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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Water Requirement of Potato According to Growth Stage
Eom, Ki-Cheol ; Park, So-Hyun ; Yoo, Sung-Yung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 861~866
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.861
Water is the most important resource for the potato cultivation, especially to get the maximum water use efficiency and yield of potato, Water has to be applied moderately based on the water requirement of the potato. Crop water requirement (WR) is a function of the Potential evapo-transpiration(PET) and Crop coefficient (Kc). PET can be estimated by the climate data measured at the weather station in the production region. Kc was measured by the NIAST (RDA) through Lysimeter experiments. In this study, the growth stage of potato was divided as four (G-1 : Apr. 1~Apr. 15, G-2 : Apr. 16~May. 10, G-3 : May. 11~May. 31, G4 : Jun. 1~Jun. 15). The average PET during potato growing season of the 45 areas was
. The most water requirement was the G-3 stage among the potato growth stage. The MWR (Mean water requirement) according to growth stage was 1.0~1.2 (average 1.1), 1.5~1.8 (average 1.6), 1.9~2.2 (average 2.0) and 1.7~2.1 (average 1.8) mm
, in the G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4 stage, respectively. The TWR (Total water requirement) according to growth stage was 18.0~22.1 (average 19.3), 50.6~66.6 (average 56.3), 63.5~88.2 (average 72.4) and 38.3~54.5 (average 44) mm, in the G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4 stage, respectively.
Concentration and Environmental Loading of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Irrigation Ditches
Kim, Sung-Chul ; Chung, Doug Young ; Kim, Kye Hoon ; Lee, Ja Hyun ; Kim, Hyo Kyung ; Yang, Jae E. ; Ok, Yong Sik ; Almarwei, Yaser A.O. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 867~876
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.867
The concentration of veterinary antibiotics in aqueous and sediment matrices was measured in agricultural irrigation ditches bordering several animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and then compared to its concentration in the watershed. Analytical determination in aqueous samples was based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and appropriate buffer solutions were used to extract residuals in sediment samples. Separation and detection of extracted veterinary antibiotics were performed with high performance liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). In general, higher concentrations of antibiotic were observed in the aqueous phase of irrigation ditches, with the highest concentration of erythromycin hydrochloride (ETM-
, than in aqueous watershed samples. In contrast, higher concentrations were measured in river sediment than in irrigation ditch sediment with the highest concentration of oxytetracycline of
. There was a high calculated correlation ( > 0.95) between precipitation and measured concentration in aqueous samples from the irrigation ditches for five of the ten targeted veterinary antibiotics, indicating that surface runoff could be an important transport mechanism of veterinary antibiotics from field to environment. Further, environmental loading calculation based on measured concentrations in aqueous samples and flow information clearly showed that irrigation ditches were 18 times greater than river. This result suggests the likelihood that veterinary antibiotics can be transported via irrigation ditches to the watershed. The transport via surface runoff and likely environmental loading via irrigation ditches examined in this study helps identify the pathway of veterinary antibiotics residuals in the environment.
Effects of Slope Gradient and Rainfall Intensity on Soil Losses with Rainfall Simulator Experiment
Lee, Gye-Jun ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Oh, Dong-Shig ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 877~881
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.877
This research was carried out to investigate the interaction effect of slope gradient and rainfall intensity on soil loss with rainfall simulator. The soils used in this experiment were saprolite, Chahang series which distributed extensively in Daegwanryong. Slope gradient applied was 0.5, 7, 15 and 30%. Rainfall intensity applied was 20, 60 and
. The result obtained can be summarised as follow; Overall, Chahang series suffered more losses than saprolite. Chahang series shows the immediately large increase of soil loss with the increasing soil gradient and rainfall intensity. However, saprolite shows a little increasing loss up to 7% gradient and abruptly increasing loss logarithmically over 7% gradient in soil slope. In combination of slope gradient 15, 30% and rainfall intensity 60,
processing, both soil erosion happened significantly. And there was no significant difference between the two soils. Because Chahang series have the danger of soil loss with low slope gradient and rainfall intensity, we should give greater attention to soil management in Chahang series.
Characteristics of Water Quality at Main Streams and Lake Doam in Daegwallyeong Area
Park, Kyeong-Hun ; Kim, Byeong-Seok ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Yun, Jeong-Chul ; Choi, June-Yeol ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Jin, Yong-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 882~889
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.882
This study was surveyed that water physiochemical characteristics and phytoplankton incidence of main stream and Lake Doam near to Daegwallyeong agricultural area. Based on above results, it was conducted to get information overall water characteristics in south Han upstream river. COD value of Lake Doam was
and T-P (Total phosphorous) from there was
which was higher than the value of grade VI based on lake water living environment standard. Suspended solid was an average of 9.77 NTU which was higher than value of lake living standard. Concentration of phytoplankton was over
from July to September. It was considered that cyanobacteria were occurred due to massive influx of nutrient material by high temperature and rainfall during this season. Compare to Ontario's sediment quality guidelines, T-N and T-P was middle value between LEL and SEL in Lake Doam. This value means that contamination in water is serious. Therefore, it is considered that systematic management was needed to reduce and block contamination source.
Soil Erosion Risk Assessment by Soil Characteristics and Landuse in the Upper Nakdong River Basin
Park, Chan-Won ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Chun, Hyun-Chung ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Moon, Yong Hee ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 890~896
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.890
This study was conducted to evaluate soil erosion risk with a standard unit watershed in the upper Upper Nakdong River Basin according to soil characteristics and landuse using the spatial soil erosion map. The study area is
, which consists of 2 subbasins, 35 standard unit watersheds (Andong basin 18, Imha basin 17). As a evaluation of soil erosion potential using the spatial soil erosion map, total annual soil loss and soil loss per area estimated
(Andong basin 979, Imha basin 1,034) and
(Andong basin 6.0, Imha basin 5.2), respectively. 54.2% of soil loss was originated from Arable land (Andong basin 49.0%, Imha basin 59.0%), and the area of regions, graded as higher "Moderate" for annual soil loss, was
(Andong basin 84.9, Imha basin 116.8). Average soil loss per area of unit watersheds by classification according to soil dominant parent material types ranked "Sedimentary rock group" > "Mixed group" > "Metamorphic rock group" > "Igneous rock group". In conclusion, the results of this study inform that the classification of soil parent material type would be effective for soil erosion analysis and interpretation in the Upper Nakdong River Basin.
