Lysobacter (5.1%). The abundance of pseudomonads was highly variable depending on the soil samples. In the culture-independent analysis, soil microbial community was investigated by using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that a specific grouping for microbial community structure in the greenhouse soils was not observed based on cultivated crops and investigated sites. The results revealed that the greenhouses soils examined are relatively sound managed in terms of soil chemical contents and microbial properties.
Impacts of Soil Texture on Microbial Community from Paddy Soils in Gyeongnam Province
Lee, Young-Han ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Shin, Min-A ; Kim, Eun-Seok ; Song, Won-Doo ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1176~1180
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1176
The present study evaluated the soil microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) method in paddy soils at 11 sites for silt loam, 4 sites for sandy loam, and 5 sites for loam in Gyeongnam Province. The FAME content of fungi in loam (
) was higher than that of in sandy loam (
). Sandy loam had significantly lower ratio of cy19:0 to 18:
compared with that of silt loam (p<0.05), indicating that microbial stress decreased. In addition, actinomycetes community of loam was higher than that of sandy loam.
Monitoring of Microorganisms in Commercial Liquid Pig Manures in Korea
Lim, Seong-Mook ; Lee, Ji-Ho ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1181~1184
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1181
Total aerobic bacteria, Esherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were examined in commercial liquid pig manures. Commercial liquid pig manures (n=33) were collected from muck joint resource recovery plant at April, June, August, October 2009, Korea. Total aerobic bacteria were incubated at
for 24-48 hrs, and quantified as a colony-forming unit (CFU)
. Analysis of Esherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were followed by Korean Food Standards Codex method. Colony of Salmonella spp. was confirmed by API kit and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total aerobic bacteria isolated from fermented commercial liquid pig manures ranged from 2.8 to
. Esherichia coli O157:H7 was not detected, and Salmonella spp. showed the low detection frequency at only 1 sample. This study suggests that continuous monitoring in commercial liquid pig manures is required to improve the agricultural food through management of agricultural land contaminated with liquid pig manures.
LCA on Lettuce Cropping System by Top-down Method in Protected Cultivation
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Lee, Gil-Zae ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1185~1194
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1185
This study was carried out to estimate carbon emission using LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and to establish LCI (Life Cycle inventory) DB for lettuce production system in protected cultivation. The results of data collection for establishing LCI DB showed that the amount of fertilizer input for 1 kg lettuce production was the highest. The amounts of organic and chemical fertilizer input for 1 kg lettuce production were 7.85E-01 kg and 4.42E-02 kg, respectively. Both inputs of fertilizer and energy accounted for the largest share. The amount of field emission for
for 1 kg lettuce production was 3.23E-02 kg. The result of LCI analysis focused on GHG (Greenhouse gas) showed that the emission value to produce 1 kg of lettuce was 8.65E-01 kg
. The emission values of
to produce 1 kg of lettuce were 8.59E-03 kg
and 2.90E-04 kg
, respectively. Fertilizer production process contributed most to GHG emission. Whereas, the amount of emitted nitrous oxide was the most during lettuce cropping stage due to nitrogen fertilization. When GHG was calculated in
-equivalents, the carbon footprint from GHG was 1.14E-+00 kg
accounted for 76% of the total GHG emissions from lettuce production system. Methane and nitrous oxide held 16%, 8% of it, respectively. The results of LCIA (Life Cycle Impact assessment) showed that GWP (Global Warming Potential) and POCP (Photochemical Ozon Creation Potential) were 1.14E+00 kg
and 9.45E-05 kg
, respectively. Fertilizer production is the greatest contributor to the environmental impact, followed by energy production and agricultural material production.
