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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Calculation of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity from Physical Data for Some Representative Soils of Korea
Aydin, Mehmet ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Lee, Hyun-Il ; Kim, Kyung-Dae ; Yang, Jae-E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.001
The thermal properties including volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and diurnal and annual damping depths of 10 representative soil series of Korea were calculated using some measurable soil parameters based on the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The heat capacity of soils demonstrated a linear function of water content and ranged from 0.2 to
for dry and saturated medium-textured soil, respectively. A small increase in water content of the dry soils caused a sharp increase in thermal conductivity. Upon further increases in water content, the conductivity increased ever more gradually and reached to a maximum value at saturation. The transition from low to high thermal conductivity occurred at low water content in the soils with coarse texture, and at high water content in the other textures. Thermal conductivity ranged between
for dry (medium-textured) soil and
for saturated (medium/coarse-textured) soil. The thermal diffusivity initially increased rapidly with small increases in water content of the soils, and then decreased upon further increases in the soil-water content. Even in an extreme soil with the highest diffusivity value (
), the daily temperature variation did not penetrate below 70 cm soil depth and the yearly variation not below 13.4 m as four times of damping depths.
Natural Ripening versus Artificial Enhancing of Silty Reclaimed Tidal Soils for Upland Cropping Tested by Profile Characterization
Ibrahim, Muhammad ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Lee, Kyung-Do ; Youn, Kwan-Hee ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Yoon, Sung-Won ; Cho, Hee-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.009
This study was performed to produce basic data for silty reclaimed tidal lands and to develop techniques of environmentally-friendly utilization in agricultural system. We chose the two sites in Saemangeum reclaimed tidal lands, one (Site I) has been treated with cultivating green manure and conducting the desalinization process through submergence since April, 2007 and the other (Site II) has been under natural condition without artificial treatment. In situ and ex situ physic-chemical properties were determined and comparisons were made for soil profiles examined at these two sites in April 2009. Surface soil of Site I had lower EC and higher field saturated hydraulic conductivity than those of Site II, uncultivated land. Especially, exchangeable sodium content was lowest in Site I Ap1 layer than in other layers. This is probably due to flooding desalination and green manure cultivation. Besides, Ap1 and A2 layers of soil profile in Site I showed brighter soil color and more root observation than those of Site II. This is probably due to green manure cultivation. By the large, for high cash upland crops and intensive agricultural use of silty reclaimed tidal land, site-specific soil ripening such as flooding desalination and green manure cultivation could be useful.
Rice Yield Response to Biochar Application Under Different Water Managements Practices
Jung, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 16~19
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.016
Increasing rice grain yield is critical for feeding rapid increasing of Asian population. However, global warming effect may be negative for sustainable rice production. Therefore it is essential to develop technologies not only for increasing grain yield but also for reducing global warming effect. Biochar, which is carbonized biomass, has a great potential of carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement, which can contribute grain yield increasing. In this study, rice yield responses to biochar application on the rice cropping system were evaluated with field experiments under different water management practices at the research farm of the University of Missouri-Columbia Delta Research Center, Portageville, MO. Biochar (i.e.,
) was produced using field scale pyrolyzer and incorporated into the field 4 months prior to planting. Rice was grown under three different water management practices. Result showed that no significant yield difference was found in the biochar application plots compared to rice hull and control plots from the 2 years field study at the very fertile soil. However, rainfed management results in severe reduction of yield. Research concludes that the biochar application does not significantly influence on rice yield increasing especially for very fertile soils.
Determination of Initial Denitrification in Intact Cores under Various Freshwater Wetland Types
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Delaune, R.D. ; Lane, Robert R. ; Day, John W. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 20~24
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.020
Denitrification rate was determined for various freshwater wetland types in the Mississippi River Coastal delta plain. Site 1 and 4 were collected from forested-tupelo dominated wetland, and site 2 and 3 were from floating emergent marsh. The maximum
for site 1 at day 6 after the addition of nitrate,
for site 2 at day 4,
for site 3 at day 3, and
for site 4 at day 4. The denitrification rate was determined using the acetylene inhibition method
for site 1,
for site 2,
for site 3, and
for site 4. The maximum denitrification rate was in the order of site 4 > site 3 > site 2 > site 1.