A Comparison of Spatial Variation on Anthropogenic Soils
Sonn, Yeon Kyu ; Zhang, Yong Seon ; Park, Chan Won ; Moon, Yong Hee ; Hyun, Byung Keun ; Song, Kwan Cheol ; Chun, Hyen Chung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 897~899
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.897
In this study, spatial analyses of chemical properties were studied to find inter-relation among these properties from 5 year old general paddy field after arable land rearrangement and remodeled paddy field near 4 river project. In addition, comparison of spatial variations between two paddy fields was performed to characterize paddy fields by different formation and provide interpretation of these variations and parameters (Semivariogram and Kriging) from spatial analyses. Total of 400 (
) soil samples were taken at 5 m interval from 1 ha of 5 year old general paddy field and analyzed. Total number of 54 (
) soil samples were taken from remodeled paddy fields at 10m interval for the analyses. The results of pH, available Phosphate and organic matter among the analyzed results were used for interpretation. The pH values were relatively high from Gumi region. The values of available Phosphate and organic matter showed greater variant coefficients and this represented that there were greater heterogeneity in available phosphate and organic matter distributions across one paddy field. The values of skewness and kurtosis as absolute values, showed almost normal distributions. The paddy field in Ansung had available Phosphate (72.8)
pH (73.8) and greater values of organic matter (159.3), while upland in Gumi had the range value of organic (6.5) < available Phosphate (33.5) < pH (46.6). Based on these results, younger soils (0 year old) require more sampling to characterize the whole field than 5 year old soils.
Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatography Technique for Determination of Cd in Soils and Rice Grains
Lee, Sang-Phil ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Abe, Kaoru ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Won-Il ; Yang, Jae E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 900~903
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.900
Cadmium is known to be very toxic to human health and can be relative easily translocated from soils in plants. Therefore, a rapid method for screening Cd in soils and crops has become more and more important. For this reason, we examined a rapid immunochromatograpy (ICG) test kit which uses antigen-antibody reaction based on immunoassay and chromatography. Soils and rice grains collected from mine waste-contaminated sites were determined for their Cd contents using this kit. For comparison purposes, 0.1 M HCl and ICP-OES were employed as a conventional extraction and determination method. Cadmium contents in rice grains determined using ICG technique were
and Cd contents determined using 0.1 M HCl and ICP-OES were
. The correlation between these two Cd contents were statistically significant (
=0.930). The results of Cd contents in soils also showed a statistically significant relationship between these two methods (
=0.975). On the basis of these results, ICG technique can be applied to rapidly quantify Cd in crops and soils. However, further research is necessary to apply ICG technique for the field screening.
The Potential Acid Sulfate Soils Criteria by the Relation between Total-Sulfur and Net Acid Generation
Moon, Yonghee ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 904~909
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.904
Acid sulfate soil (ASS) and potential acid sulfate soil (PASS) are distribution in worldwide and originate from sedimentary process, volcanic activity, or metamorphism and are problematic in agriculture and environmental due to their present and potential acidity developed by the oxidation. The PASS was defined as soil materials that had sulfidic layer more than 20 cm thick within 4 m of the soil profile and contained more than 0.15% of total-sulfur (T-S). A tentative interpretative soil classification system was proposed weak potential acid sulfate (T-S, 0.15-0.5%), moderate potential acid sulfate (T-S, 0.5-0.75%) and strong potential acid sulfate (T-S, more than 0.75%). PASS due to excess of pyrite over soil neutralizing capacity are formed. It provides no information on the kinetic rates of acid generation or neutralization; therefore, the test procedures used in acid base account (ABA) are referred to as static procedures. The net acid generation (NAG) test is a direct method to measure the ability of the sample to produce acid through sulfide oxidation and also provides and indication. The NAG test can evaluated easily whether the soils is PASS. The samples are mixed sandy loam and the PAS from the hydrothermal altered andesite (1:3, 1:8, 1:16, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80 and 1:200 ratios) in this study. We could find out that the NAG pH of the soil containing 0.75% of T-S was 2.5, and that of the soil has 0.15% of T-S was 3.8. NAG pH test can be proposed as soil classification criteria for the potential acid sulfate soils. The strong type has NAG pH of 2.5, the moderate one has NAG pH of 3.0, and the weak one has NAG pH of 3.5.
Temporal Changes in N Assimilation and Metabolite Composition of Nitrate-Affected Tomato Plants
Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Suyeon ; Lee, Yejin ; Kim, Rogyoung ; Lee, Juyoung ; Lee, Jongsik ; Ok, Yongsik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 910~919
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.910
The role of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the production of amino acids, organic acids and soluble sugars is one of the most important biochemical processes in plants, and, in order to achieve normally, nitrate uptake and assimilation is essential. For this reason, the characterization of nitrate assimilation and metabolite composition from leaves, roots and xylem sap of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was investigated under different nitrate levels in media. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically in liquid culture under five different nitrate regimes: deficient (0.25 and 0.75 mM
), normal (2.5 mM
) and excessive (5.0 and 10.0 mM
). All samples, leaves, roots and xylem sap, were collected after 7 and 14 days after treatment. The levels of amino acids, soluble sugars and organic acids were significantly decreased by N-deficiency whereas, interestingly, they remained higher in xylem sap as compared with N-normal and -surplus. The N-excessive condition did not exert any significant changes in metabolites composition, and thus their levels were similar with N-normal. The gene expression and enzyme activity of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were greatly influenced by nitrate. The data presented here suggest that metabolites, as a signal messenger, existed in xylem sap seem to play a crucial role to acquire nitrate, and, in addition, an increase in
-ketoglutarate pathway-derived amino acids under N-deficiency may help to better understand plant C/N metabolism.