Application of LCA on Lettuce Cropping System by Bottom-up Methodology in Protected Cultivation
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1195~1206
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1195
This study was conducted to apply LCA (Life cycle assessment) methodology to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production systems in Namyang-ju as a case study. Five lettuce growing farms with three different farming systems (two farms with organic farming system, one farm with a system without agricultural chemicals and two farms with conventional farming system) were selected at Namyangju city of Gyeonggi-province in Korea. The input data for LCA were collected by interviewing with the farmers. The system boundary was set at a cropping season without heating and cooling system for reducing uncertainties in data collection and calculation. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to find out the effect of type and amount of fertilizer and energy use on GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission. The results of establishing GTG (Gate-to-Gate) inventory revealed that the quantity of fertilizer and energy input had the largest value in producing 1 kg lettuce, the amount of pesticide input the smallest. The amount of electricity input was the largest in all farms except farm 1 which purchased seedlings from outside. The quantity of direct field emission of
from farm 1 to farm 5 were 6.79E-03 (farm 1), 8.10E-03 (farm 2), 1.82E-02 (farm 3), 7.51E-02 (farm 4) and 1.61E-02 (farm 5) kg
lettuce, respectively. According to the result of LCI analysis focused on GHG, it was observed that
emission was 2.92E-01 (farm 1), 3.76E-01 (farm 2), 4.11E-01 (farm 3), 9.40E-01 (farm 4) and
(farm 5), respectively. Carbon dioxide contribute to the most GHG emission. Carbon dioxide was mainly emitted in the process of energy production, which occupied 67~91% of
emission from every production process from 5 farms. Due to higher proportion of
emission from production of compound fertilizer in conventional crop system, conventional crop system had lower proportion of
emission from energy production than organic crop system did. With increasing inorganic fertilizer input, the process of lettuce cultivation covered higher proportion in
emission. Therefore, farms 1 and 2 covered 87% of total
emission; and farm 3 covered 64%. The carbon footprints from farm 1 to farm 5 were 3.40E-01 (farm 1), 4.31E-01 (farm 2), 5.32E-01 (farm 3), 1.08E+00 (farm 4) and 6.14E-01 (farm 5) kg
lettuce, respectively. Results of sensitivity analysis revealed the soybean meal was the most sensitive among 4 types of fertilizer. The value of compound fertilizer was the least sensitive among every fertilizer imput. Electricity showed the largest sensitivity on
emission. However, the value of
variation was almost zero.
Assessment on Nitrous oxide (N
O) Emissions of Korea Agricultural Soils in 2009
Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1207~1213
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1207
This study was conducted to assess
emissions in agricultural soils of Korea. According to 1996 and 2006 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology,
emission was calculated the sum of direct emission (
) and indirect emission (
). To calculate
emissions, emission factor was used default of IPCC and activity data was used the food, agricultural, forestry and fisheries statistical yearbook of MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries). It was emitted 8,608
Mg resulted from direct emission by application of chemical fertilizer and animal manure, input in n-fixation crops and input of crop residues and emissions converted
equivalent was 2,668
-eq Gg. Indirect emission as
(atmospheric deposition of
(leaching and runoffs) were 4,567 and 6,013
Mg and emissions converted
equivalent were 1,416 and 1,864
-eq Gg, respectively. Total
emission in Korea agricultural soil in 2009 was 5,948
Assessment of Greenhouse gases Emission of Agronomic Sector between 1996 and 2006 IPCC Guidelines
Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1214~1219
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1214
This study was conducted to compare of greenhouse gas emissions between 1996 and 2006 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) guidelines change. Greenhouse gas emissions were calculated separately by rice cultivation, agricultural soils and field burning of agricultural residues from 2000 to 2008 according to 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines. To calculate greenhouse gas emissions, emission factor and activity data were used IPCC default value and the food, agricultural, forestry and fisheries statistical yearbook of MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). The greenhouse emissions by 1996 IPCC guidelines were highest in rice cultivation as 4,008
-eq Gg of 2000 and 3,558
-eq Gg of 2008. The emissions by N-fixing crops, crop residues returned soils and field burning did not much affect the total emissions.
emissions by urea and lime were calculated by adding in 2006 IPCC guidelines and its emissions were 157 and 82
-eq Gg in 2008 respectively. The emissions by N-fixing crops, crop residues returned to soils and field burning, in common with 1996 IPCC guidelines, did not have a significant impact on total emissions. The total emissions in agronomic sector was decreased continuously from 2000 to 2008 and annual emissions by 2006 IPCC guidelines were approximately 26-29% less than the 1996 IPCC guidelines.