Nitrous Oxide Emission from Livestock Compost applied Arable Land in Gangwon-do
Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Se-Won ; Choi, Seung-Chul ; Jeong, Byeong-Chan ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 25~29
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.025
Agriculture activities account for 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (
) with global warming potential of 298 times as compared to carbon dioxide (
) on molecule to molecule basis. Quantifying
from managed soil is essential to develop national inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of the study was to compare
emission from livestock compost applied arable land with that for fertilizer treatment. The study was conducted for two years by cultivating Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) in Chuncheon, Gangwon-do. Accumulated
emission during cultivation of Chinese cabbage after applying livestock compost was slightly greater than that for chemical fertilizer. Slightly greater
emission factor for livestock compost was observed than that for chemical fertilizer possibly due to lump application of livestock compost before crop cultivation compared with split application of chemical fertilizers and enhanced denitrification activity through increased carbon availability by organic matter in livestock compost.
Separation of soil Organic Debris using Sucrose-ZnCl
Density Gradient Centrifugation
Jung, Seok-Ho ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Han, Gwang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.030
The active fraction of soil organic matter, which includes organic debris and light organic fraction, plays a major role in nutrient cycling. In addition, particulate organic matter is a valuable index of labile soil organic matter and can reflect differences in various soil behaviors. Since soil organic matter bound to soil mineral particles has its density lower than soil minerals, we partitioned soil organic matter into debris (
), light fraction (
), and heavy fraction (
), based on high density
sucrose solutions. Generally, partitioned organic bands were clearly separated, demonstrating that the
sucrose solutions are useful for such a density gradient centrifugation. The available gradient ranges from 1.2 to
. Although there was not a statistically meaningful difference in organic debris and organomineral fractions among the examined soils, there was a general trend that a higher content of organic debris resulted in a higher proportion of light organomineral fraction. In addition, high clay content was associated with increased fraction of light organomineals. Partitioning of soil organic carbon revealed that carbon content is reduced in the heavy fraction than in the light fraction, reflecting that the light fraction contains more fresh and abundant carbon than the passive resistant fraction. It was also found that carbon contents in the overall organic matter, debris, light fraction, and heavy fractions may differ considerably in response to different farming practices.
Regulation of Ethylene Emission in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Inoculated with ACC Deaminase Producing Methylobacterium spp.
Yim, Woo-Jong ; Woo, Sung-Man ; Kim, Ki-Yoon ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.037
Improvement of plant growth by Methylotrophic bacteria can be influenced through alterations in growth modulating enzymes or hormones, especially by decreasing ethylene levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase or by production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, the effect of seven strains of Methylobacterium on seedling ethylene emission of tomato and red pepper plants was evaluated under greenhouse condition. Ethylene emission was lowest in Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20 inoculated tomato plants and CBMB110 inoculated red pepper plants at 47 days after sowing (DAS). However, at 58 DAS all inoculated plants showed almost similar pattern of ethylene emission. Methylobacterium inoculated tomato and red pepper plants showed significantly less ethylene emission compared to control. Our results demonstrated that Methylobacterium spp. inoculation promotes plant growth due to the reduction of ethylene emission and therefore can be potentially used in sustainable agriculture production systems.