Model Development for Estimating Total Arsenic Contents with Chemical Properties and Extractable Heavy Metal Contents in Paddy Soils
Lee, Jeong-Mi ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 920~924
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.920
This study was performed to estimate total contents of arsenic (As) by stepwise multiple-regression analysis using chemical properties and extractable contents of metal in paddy soil adjacent to abandoned mines. The soil was collected from paddies near abandoned mines. Soil pH, electrical conductively (EC), organic mater (OM), available phosphorus (
), and exchangeable cations (Ca, K, Mg, Na) were measured. Total contents of As and extractable contents of metals were analyzed by ICP-OES. From stepwise analysis, it was showed that the contents of extractable As, available phosphorus, extractable Cu, exchangeable K, exchangeable Na, and organic mater significantly influenced the total contents of As in soil (p<0.001). The multiple linear regression models have been established as Log (Total-As) = 0.741 + 0.716 Log (extractable-As) - 0.734 Log (avail-
) + 0.334 Log (extractable-Cu) + 0.186 Log (exchangeable-K) - 0.593 Log (exchangeable-Na) + 0.558 Log (OM). The estimated value in total contents of As was significantly correlated with the measured value in soil (
=0.84196, p<0.0001). This predictive model for estimating total As contents in paddy soil will be properly applied to the numerous datasets which were surveyed with extractable heavy metal contents based on Soil Environmental Conservation Act before 2010.
Growth Inhibition of Cucumber by Absorbing Excess Al at Low Soil pH
Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Kang, Seong Soo ; Lee, Hyeong Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 925~927
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.925
On-site diagnosis applied to soil having a symptom of yellowing and whitening in cucumber leaf and stem. Soil pH determined 4.2 by methods of on-site analysis and 4.5 by soil test analysis. High aluminum in soil solution extracted with water saturation was detected. Leaf and stem tissue were abundant in Al content but not in Ca. Also, N content of leaf and stem was low compared to normal N ranges. This symptom of cucumber assumed to be from the Al and nitrous acid gas toxicity by low soil pH and Eh. Conclusionally, symptom in leaf and stem of cucumber was alleviated and cucumber normally recovered during cultivation period by applying calcium hydroxide solution to correct soil pH up to 6.5. These results showed that low soil pH resulted in aluminum toxicity and N deficiency to plant growth in on-site farming.
How do Citrus Crops Cope with Aluminum Toxicity?
Arunakumara, K.K.I.U. ; Walpola, Buddhi Charana ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 928~935
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.928
World Agriculture faces daunting challenges in feeding the growing population today. Reduction in arable land extent due to numerous reasons threatens achievement of food and nutritional security. Under this back ground, agricultural use of acidic soils, which account for approximately 40 % of the world arable lands is of utmost important. However, due to aluminum (Al) toxicity and low available phosphorous (P) content, crop production in acidic soils is restricted. Citrus, in this context, gains worldwide recognition as a crop adapted to harsh environments. The present paper reviewed Al toxicity and possible toxicity alleviation tactics in citrus. As reported for many other crops, inhibition of root elongation, photosynthesis and growth is experienced in citrus also due to Al toxicity. Focusing at toxicity alleviation, interaction between boron (B) and Al as well as phosphorus and Al has been discussed intensively. Al toxicity in citrus could be alleviated by P through increasing immobilization of Al in roots and P level in shoots rather than through increasing organic acid secretion, which has been widely reported in other crops. Boron-induced changes in Al speciation and/or sub-cellular compartmentation has also been suggested in amelioration of root inhibition in citrus. Despite the species-dependent manner of response to Al toxicity, many commercially important citrus species can be grown successfully in acidic soils, provided toxicity alleviation Agro-biological tactics such as addition of phosphorous fertilizers are used properly.
Fate of Bentazon Metabolites in Soils
Cha, In-Cheol ; Lee, Kyu-Seong ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 936~942
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.936
This review was to elucidate the fate of Bentazon(3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide) and its metabolites in soil. Bentazon is rapidly degraded to form polar metabolites which are mostly adsorbed to soil components, such as humin or fulvic acid, as non extractable forms and mineralized into
by light or micro-organisms in both aerobic or nonaerobic condition. The degradation of Bentazon is dependent on the rate of organic matters in soil and the use of land for the tillage. The degradation rate is decreased as the amount of organic matters in soil increases and if the land is under use for tillage. Sorption and mobility of Bentazon depends on soil pH and the content of organic matters in soil. Usually, the sorption of the metabolites of Bentazon is decreased with increase in the mobility and pH. Almost all of Bentazon is degraded within rhizosphere or forms conjugate bonds with soil organic matters before it reaches to the ground water.
Relationship between Cucumber Yield and Nitrate Concentration in Plastic Film House with Ryegrass Application
Lee, Chang Hoon ; Lim, Tae Jun ; Kang, Seong Soo ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Kim, Yoo Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 943~948
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.943
This study was conducted to estimate the effect of nitrogen reduction by applying ryegrass and to determine the relationship between yield and nitrate concentration of soil solution for cucumber cultivation in plastic film house. Nitrogen levels with recovery of ryegrass (
) was 0, 50, 75, 100 % of 199 kg N
as N recommendation by determining soil EC value. Yield and nitrate concentration in soil solution was investigated during cucumber cultivation. Yields of N treatments applied ryegrass showed 64.3, 70.9, 70.3, and
, respectively, it could reduce about 25-50% of nitrogen application compared to yield (
) of NPK plot applied 199 kg N
. Nitrate concentration in soil solution was average 26.0, 30.1, 41.4,
during cucumber cultivation and was related between yield and average nitrate concentration of soil solution following as;
). However, it needs to conduct extra-experiment due to high variation of nitrate concentration during cultivation periods.