Effects of Soil Types on Methane Gas Emission in Paddy During Rice Cultivation
Seo, Young-Jin ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Kim, Chan-Yong ; Kim, Jong-Su ; Cho, Doo-Hyun ; Choi, Seong-Yong ; Park, So-Deuk ; Jung, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ; Park, Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1220~1225
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1220
Anaerobic decomposition of organic materials in flooded rice fields produces methane (
) gas, which escapes to the atmosphere primarily by transport through organs of the rice plants such as arenchyma etc., Although the annual amount of methane emitted from a given area is influenced by cultivation periods of rice and organic/inorganic amendments etc., soil type also affects methane emission from paddy soil during a rice cultivation. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of soil type on
emission in two paddy soils. One is a red-yellow soil classified as a Hwadong series (fine, mixed, mesic family of Aquic Hapludalfs), and the other is a gley soil classified as a Shinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Aeric Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts). During a flooded periods, redox potentials of red-yellow soil were significantly higher than gley soil.
emission in red-yellow soil (
) was lower than that in gley soil (
). In the condition of different soil types,
emissions were mainly influenced by the content of total free metal oxides in paddy soil. The results strongly imply that iron- or manganese-oxides of well ordered crystalline forms in soil such as goethite and hematite influenced on a
emission, which is crucial role as a
oxidizers in paddy soil during a rice cultivation.
Research of Monoterpenes Content in the Atmosphere of Forest
Ham, Kwang-Joon ; Park, Keun-Young ; Kim, Min-Su ; Song, Jae-Mo ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1226~1231
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1226
The biogenic emission of the atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the forests is dominated by monoterpenes. This study investigated the changes in the concentration of monoterpenes distributed in various types of forest near the Gangwon Nature Environment Research Park, Hongcheon, Gangwon Province, Korea. Samples were collected from the three sites of different types of forest, including coniferous, broad-leaved and mixed forests. Additionally, the seasonal and daily changes of monoterpene compounds were monitored. Our results found the several types of monoterpene such as
-pinene, camphene, d-limonene, p-cymene and
-terpinene. The highest total concentration of terpene compounds was observed in the coniferous forest. For the summer season, the total concentration of terpene compounds was highest in coniferous and mixed forests, and that was also highest in broad-leaved forest for the autumn.
Evaluation of indirect N
O Emission from Nitrogen Leaching in the Ground-water in Korea
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Roh, Kee-An ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1232~1238
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1232
This experiment was conducted to measure concentration of dissolved
in ground-water of 59 wells and to make emission factor for assessment of indirect
emission at agricultural sector in agricultural areas of Gyeongnam province from 2007 to 2010. Concentrations of dissolved
in ground-water of 59 wells were ranged trace to
concentrations were positively related with
-N suggesting that denitrification was the principal reason of
-N concentration was the best predictor of indirect
emission. The ratio of dissolved
-N in ground-water was very important to make emission factor for assessment of indirect
emission at agricultural sector. The mean ratio of
-N was 0.0035. It was greatly lower than 0.015, the default value of currently using in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology for assessing indirect
emission in agro-ecosystems (IPCC, 1996). It means that the IPCC's present nitrogen indirect emission factor (
, 0.015) and indirect
emission estimated with IPCC's emission factor are too high to use adopt in Korea. So we recommend 0.0034 as national specific emission factor (
) for assessment of indirect
emission at agricultural sector. Using the estimated value of 0.0034 as the emission factor (
) revised the indirect
emission from agricultural sector in Korea decreased from 1,801,576 ton (
-eq) to 964,645 ton (
-eq) in 2008. The results of this study suggest that the indirect Emission of nitrous oxide from upland recommend 0.0034 as national specific emission factor (
) for assessment of indirect
emission at agricultural sector.