Degradation Kinetics of Three Veterinary Antibiotics in Composted and Stockpiled Manure
Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Jung, Doug-Young ; Carlson, Kenneth ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.043
Two typical animal waste management practices, composting and stockpiling, were evaluated for their effect on the degradation of three veterinary antibiotics (VAs), chlortetracycline (CTC), tylosin (TYL), and monensin (MNS). The VAs were applied to horse manure plots subject to composting or stockpiling, and core samples were collected over a period of time. Selected buffer solutions were used to extract the VAs and analysis for concentration was conducted with solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) technique. The VAs demonstrated rapid dissipation within ten days followed by a gradual decrease in concentration until the end of the experimental period (141 days). All three VAs degraded more rapidly in the composting samples than in the stockpiling samples, particularly between 20 and 60 days of the observation period. Degradation of the three VAs generally followed a first-order kinetic model, and a fitted model with a calculated rate constant was determined for each treatment. TYL in composting showed the fastest degradation, with a calculated rate constant of
; the slowest degradation was exhibited by MNS in stockpiling, with rate constant of
. Calculated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.96, indicating a strong correlation between measured concentrations and fitted values in this study. Although concentration of TYL in composting treatment showed below detection limit during the test period, this study suggests that composting can reduce animal waste contaminants prior to field application as fertilizer.
Effect of Brevibacterium iodinum RS16 and Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20 Inoculation on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Maize and Sorghum-sudangrass hybrid Seedling under Different Salinity Levels
Kim, Ki-Yoon ; Hwang, Seong-Woong ; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.051
Salinity is one of the most relevant abiotic factor limiting crop yield and its net primary productivity. In addition, salinity induces an increased stress ethylene synthesis in plants which, in turn, exacerbate the responses to the stressor. Bacterial single or co-inoculation effect was tested using previously characterized plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria Brevibacterium iodinum RS16 and Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20 on maize and sorghum-sudan grass hybrid under different concentrations of NaCl. Non-inoculated maize and sorghum-sudangrass hybrid showed 33.4% and 20.0% reduction in seed germination under highest NaCl (150 mM) level tested. However, under the same NaCl concentration, co-inoculation with B. iodinum RS16 and M. oryzae CBMB20 PGP strains increased the seed germination in maize (16.7%) and sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (4.4%). In Gnotobiotic growth pouch experiments conducted for maize and sorghum-sudangrass hybrid, co-inoculation of PGP B. iodinum RS16 and M. oryzae CBMB20 mitigated the salinity stress and promoted root length by 22.9% and 29.7%, respectively. Thus the results of this study could help in development of potential bioinoculants that may be suitable for crop production under saline conditions.
Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Methylobacterium oryzae Inoculation on Growth of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 59~65
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.059
Plant growth-promoting effects of rhizobacterial inoculation obtained in pot experiments cannot always be dependably reproduced in fields. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Methylobacterium oryzae, which have displayed growth promoting effects in several pot experiments, on growth and fruit yield of red pepper under field condition in a plastic-film house. Four rows spaced 90 cm apart were prepared after application of compost (
), and red pepper seedlings (Capsicum annum L., Nocgwang) were transplanted in each row with 40-cm space. Experimental treatments were consisted of A. brasilense CW903 inoculation, M. oryzae CBMB20 inoculation, and uninoculated control. Twelve plots, 10 plants per plot, were allotted to the three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. At the time of transplanting, 50 mL of each inoculum (
) was introduced into root zone soil of each plant, and re-inoculated at 7 and 14 days after transplant. Plant growth and fruit yield were measured during the experiment. Both A. brasilense CW903 and M. oryzae CBMB20 could not promote growth of red pepper plants. All growth parameters measured were not significantly different among treatments. There were large variations in fruit yield recorded on plot basis, and no statistically significant differences were found among treatments. The failure to demonstrate the expected plant growth promoting effect of the inoculants is possibly due to various environmental factors, including weather and soil characteristics, reducing the possibility to express the potential of the inoculated bacterial strains.
Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Activities of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria
Walpola, Buddhi Charana ; Song, June-Seob ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 66~73
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.066
Plant growth promoting traits like production of indoleacetic acid (IAA), ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophore, and like the enzyme activities of catalase, ACC deaminase, cellulase, chitinase and protease were assayed in vitro for twenty one phosphorus solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil isolates. Except SPP-5 and SPP-15 strains, all the other isolated strains produced IAA in various amounts of 10 to
. All strains showed positive response for ammonia production and ACC deaminase activity implying that they are capable of growing in a N-free basal medium. Catalase activity was found to be superior in SPP-2, SPP-7, SPP-12 and SPP-17 compared to the other strains tested. HCN production was detected by 15 strains and among them SPP-9, SPP-15, SAph-11, and SAph-24 were found to be strong HCN producers. Except the isolates SPP-10, SPP-12, SPP-13 and SPP-14, all the other isolates produced more than 80% siderophore units. None of the strains showed cellulose and chitinase activity. SAph-8, SAPh-11, SAPh-24 and SPP-15 strains showed 35.84, 50.33, 56.64 and 34.78 U/ml protease activities, respectively. SPP-1, SPP-2, SPP-3, SPP-11, SPP-17, SPP-18, SAph-11 and SAph-24 strains showed positive response for all the tested plant growth promotion traits except cell wall degrading enzyme activities. According to the results, all the tested phosphorus solubilizing isolates could exhibit more than three or four plant growth promoting traits, which may promote plant growth directly or indirectly or synergistically. Therefore, these phosphorus solubilizing strains could be employed as bio-inoculants for agriculture soils.
Biological Control by Nematophagous Fungi for Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Soils
Park, Jun-Hyeong ; Kim, Sun-Jung ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Min-Ho ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Kim, Hye-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 74~78
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.074
Envioronmental concerns by use of chemical pesticides have increased the need for alternative method in the control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Biological control is considered eco-friendly and a promising alternative in pest and disease management. A wide range of organisms are known to be effective in control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Fungal biological control is a hopeful research area and there is constant attention in the use of fungi for the control of nematodes. In this review, plant-parasitic nematodes with reference to soils and biological control and nematophagous fungi are dicussed.
Relationships between Blossom-End Rot in Pepper and Calcium Fertilization during the First Fruit Setting Period
Byeon, Il-Su ; Seo, Sun-Young ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 79~82
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.079
Blossom-end rot is probably the most recognizable Ca deficiency that affects fruit production including pepper. We investigated the induction of blossom-end rot during the period of rapid vegetative growth and fruit setting, and the effect of Ca fertilization on the suppression of blossom-end rot in pepper plants grown in a plastic-film house. During the first fruit setting period, more than 60% of pepper fruits larger than 8 cm showed the symptoms of blossom-end rot. Under the condition of transpiration occurring at a much faster rate, growing leaves of pepper plants could be the greater sinks for Ca than developing fruits. The incidence of blossom-end rot was significantly decreased after two weeks of Ca fertigation. Calcium application during the rapid vegetative growth and fruit setting period could be suggested as a preventive step to overcome the local Ca deficiency inducing blossom-end rot of pepper fruits.
Comparison of Calcium Content between Blossom-End Rot and Healthy Fruits in Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Grown in Open Field
Lee, Seong-Eun ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Noh, Jae-Seung ; Lim, Tae-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 83~85
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.083
The causes of blossom-end rot (BER) are still not understood clearly, although there was a lot of research on the development of BER over 100 years. This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of Ca content of fruit on the incidence of BER in red pepper. BER affected fruits and healthy fruits had been harvested and the samples were divided into two parts, the upper and the lower, for chemical analysis to determine the content of mineral nutrients in the tissue. The content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) was higher in the BER affected fruits and the difference of each nutrient content was revealed much larger in the lower part of the fruit but there were no significant differences in calcium content between the BER and the healthy fruits of red pepper, in this experiment. The results indicate that it is difficult to find a certain relation between the calcium content of the fruit and the occurrence of blossom-end rot.
Fertilization Efficiency of Livestock Manure Composts as Compared to Chemical Fertilizers for Paddy Rice Cultivation
Kang, Chang-Sung ; Roh, An-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 86~92
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.086
To promote the practical use of livestock manure compost (LC) for paddy rice cultivation, the fertilization efficiency of nutrients in LCs was investigated compared to that of chemical fertilizer. This experiment was conducted at rice field in Hwaseong, Korea, with 6 treatments by each of 3 kinds of tested LCs, cattle manure compost (CaC), swine manure compost (SwC) and chicken manure compost (ChC). The treatments consisted of 3 application levels of LCs and 3 chemical fertilizer treatments having the same application levels with LCs.