Effect of Chelating Agents on the Grwoth of Chinese cabbage and Availability of Nutrients in Plastic Film House Soils
Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Roh, Mi-Young ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Yoon, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Hyeong-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 949~954
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.949
This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of chelating agents for improving plant growth and reusing accumulated nutrients in soils of plastic film house. Two experiments were carried out at follows: i) The incubation test was conducted using soils treated with 0, 300 mM of EDTA and DTPA to examine the availability of nutrients. ii) For the pot test, chinese cabbages were cultivated in soils with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM of EDTA and DTPA to examine the impacts of plant growth response. The application of chelating agents increased ther availability of soil nutrients in the following order: DTPA > EDTA > control. Inorganic concentration of chinese cabbages in DTPA treatments consderably increased in nitrogen, phosphate, iron and aluminium contents than that of the other treatments. The optimal concentration of DTPA for vigorous plant growth as 0.5 mM. Thus, DTPA was more effective than other chelating agents for healty growth of cabbages and the availability of nutrients accumulated in plastic film house.
Understanding to Enhance Efficiency of Nitrogen Uses in a Reclaimed Tidal Soil
Lee, Sang-Eun ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Park, Mi-Suk ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 955~960
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.955
In most agricultural soils, ammonium (
) from fertilizer is quickly converted to nitrate (
) by the process of nitrification which is crucial to the efficiency of N fertilizers and their impact on the environment. The salinity significantly affects efficiency of N fertilizer in reclaimed tidal soil, and the soil pH may influence the conversion rate of ammonium to nitrate and ultimately affect nitrogen losses from the soil profile. Several results suggest that pH has important effects on recovery of fall-applied N in the spring if field conditions are favorable for leaching and denitrification except that effects of soil pH are not serious under unfavorable conditions for N loss by these mechanisms. Soil pH, therefore, deserves attention as an important factor in the newly reclaimed tidal soils with applying N. However, fate of N studies in a newly reclaimed tidal soils have been rarely studied, especially under the conditions of saline-sodic and high pH. Therefore, understanding the fate of nitrogen species transformed from urea treated into the reclaimed tidal soil is important for nutrient management and environmental quality. In this article, we reviewed yields of rice and fate of nitrogen with respect to the properties of reclaimed tidal soils.
Effects of Soil Amendments on the Early Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Jusl. in Heavy Metal-contaminated Soil
Kim, Min-Suk ; Koo, Namin ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Lee, Jin-Su ; Bak, Gwan-In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 961~967
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.961
There have been many studies about efficiency of amendments for heavy metal stabilization through chemical assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of several soil amendments (lime, agric-lime, dolomite, steel slag, fly ash and acid mine drainage sludge) on heavy metals stabilization through not only chemical but also biological assessments (phytotoxicity test) in abandoned mining area soil. In order to achieve the goal, we conducted preliminary screening experiment targeting 12 types of crop plants such as radish, young radish, chinese cabbage, winter grown cabbage, cabbage, bok choy, chicory, crown daisy, carrot, chives, spinach, and spring onion. The results of inhibition rates of early plant growth in metal-contaminated soil against non-contaminated soil and the correlations between inhibitions items showed that the bok choy was appropriate specie with respect to confirm the effect of several amendments. Several amendment treatments on contaminated soil brought about the changes in the root and shoot elongation of bok choy after 1 week. Agric-lime, dolomite and steel slag treatments showed the great efficiency of reducing on mobility of heavy metals using chemical assessment. But in contrary, these treatments resulted in the reduction of root and shoot elongation and only AMD sludge increased that of elongation, significantly. When considering both chemical and biological assessments, AMD sludge could be recommended the compatible amendment for target contaminated soil. In conclusion, biological assessment was also important aspect of decision of successful soil remediation.
Status and Changes in Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil in Korea
Kang, Seong-Soo ; Roh, Ahn-Sung ; Choi, Seung-Chul ; Kim, Young-Sang ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Choi, Moon-Tae ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Lee, Young-Han ; Yang, Sang-Ho ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Jang, Young-Sun ; Kim, Myeong-Sook ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Ha, Sang-Gun ; Lee, Deok-Bae ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 968~972
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.968
Soil chemical properties of agricultural soils in Korea were investigated at four-years interval in order of paddy, plastic film house, upland, and orchard soils since 1999. Paddy soil samples were taken from the surface 15 cm at 4,047, 2,010, 2,110 and 2,110 sites in all provinces of South Korea in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2010, respectively. Soil chemical properties in Korea except Jeju province were measured. Soil pH and exchangeable calcium and available silicate contents increased with increasing the application rate of silicate fertilizer and with decreasing its application interval. Soil organic matter content also increased from
in 1999 to
in 2011. Average concentration of available phosphate in 2011 was higher than the upper limit of its optimal range for rice cultivation. However, exchangeable magnesium and available silicate contents were below the lower limit of their optimal ranges, which were 80% and 92% of them, respectively.
Change of Bioavailability in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil by Chemical Amendment
Oh, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Yun, Hyun-Soo ; Oh, Seong-Min ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Yang, Jae E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 973~982
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.973
Crop safety in heavy metal contaminated agricultural field has been a critical issue in Korea and various remediation methods are proposed for minimizing heavy metal transfer from soil to crops. The main objective of this research was to evaluate remediation efficiency of two chemical amendments, lime and steel slag, and to decide extractant for assessing bioavailability of heavy metals. In order to select optimum extractant for evaluating bioavailability of heavy metals, four different single extractants, HCl, DTPA,
, and sequential extraction method were examined. Both chemical amendments showed high immobilization effect for Cd (66%,
) and Pb (74%,
) in soil by HCl extractant. In terms of heavy metal concentration in rice grains, concentrations for Cd (77%,
) and Pb (82%,
) decreased, with addition of chemical amendments. HCl, DTPA, and sequential extractant showed the higher correlation between heavy metal concentration in soil and crops than others. These results indicated that they could be used for assessing bioavailability of heavy metals.