Evaluation of N
O Emissions with Different Growing Periods (Spring and Autumn Seasons), Tillage and No Tillage Conditions in a Chinese Cabbage Field
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1239~1244
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1239
Importance of climate change and its impact on agriculture and environment has increased with a rise of greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration in Earth's atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (
) emission in upland fields were assessed in terms of emissions and their control at the experimental plots of National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) located in Suwon city. It was evaluated
emissions with different growing periods (spring and autumn seasons), tillage and no tillage conditions in a chinese cabbage field. The results were as follows: 1) An amount of
emissions were high in the order of Swine manure compost>NPK>Hairy vetch+N fertilizer. By tillage and no tillage conditions,
emissions were reduced to 33.7~51.8% (spring season) and 31.4~76.7% (autumn season) in no-tillage than tillage conditions. 2) In autumn season than those spring season,
emissions at NPK, hairy vetch+N fertilizer and swine manure compost were reduced to 49.6%, 39.0% and 60.0%, respectively, in tillage treatment and 59.5%, 70.6% and 58.7%, respectively, in no-tillage treatment. 3)
emission measured in this study was 15.2~86.4% lower with tillage and no tillage treatments than that of the IPCC default value (0.0125 kg
Bioenergy and Material Production Potential by Life Cycle Assessment in Swine Waste Biomass
Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1245~1251
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1245
As a result of the growing livestock industry, varieties of organic solid and waste biomass are be generated in swine breeding and slaughtering stages. Anaerobic digestion is a promising alternative for the treatment of livestock waste biomass, as well as for the material recovery and energy production. Objectives of this study were to analyze the biochemical methane potential of swine waste biomasses that were generated from swine pen and slaughterhouse and to investigate the material recovery and methane yield per head. As pig waste biomass, swine slurry, blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were collected for investigation from pig farmhouse and slaughterhouse. The
(Theoretical methane potential) and
(Biochemical methane potential) of swine slurry generating in swine breeding stage were 0.525 and
, the ratio of degradation (
) was 68.6%.
of blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were 0.539, 0.664, and
were 0.405, 0.213, and
, respectively. And the ratio of degradation showed 75.1, 32.1, and 46.4% in blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. Material yield of swine waste biomass was calculated as TS 73.79, VS 46.75, TN 5.58,
. And methane yield was
. In the aspect that slaughterhouse is a large point source of waste biomass, while swine farmhouse is non-point source, the feasibility of an anaerobic digestion using the slaughtering waste biomass need to be assessed in the economical aspect between the waste treatment cost and the profitable effect by methane production.
Biochemical Methane Potential of Agricultural Byproduct in Greenhouse Vegetable Crops
Shin, Kook-Sik ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Eun ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1252~1257
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1252
Number of crop residues generated at large amount in agriculture can be utilized as substrate in methane production by anaerobic digestion. Greenhouse vegetable crop cultivation that adopting intensive agricultural system require the heating energy during winter season, meanwhile produce waste biomass source for the methane production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the methane production potential of greenhouse vegetable crop residues and to estimate material and energy yield in greenhouse system. Cucumber, tomato, and paprika as greenhouse vegetable crop were used in this study. Fallen fruit, leaf, and stem residues were collected at harvesting period from the farmhouses (Anseong, Gyeonggi, Korea) adopting an intensive greenhouse cultivation system. Also the amount of fallen vegetables and plant residues, and planting density of each vegetable crop were investigated. Chemical properties of vegetable waste biomass were determined, and theoretical methane potentials were calculated using Buswell's formula from the element analysis data. Also, BMP (Biochemical methane potential) assay was carried out for each vegetable waste biomass in mesophilic temperature (
). Theoretical methane potential (
) and Ultimate methane potential (
) off stem, leaf, and fallen fruit in vegetable residues showed the range of
respectively. The biomass yields of residues of tomato, cucumber, and paprika were 28.3, 30.5, and
respectively. The methane yields of tomato, cucumber, and paprika residues showed 645.0, 782.5, and
. Methane yield (
) of crop residue may be highly influenced by biomass yield which is mainly affected by planting density.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Asan Series Distributed on Rolling and Hilly Areas
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Moon, Yong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1258~1263
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1258
This study was conducted to reclassify Asan series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Asan series distributed on the rolling to hilly areas. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Asan series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Asan series has dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) gravelly loam Ap horizon (0-18 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) gravelly clay loam BA horizon (18-30 cm), red (2.5YR 4/6) gravelly clay loam Bt1 horizon (30-52 cm), red (2.5YR 4/8) gravelly clay loam Bt2 horizon (52-98 cm), and red (2.5YR 4/8) gravelly clay loam C horizon (98-160 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from a depth of 30 to 98 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Inceptisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludults. It has 18-35% clay at the particle-size control section, and has mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Asan series can be classified as fine loamy, mesic family of Typic Hapludults, not as fine loamy, mesic family of Typic Dystrudepts. Asan series occur on rolling to hilly areas in residual materials derived from granite gneiss, schist, and gneiss rocks. They are developed as Ultisols with clay mineral weathering, translocation of clays to accumulate in an argillic horizon, and leaching of base-forming cations from the profile for relatively long periods under humid and temperate climates in Korea.