-N content in soil became higher according to the increase in the urea application rate, while it became lower in LC plots than in urea plots, and statistically had no significant difference among LC plots. There was a close relationship between phosphate fertilization rate and the increment of soil available phosphate content after experiment resulting y = 0.1788x - 6.169 (
) when applied fused superphosphate fertilizer, and y = 0.0662x - 2.689 (
) when applied LC at the equivalent rates to phosphate input (x: phosphate application rate, kg
, y: increment in soil available phosphate content, mg
). And from these two equations, the correlation on the phosphate application rate between fused superphosphate fertilizer and LC could be obtained as y = 2.7056x - 52.492 (x:
application rate of fused superphosphate, kg
application rate of LC, kg
). Plant height, number of tillers, nutrients uptake by rice, and rice yield showed higher levels in N 100% and N 150% application plots of chemical fertilizers, while every LC plots exhibited lower values and no significant difference among them. Relative nitrogen fertilization efficiencies of LCs compared to urea was 12.3% for CaC, 8.8 for SwC and 24.6 for ChC, respectively.
Efficiency of Various Nutritional Sources to Improve Physical Properties of Saline-Sodic Soil
Noor-Us-Sabah, Noor-Us-Sabah ; Sarwar, Ghulam ; Ibrahim, Muhammad ; Tahir, Mukkram Ali ; Iftikhar, Yasir ; Haider, Muhammad Sajjad ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Ha, Sang-Keun ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.093
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of various inorganic and organic materials to improve physical properties of soil. Saline sodic soil (saturation percentage = 40.36%,
, bulk density =
) was collected, brought to wire house and filled in pots after laboratory analysis for various parameters. Different sources of organic nutrients like farm manure (FM), press mud, compost, poultry manure and sesbania green manure were analyzed for their chemical composition. The experiment comprised of 12 treatments replicated thrice;
: control (recommended NPK),
: FM at 1.5% by soil weight,
: pressmud at 1.5% by soil weight,
: compost at 1.5% by soil weight,
: poultry manure at 1.5% by soil weight,
: sesbania green manure at 1.5% by soil weight,
+ FM at 0.75% by soil weight,
+ pressmud at 0.75% by soil weight,
+ compost at 0.75% by soil weight,
+ poultry manure at 0.75% by soil weight,
+ sesbania green manure at 0.75% by soil weight. These treatments were applied using completely randomized (CR) design and appropriate time was given to decompose these organic nutritional sources. Seeds of wheat cultivar Sahar-2006 were sown. After harvesting the wheat, soil samples were collected from each pot and analyzed for various physical properties like bulk density, porosity and saturation percentage. An improvement in physical properties (bulk density, porosity and saturation percentage) of soil was noticed with the application of various organic nutritional sources but role of compost alone (
) remained prominent.
Influence of Continuous Organic Amendments on Growth and Productivity of Red Pepper and Soil Properties
Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Se-Won ; Choi, Seung-Chul ; Jeong, Byeong-Chan ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 98~102
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.098
Organic farming has rapidly increased in Gangwon province, but there is a concern about nutrient accumulation and nutrient imbalance in the soil of organic farming. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of continuous application of organic amendments on growth and yield of red pepper and soil characteristics compared with chemical fertilizers application for four years. Treatments of organic amendments including oil cake, rice straw compost, amino acid compost, rice bran compost, and mushroom media (spent substrate) compost resulted in comparable growth and yield of pepper to chemical fertilizers. Organic amendments improved soil physical and chemical characteristics. Especially, rice bran compost and oil cake significantly increased soil organic matter compared with chemical fertilizer application and mushroom media compost and rice straw compost significantly improved soil aggregate stability. On the other hand, available phosphate level in the soil amended with rice bran compost or mushroom media compost was relatively high compared with the other treatments due to relatively high phosphate levels in the composts. It is not easy to adjust nutrient composition in the organic materials. Therefore, the results obtained from the study imply that nutrient imbalance needs to be carefully considered in organic farming without use of chemical fertilizers.
Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil in the Vicinity of King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica
Choi, Ik-Won ; Seo, Dong-Chul ; Kang, Se-Won ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Han, Jong-Hak ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 103~106
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.103
To investigate distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of King Sejong Station of King George Island, Antarctica, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mo contents were investigated under different distances and directions from King Sejong Station. 13 sample sites were distributed from King Sejong Station. In site 4, the Cd content was higher than that in other sites. The Cr content was the highest in site 9, and the Ni and Mn contents were high in site 12. Cu, Co and Zn were highly contained in distance 1~2 km from King Sejong Station. Cd, Cr, Ni and Mo contents were lower, whereas Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Co contents were higher than other heavy metal contents at all sites.
Distribution Characteristics of Dioxins in Marine Sediment from Busan Port in Korea
Jeong, Tae-Uk ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Jeong, Seung-Ryul ; Song, Bok-Joo ; Cho, Jeong-Gu ; Yoo, Pyung-Jong ; Kim, Gi-Gon ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 107~111
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.107
Eight marine sediments from Busan port in Korea were annually analyzed to examine the concentration distribution of dioxins from 2006 to 2010. Yearly mean concentration of dioxins ranged from 186.3 to
in real values and 5.087 to 8.541 pg-TEQ (Toxicity equivalency) based on dry weight of samples. The dioxin concentration at the site near fishing market was the highest concentration among all sampling sites. Also the dioxin concentration at the sites with various pollutant sources such as large ships, sewage influx and thermal power station as well as fishing market was higher than that of the sites without specific pollutant sources. Another main factor that affects the dioxin concentration is topography characteristics of the bay. The bay has relatively high dioxin concentration because of the lack of the pollutant diffusion. This study demonstrated that the dioxin concentration in the site with pollutant sources and the lack of the pollutant diffusion was relatively high as compared with the other sites. As a result of contribution ratio of dioxin congeners, OCDD (Octachlorodibenzodioxin) in all sites was major contributor in real value, in contrast, dioxin congeners in TEQ values were dominated by 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF.
Evaluation of Erosivity Index (EI) in Calculation of R Factor for the RUSLE
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Song, Jin-A ; Lim, You-Jin ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 112~117
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.112
The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is a revision of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). However, changes for each factor of the USLE have been made in RUSLE which can be used to compute soil loss on areas only where significant overland flow occurs. RUSLE which requires standardized methods to satisfy new data requirements estimates soil movement at a particular site by utilizing the same factorial approach employed by the USLE. The rainfall erosivity in the RUSLE expressed through the R-factor to quantify the effect of raindrop impact and to reflect the amount and rate of runoff likely is associated with the rain. Calculating the R-factor value in the RUSLE equation to predict the related soil loss may be possible to analyse the variability of rainfall erosivity with long time-series of concerned rainfall data. However, daily time step models cannot return proper estimates when run on other specific rainfall patters such as storm and daily cumulative precipitation. Therefore, it is desirable that cross-checking is carried out amongst different time-aggregations typical rainfall event may cause error in estimating the potential soil loss in definite conditions.
Agricultural Status and Soils in Korea
Ha, Sang-Keun ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 1, 2012, Pages 118~126
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.118
Korea's agriculture had many inherent problems. Korea is a mountainous country with only 22 percent farmland and less rainfall than most other neighboring rice-growing countries. A major land reform in the late 1940s and early 1950s spread ownership of land to the rural peasantry. Individual holdings, however, were too small or too spread out to provide families with much chance to produce a significant quantity of food. The enormous growth of urban areas led to a rapid decrease of available farmland, while at the same time population increases and bigger incomes meant that the demand for food greatly outstripped supply. The result of these developments was that by the late 1980s roughly half of Korea's needs, mainly wheat and animal feed corn, was imported. Korea's agriculture is facing a new round of difficulties from the inevitable process of market opening. Therefore, we have reviewed the agricultural status and soils in Korea how we can meet the coming issues with respect to production and prospect based on the government documents and articles published on the journals.