Evaluation of Soil and Fertilizer Management Techniques Applied by Farmers in Forcing and Semi-forcing Cucumber Cultivation Facilities
Lee, Ju-Young ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Park, Yang-Ho ; Kang, Sung-Soo ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 983~991
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.983
These days, agricultural products cultivated in facilities occupy the highest percentage of agricultural output price. Specifically cucumbers have been one of the crops that farmers prefer to growing, because their prices were high. However, cucumber crop is sensitive to the soil and environments and it requires the exact crop management. In order to establish cultivation techniques for cucumbers, the current situation of cucumber cultivation was surveyed from ten cucumber farmlands; five farmlands of cucumber cultivation in forcing and five of semi-forcing practicing systems, respectably. The soil conditions were alluvial or valley in soil topology, moderately or poorly drainage in soil drainage classes, coarse loamy in soil texture family. Soil was managed with deep plowing combined with application of basal fertilizers such as compost, rice straw, oil cake, wood chip and chemical fertilizer. The whole soil was prepared in uniformly with rotary. Three major nutrients (
)of basal application were 815-464-529 kg
in forcing and 197-135-151 kg
in semi-forcing cultivation. Top dressing of fertilizer was supplied in fertigation system of macro and micro elements in 2~3 day interval with water irrigation. The average yields of cucumbers were
with 381,000 thousand won
in average gross profit (AGP) in forcing cultivation and
with 177,000 thousand won
in AGP in semi-forcing cultivation. Cucumber production during the winter season was considered to increase the gross profit because cucumber price tends to stay in high level during this time. The accumulation of soil chemicals like EC, available
and exchangeable cations could be controlled by rice straw application. The rice straw application increased soil temperature during the winter season, in exchange of soil air, and in extension of plant roots. In addition, the rice straw application somewhat affected decrease of salts accumulation.
Characteristics of Nutrient Uptake and Stubble Regrowth of Grain Sorghum in Plastic Film House
Yun, Eul-Soo ; Jung, Ki-Yeul ; Park, Chang-Yeong ; Hwang, Jae-Bog ; Choi, Young-Dae ; Jeon, Seung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 992~997
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.992
This study was conducted to get the basic information for absorb enhancement of accumulated soil nutrients in plastic film house. The grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) was sowing in plastic film house which soil nutrient accumulated moderately and was cutting at major growth period of sorghum. We were analyzed the regrowth pattern, biomass due to cutting time and amount of plant nutrient of grain sorghum. The obtained results were as follows. The heading date after cutting of sorghum in plastic film house was came to about 35 days. The accumulated of plant height were the longest as 379.4 cm in cutting at milk stage. The total biomass of sorghum in cutting at heading stage was 1.73 ton
in cutting at heading stage. The high grain yields were produced with non-cutting and cutting at 10 leaves stage as 75~113 kg
but the lowest grain yields were the cutting plots at booting stage as below 24 kg
. The content of nutrient in sorghum plant was low as progress of growth. The concentrations in aboveground sorghum due to plant parts was in order to leaves > panicle > stalk. The nitrogen content of sorghum was 0.6~0.7% in stalk, 1.5~1.6% in panicle and 1.8~2.3% in leaves. The amount of nutrient absorbed in sorghum was 4.2 kg
in nitrogen, 1.7 kg
phosphorus and 7.7 kg
in potassium and the absorbing different by cutting time in order to booting > non-cutting > panicle formation
milk ripe > 10 leaves stage.
Influence of Different pH Conditions and Phosphate Sources on Phosphate Solubilization by Pantoea agglomerans DSM3493
Walpola, Buddhi Charana ; Keum, Mi-Jung ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 998~1003
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.998
Pantoea agglomerans DSM3493 was isolated from green house soils collected from Chungchugnam-do province, Gongju-Gun area in South Korea and phosphate solubilization and organic acid production of the strain were assessed using three types of insoluble phosphate sources (Ca phosphate, Fe phosphate and Al phosphate) under three different pH conditions (7, 8 and 9). The highest Ca phosphate solubilization (
) was recorded at pH 7 followed by pH 8 and 9 (428 and
respectively). The solubilization rate was found to be 80.4, 98.1 and
(for Fe phosphate containing medium) and 9.3, 12.1 and
(for the Al phosphate containing medium) respectively at pH 7, 8 and 9. Though increasing pH of the medium caused reduction in the rate of solubilization of Ca phosphate, solubilization of Fe and Al phosphates enhanced with increasing pH. By contrast, the highest amount of organic acid was produced with Ca phosphate while the lowest was recorded with the presence of Al phosphate. Among the organic acids, gluconic acid production was found to be the highest, followed by oxalic acid and citric acid regardless the source of phosphate. Results can thus be concluded that the production of organic acids appears to play a significant role in the inorganic phosphate solubilization.
Effects of Customized Fertilizer Application on Rice Cultivation
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Song, Yo-Sung ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Yun, Hong-Bae ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1004~1008
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1004
The importance of environment-friendly agriculture is being magnified as a new growth engine industry in pursuit of low carbon, green growth policies. Since 2010, the Korean government has been promoting the supply of customized fertilizers which were manufactured based on chemical properties of agricultural soils. This aims focused to improve the efficiency of fertilizer used and to protect the agricultural environment. In order to provide technical supports for pushing ahead with the environment-friendly agriculture policies, we have estimated the effects of customized fertilization (CF) on growth and yield of rice and fertilizer reduction compared to conventional fertilization (farm practice fertilization) and single-element fertilization. In rice plant growth and rice yield, no statistically significant difference between the three fertilization treatments was observed. The fertilizer reduction rate with CF compared to conventional fertilization of investigated farms was on average 17%, which covered 6% through 33%. With split ratio, CF 70 reduced the amounts of fertilizer ingredient by 5% compare to CF 50. This paper shows that the customized fertilizer application reduced the amounts of fertilizer used in rice cultivation without decrease of yields.