Effective Application Method for Pollution Mitigation Facility of Highway Runoff
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Choi, Sang-Il ; Jung, Hyun-Gyu ; Bae, Sei-Dal ; Jung, Sun-Kook ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1264~1271
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1264
To build environmentally friendly highways, we testes suitability for unique characteristics of pollution mitigation facility around the highways by evaluating optimal selections and implementation methodologies to minimize loan of non-point pollution substances into water-ways. To do this we categorized EIA target highways into three types ; big drainage basin, small drainage basin, and bridge section as to minimize non-point pollution of highway runoff. The terms of selected facility test based on the Natural and Manufactured Treatment Device were removal efficiency of TSS, BOD, COD, T-N, T-P, compatibility of site selection, economic feasibility, maintenance convenience, and the final mitigation facility.
Taxonomical Classification of Cheongweon Series Distributed on Broad Continental Alluvial Plains
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Moon, Yong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1272~1278
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1272
This study was conducted to reclassify Cheongweon series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Cheongweon series distributed on broad continental alluvial plains. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Cheongweon series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Cheongweon series has dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam Ap horizon (0~18 cm), dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam BA horizon (18~30 cm), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) silty clay loam Bt1 horizon (30~60 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay loam Bt2 horizon (60~91 cm), brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam BC horizon (91~104 cm), and mottled (7.5YR 4/6, and 7.5YR 5/2) silt loam C horizon (104~160 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from a depth of 30 to 91 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of 35% or more at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Alfisol, not as Incceptisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udalf. Also that meets the requirements of Hapluadalf. It has anthraquic condition, and keys out as Anthraquic Hapludalf. That has fine silty textural family, and has mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Cheongweon series can be classified as fine silty, mixed, mesic family of Anthraquic Hapludalfs, not as fine silty, mixed, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts.
Estimation of Carbon Footprint for Production of Main Crops and Contribution Analysis of Inorganic Chemical Fertilizers
Jung, Soon-Chul ; Jeong, Jae-Woo ; Huh, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1279~1285
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1279
Korea is currently underway research to estimate carbon footprint in agriculture centered on the RDA (Rural Development Administration). This study was estimated carbon footprint for major 47 crops. In addition, contribution of inorganic chemical fertilizers, main elements for production of crops were analyzed. The carbon footprint of
for citrus fruit in greenhouse was highest, grape in greenhouse, sweet pepper in greenhouse, ginseng, green pepper in greenhouse were followed by
respectively. Next, production phase contribution of inorganic chemical fertilizer to carbon footprint of crop 1 kg were analyzed mean value 1.88%, 9.06% for single fertilizers and complex fertilizers respectively. And use phase accounted for mean value 14.24%. Therefore, to reduce the fertilization of inorganic chemical fertilizer will be reduced
from crop production, also greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural sector will be reduced.
Future Directions and Perspectives on Soil Environmental Researches
Yang, Jae-E. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1286~1294
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1286
This paper reviews the future directions and perspectives on the soil environmental researches in the 21 century. Previously, the principal emphasis of soil environmental researches had put on the enhancement of food and fiber productions. Beside the basic function of soil, however, the societal needs on soil resources in the 21st century have demands for several environmental and social challenges, occurring regionally or globally. Typical global issues with which soil science should deal include food security with increasing agronomic production to meet the exploding world population growth, adaptation and mitigation of climate change, increase of the carbon sequestration, supply of the biomass and bioenergy, securing the water resource and quality, protection of environmental pollution, enhancing the biodiversity and ecosystem health, and developing the sustainable farming/cropping system that improve the use efficiency of water and agricultural resources. These challenges can be solved through the sustainable crop production intensification (SCPI) or plant welfare concept in which soil plays a key role in solving the abovementioned global issues. Through implementation of either concept, soil science can fulfill the goal of the modern agriculture which is the sustainable production of crops while maintaining or enhancing the ecosystem function, quality and health. Therefore, directions of the future soil environmental researches should lie on valuing soil as an ecosystem services, translating research across both temporal and spatial scales, sharing and using data already available for other purposes, incorporating existing and new technologies from other disciplines, collaborating across discipline, and translating soil research into information for stakeholders and end users. Through the outcomes of these approaches, soil can enhance the productivity from the same confined land, increase profitability, conserve natural resource, reduce the negative impact on environment, enhance human nutrition and health, and enhance natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services. Soil is the central dogma, final frontier and new engine for the era of sustainability development in the
century and thus soil environmental researches should be carried according to this main theme.