Changes in Growth and Quality of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) and in Soil Nitrogen Forms due to Organic Fertilizer Application
Park, Yang Ho ; Seo, Beom Seok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1009~1016
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1009
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of organic fertilizers on soil properties and growth and quality of melon. Organic fertilizer was applied in soil at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2N according to Rural Development Administration guideline in Korea. The fertilizer had no effects on plant growth-rate parameters, including plant height, leaf number, and leaf size. There were minor effects on the fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, placenta and seed weights, sugar content, and starch content. Ascorbic acid level was decreased as fertilizer level was increased. The level of nitrate in groundwater increased with increased levels of N.
Effect of Water Soluble Silicate Fertilizers on Stem Strength and Yield of Paddy Rice
Lee, Seung Been ; Joo, Jin Ho ; Shin, Joung Do ; Kim, Chang Gyun ; Jung, Yeong Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1017~1021
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1017
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of water soluble silicate fertilizer (WSS) application on rice plants with respect to comparing with powdery slag-originated silicate fertilizer (PSS) and granular one (GSS). The 30-day seedlings were transplanted on May 10, 2012. The plot size was
, and the planting density was 15 hills
. The standard application level was
for GSS. The application rates were 50 %, 100 %, and 200 % of the standard levels. The soil and plant samples were taken after harvest on September 10. Strength weight of the stem was measured on the center of the 5-cm of the fourth internode. Nutrient contents and yield of grains and were evaluated. The strength weight of the stem was positively correlated with the silicate content of the stem with the highly significant
of 0.601. The strength of the stem was satisfactorily enforced by application of 50 % WSS and GSS, and 100 % PSS. Application of 50 % or 100 % of WSS showed little difference in rice yield in comparison with application of 100 % of PSS or GSS. Therefore, application of
of WSS would be recommendable for rice cultivation which enforced stem strength, and increased yield of rice.
Effect of Expeller Cake Fertilizer Application on Soil Properties and Red Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Yield in Soil of Organic Farm of Plastic Film Greenhouse
Kim, Kab-Cheol ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Kim, Hyung-Gook ; Jeong, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1022~1026
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1022
To evaluate the application level of expeller cake fertilizer (ECF), we have investigated soil chemical properties, leaf mineral contents and yield of red mustard in plastic film greenhouse. Four levels of fertilizer were applied as 50% (ECF 50), 75% (ECF 75), 100% (ECF 100) and 150% (ECF 150) by base
of ECF. In 2010, red mustard was planted on April 28 in silt loam soil and harvested on July 7. Commerical yields were measured 12 times from May 14 to July 7. Electrical conductivity (
) and exchangeable cations (
) were tended to increase by the application of ECF. However, the range of those was not so big increasing amount. The content of T-N, K, Ca and P of red mustard leaves was
, respectively. The nitrogen utilization rate of red mustard was 38~52%, and it was decreased with increased application of ECF. The yield of red mustard was 13,670 to
on the basis of application amount of ECF and the yield did not increased in spite of increased ECF. The optimum dose of application of ECF for cultivation of red mustard was from
(ECF 50) to
(ECF 75). Environment-friendly and economical amount of applied fertilizer is more important than yield for cultivation of red mustard.
Differences of Soil Carbon by Green Manure Crops in Rotated Cropping System
Kim, Kyeong-Mok ; Lee, Byeong-Jin ; Cho, Young-Son ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1027~1031
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1027
This experiment was conducted to select winter-adaptable crop system or cropping systems for an enhanced carbon (C) fixation amount in plant biomass and soil. Single or mixed cropping systems of green manure crops, rye (R), triticale (TC), hairy vetch (HV), TC+HV, and control (fallow) were investigated during winter and spring. The amount and content of C and N in the above-ground biomass and soil C content by soil depth were measured under different green manure crops. The above-ground biomass was highest in TC+HV followed by R and TC with 664, 585, and 545 kg
, which exceeded the biomass of control by 181, 160, and 149%, respectively. The amount of C accumulation was higher in soil surface than deep soil. which was a similar pattern to the above-ground biomass. Therefore, green manure cropping in winter and spring seasons will be very helpful of improve soil organic matter.
Composting of Pig Manure Affected by Mixed Ratio of Sawdust and Rice Hull
Yun, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Ye-Jin ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Lee, Yeoun ; Lee, Yong Bok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1032~1036
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1032
A bulking agent is an essential material for composting of high-moisture livestock manure such as pig slurry. Sawdust has been used as the most popular bulking agent but resources are limited in Korea. In this study, the feasibility of rice hull as a bulking agent was examined for composting of solid pig manure. The solid pig manure was mixed with 15% sawdust (PM+SD15), 15% rice hull (PM+RH15), 10% sawdust and 5% rice hull (PM+SD10+RH5), and 5% sawdust and 10% rice hull (PM+SD5+RH10) based on fresh weight. These mixtures were composted for 35 days. The average temperature of the composting file for 35 days was higher in PM+SD10+RH5 and PM+SD5+RH10 than in PM+SD15 and PM+RH15. The mass loss of PM+SD10+RH5 and PM+SD5+RH10 were 36.7 and 36.4%, respectively, which were higher than that of PM+SD15 and PM+RH15. After composting, organic matter content and organic matter/nitrogen ratio in all treatments met the official standards of commercial fertilizers. We concluded that rice hull may be a good bulking agent for pig manure composting when it is used in mixture with sawdust.
Characterization of Growth and Auxin Formation in a Bacteria Isolated from Waste bed of Agaricus bisporus
Shin, Sang-Kwon ; Kyung, Ki-Cheon ; Kong, Won-Sik ; Chung, Doug-Young ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1037~1042
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1037
An auxin-producing bacteria (2SJ8-02) was isolated from waste mushroom bed of Agaricus bisporus in Buyeo-Gun, Chungnam. The strain 2SJ8-02 was classified as a novel strain of Pantoea rwandensis based on a chemotaxanomic and phylogeneticanalyses. The isolate was confirmed to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), one of auxin hormones, by TLC and HPLC analyses. The maximum concentration of IAA,
was detected from the culture in R2A broth containing 0.1% tryptophan for 24 h at
. The molecular weight of the main peak obtained by LC-mass analysis was 175 corresponding to that of IAA. To investigate the growth-promoting effects to the crops, the culture broth of Pantoea rwandensis 2SJ8-02 was infected to water cultures and seed pots of mung bean. In consequence, the adventitious root induction and root growth of mung bean were two times higher than those of the control.
Effects of Liquid Pig Manuare Application Method on the Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil and Growth of Paddy Rice
Ahn, Chang Hyun ; Kim, Woo Sik ; Park, Jee Sung ; Ahn, In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1043~1048
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1043
We have researched the changes of paddy soil properties and rice yield by several different methods to treated with liquid pig manure(LPM). In the execution of this experiment, rice was cultivated to full maturity at a paddy field in Jeollabuk-do in 2011. Field experiment was designed with surface application on dry field condition+jet hose spray(Tr. 1), surface application on dry field condition+incorporation with irrigation water(Tr. 2), surface application on dry field condition+application device of fertilizer through irrigation(Tr. 3), submerged application on irrigated field condition+jet hose spray(Tr. 4), submerged application on irrigated field condition+incorporation with irrigation water(Tr. 5) and submerged application on irrigated field condition+application device of fertilizer through irrigation(Tr. 6) plot. Total N, P, K contents in used LPM were 0.44%, 0.07% and 0.14%, respectively. After the experiment, soil properties were not significant difference both several treated plots. But
contents at incorporation with irrigation water plots in paddy soil were higher than other plots. The yield was 602 kg
in Tr. 2 plot compared Tr. 6 plot, which showed a value of 9.6% higher.
Effects of Supplementation of Mixed Methanogens and Rumen Cellulolytic Bacteria on Biochemical Methane Potential with Pig Slurry
Kim, Ji-Ae ; Yoon, Young-Man ; Jeong, Kwang-Hwa ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1049~1057
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1049
The study investigated the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay of pig slurry supplemented with mixed methanogens and cellulolytic bacteria to improve anaerobic digestion for methane production. For the BMP assay, 7 different microbial supplementation groups consisted of the cultures of mixed methanogens (M), Fibrobacter succinogenes (FS), Ruminococcus flavefaciensn (RF), R. albus (RA), RA+FS, M+RA+FS, and control. The cultures were added in the batch reactors with the increasing dose levels of 1% (0.5 mL), 3% (1.5 mL) and 5% (2.5 mL). Incubation for the BMP assay was carried out for 60 days at
using anaerobic digestate obtained from an anaerobic digester with pig slurry as inoculum. In results, 5% RF and RA+FS increased total biogas up to 8.1 and 8.4%, respectively, compared with that of control (p<0.05). All 5% microbial culture supplements significantly increased methane production up to 12.1~17.9% compared with that of control (p<0.05). Total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) digestion efficiencies showed no relationship to the increased supplementation levels of microbial cultures. After incubation, pH values in all treatment groups ranged between 7.527 and 7.657 indicating that methanogensis was not inhibited during the incubation. In conclusion, the results indicated that both hydrolysis and methanogenesis stages for methane production in anaerobic batch reactors were influenced by the supplemented microorganisms due to the chemical characteristics of pig slurry, but only the 5% supplementation level of all microbial culture supplements used in the experiment affected methane production.
Changes in Carbon Amount of Soil and Rice Plant as Influenced by the Cultivation of Different Green Manure Crops
Cho, Hyeoun-Suk ; Seong, Ki-Yeung ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Yang, Woon-Ho ; Kang, Hang-Won ; Lee, Hye-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1058~1064
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1058
A green manure crop were used in many ways, such as for reducing chemical fertilizer, improving physical and chemical properties of soils, protecting soil loss, and creating landscape when it's grown in agricultural land. Experiments were conducted to find out carbon emitted with applying green manure crops in paddy field. Amounts of carbon absorbed in the green manure crops during the winter were 1.22 ton
in hairy vetch, 1,24 ton
in barley, and 1.54 ton
in hairy vetch/barley. The soil carbon content was the highest at days before transplanting of rice and decreased after days after harvesting the plant. Soil carbon contents were higher with hairy vetch or barley treatment than with hairy vetch/barley treatment. The content of emitted methane (
) was the highest at 7 days after transplanting rice plant, and was 17 ~ 25 times higher with green manure treatments than with chemical fertilizer application. The
emission was the highest with hairy vetch treatment and than followed by hairy vetch/barley and barley treatments. The content of carbon absorbed in rice plant increased during the cultivation period but was not different with the applications of different green manure crops. The yield amounts of rough rice and rice strow were 5 ~ 13% higher with the green manure treatments than the chemical fertilizer application. In particular, they were the highest with hairy vetch/barley treatment as 14.07 ton
Physiological Responses of Tomato Plants and Soil Microbial Activity in Salt Affected Greenhouse Soil
Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Suyeon ; Nam, Hyunjung ; Lee, Yejin ; Lee, Jongsik ; Almaroai, Yaser A. ; Ok, Yongsik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1065~1072
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1065
Crop productivity decreases globally as a result of salinization. However, salinity impact on greenhouse-grown crops is much higher than on field-grown crops due to the overall concentrations of nutrients in greenhouse soils. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the short-term changes in growth, photosynthesis, and metabolites of tomato plants grown in greenhouse under heavily input of fertilizers evaluated by microbial activity and chemical properties of soils. The soils (< 3, 3.01~6, 6.01~10 and > 10.01 dS
) from farmer's greenhouse fields having different fertilization practices were used. Results showed that the salt-accumulated soil affected adversely the growth of tomato plants. Tomato plants were seldom to complete their growth against > 10.0 dS
level of EC. The assimilation rate of
from the upper fully expanded leaves of tomato plants is reduced under increasing soil EC levels at 14 days, however; it was the highest in moderate or high EC-subjected (3.0 ~ 10.0 dS
) at 28 days. In our experiment, soluble sugars and starch were sensitive markers for salt stress and thus might assume the status of crops against various salt conditions. Taken together, tomato plants found to have tolerance against moderate soil EC stress. Various EC levels (< 3.0 ~ 10.0 dS
) led to a slight decrease in organic matter (OM) contents in soils at 28 days. Salinity stress led to higher microbial activity in soils, followed by a decomposition of OM in soils as indicated by the changes in soil chemical properties.