Influence of Sea Water Treatment on Soil Chemical Properties and Contents of Inorganic Elements in Garlic
Kim, Myung-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Bum ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Gong, Hyo-Young ; Ha, Sang-Keon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1295~1299
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1295
This study was conducted at the organic farming fields which garlics were planted. The treatments were as follows; water of
(Control), plots applied 1 time, 2 times and 3 times with sea water of
. In 3 times sea water treatment plot, the level of EC, Exch. Na and
were 1.1, 2.1, and 3.3 times higher than control plot, respectively. Due to seawater application, the contents of inorganic elements such as T-N, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, and Zn in garlic were generally lower than Control, but not significant.
Selection of Nutrient Solution Strength and Media in Potting Without Nutrient Solution Recycling in Gerbera 'Sunny Lemon'
Kil, Mi-Jung ; Shim, Myung-Syun ; Park, Sang-Kun ; Shin, Hak-Ki ; Jung, Jae-A ; Kwon, Young-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1300~1305
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1300
The study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of flower quality and yield of gerbera 'Sunny Lemon' by mutrient solution strength and media of nutrient solution. The plant growth of 'Sunny Lemon' showed the highest values in the media of rockwool and perlite 1: peatmoss 2. Especially the yield of cut flowers for a year was more than 60 flowers and the flower longevity was over 10 days irrespective of nutrient solution concentration in the two media. There were no significant differences of plant characteristics in the nutrient concentration of 1/2 and 1 times, and the mineral nutrient contents showed similar values. Therefore, we recommended the media of perlite1: peatmoss2 with the concentration of 1/2 times for economical use. The rockwool media was not appropriate because of the weak buffer capacity like EC and pH.
The Effect of Application Levels of Slurry Composting and Bio-filtration Liquid Fertilizer on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Radish and Corn
Kang, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Kim, Myong-Suk ; Yoon, Sung-Won ; Ha, Sang-Gun ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1306~1313
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1306
A liquid fertilizer treated with slurry composting and biofiltration (SCB) process has been applied increasingly on agricultural field but the effects on the soil properties and crop production has not been throughly evaluated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the SCB application on soil chemical properties and the growth of radish and corn. SCB liquid fertilizer as a basal fertilization was treated with five levels based on
for radish and
for corn. The experimental design was the completely randomized block design with five levels and three replicates. Electrical conductivity (EC),
-N, Exch. K and Exch. Na increased depending on the treatment levels of SCB. There were no changes in soil organic matter, Avail.
, Exch. Ca and Exch. Mg. EC,
-N and Exch. Na content decreased as precipitation increased. Especially, they decreased up to the initial condition before the treatment after the heavy rainy season in 2008. Although Exch. K decreased at the rainy season, they remained relatively higher content after the experiment on August, 2008. Fresh weight and the amount of N uptake of radish increased due to the levels of SCB, but corn did not present any significant increase. It is recommended that we need to decide the proper amount of SCB as well as the application method on the field to increase the productivity and decrease environmental stress. Additional experiments also need to clarify the effect of the trace element and heavy metal accumulations due to long term application of SCB.
Comparing Organic Carbon Storage of Upper 15-cm Soils between Different Land Use Types in Korean Inland
Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hee-Rae ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 44, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1314~1319
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.6.1314
This study was carried out to investigate the surface soil organic carbon fractions affecting by different land use types, including needle-leaf forest (FN), broad-leaf forest (FB), pasture, annual upland cropping land (upland), and paddy rice land (paddy). We chose seven regions across Korean inland, considering sea level altitude, and measured soil organic carbon content and physico-chemical properties such as bulk density at a depth of 0~15 cm using core samples in April for the each land use type. In addition, labile organic carbon fractions in soil including light fraction and hot water extractable carbon were investigated. From this study, organic carbon storage (Mg C per ha) in the upper 15-cm soils was highest in FB (37.8), and decreased in the order of pasture (29.1), FN (28.8), paddy (21.9), and upland crop (19.9). In forest, more than 20% of soil organic carbon existed as light fraction, the free organic matter. Hot-water extractable carbon contents of soils in five land use types were lower than 7% of their soil organic carbon content.