Application of Amplicon Pyrosequencing in Soil Microbial Ecology
Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Kim, Dae-Hoon ; Song, Jaekyeong ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1073~1085
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1073
Soil microbial communities are immensely diverse and complex with respect to species richness and community size. These communities play essential roles in agricultural soil because they are responsible for most of the nutrient cycles in the soil and influence the plant diversity and productivity. However, the majority of these microbes remain uncharacterized because of poor culturability. Next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized many areas of biology by providing cheaper and faster alternatives to Sanger sequencing. Among them, amplicon pyrosequencing is a powerful tool developed by 454 Life Sciences for assessing the diversity of complex microbial communities by sequencing PCR products or amplicons. This review summarizes the current opinions in amplicon sequencing of soil microbial communities, and provides practical guidance and advice on sequence quality control, aligning, clustering, OTU- and taxon-based analysis. The last section of this article includes a few representative studies conducted using amplicon pyrosequencing.
Correction Method of Anaerobic Organic Biodegradability by Batch Anaerobic Digestion
Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Oh, Seung-Yong ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Yoon, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1086~1093
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1086
This research was carried out to develop the correction method of VDI4630 method improving accuracy, and investigated the effects of carbonate ion (
) and reactant water (
) on anaerobic organic biodegradability in VDI4630 method. Pig blood, pig intestine residue, pig digestive tract content, and cattle rumen content were experimented as waste biomasses. Chemical formulas of pig blood, pig intestine residue, pig digestive tract content, and cattle rumen content were
, respectively. And amount of reactant moisture for the anaerobic degradation of organic materials were 0.336, 0.485, 0.227, 0.266 mol, respectively. In pig blood, pig intestine residue, pig digestive tract content, and cattle rumen content, anaerobic organic biodegradability presented as
were 82.3, 81.5, 70.8, and 66.1%, and anaerobic organic biodegradability (AB) by VDI4630 method were 72.2, 87.8, 74.2, 62.0%, and that were significantly different with anaerobic organic biodegradability presented as
. The effects of carbonate ion and reactant water on anaerobic organic biodegradability were not significant, But Accuracy of anaerobic organic degradability was expected to able to be improved by the correction method of VDI4630 considering the carbonate ion at digestate and the reactant water quantified.
Behavior of Nitrogen Released from Chinese Milk Vetch in Paddy Soil by Using Stable
Lee, Chang Hoon ; Jung, Ki Youl ; Kim, Sun Tae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1094~1099
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1094
Green manure cultivation affects soil productivity and nutrient conservation in paddy soil at winter season. This study was to evaluate nitrogen behavior released from chinese milk vetch (CMV) as green manure by using stable
trace during rice cultivation. The CMV used in the experiment was 29.9 of C/N ratio and 14.1 g N
0.388 atom % excess) and was applied at rates of 10 and
in pot of 1/2000a size. Rice growth and N uptake increased with higher levels of CMV application at harvesting stage. Among total N uptake, 14.6 and 26.8 % of nitrogen was released respectively from the two different rates of CMV application. Stable
recovery by rice biomass was 60%, 54% to the
input, respectively, of CMV application, which decreased in order of grain, root, and straw of rice biomass. Total N content in the soil after rice harvest was 1.9 and 2.1 g N
, respectively, with increasing N input by the different rates of CMV application and the rate of
recovery derived from CMV in the soil was 3.8 and 4.8 %, respectively. N input by CMV application induced rice growth and productivity during rice cultivation. However, it might need proper managements to reduce N loss because about 36-41 % of nitrogen was lost from N input by CMV application.
Comparative Analysis of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in the Roots of Rice Grown under Long-term Fertilization Practice using Pyrosequencing Method
Kim, Byung-Yong ; Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Song, Jaekyeong ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1100~1107
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1100
Bacterial endophytes may be important factors in plant growth and ecologically relevant functions in rice. Using pyrosequencing technology, we analyzed the composition of endophytic bacterial communities that colonized the roots of rice cultivated in long-term fertilized (APK) and non-fertilized (NF) paddy soils. A total of 1,900 reads were obtained from 2 samples. All sequences were classified into 177 OTUs (APK sample) or 72 OTUs (NF sample) at a 97% similarity cut-off. Twenty-two OTUs were shared between the 2 samples, and these were also the most dominant OTUs in both samples. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum with 90.2%, followed by Actinobacteria (7.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.1%). Furthermore, Pseudomonas was the most abundant genus in both samples. We observed clear differences in the structure of the endophytic bacterial community structure between the 2 samples. Notably, the distributions of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were markedly different. The diversity index of the APK sample was higher than that of the NF sample. These findings showed that the endophytic bacterial community of rice roots was affected by the presence of fertilizers in the rice field soil.
Long-term Application Effects of Fertilizers and Amendments on Changes of Soil Organic Carbon in Paddy Soil
Kim, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Yun, Hong-Bae ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1108~1113
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1108
The changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content in paddy soils (sandy loam) were assessed from data of the 59 years fertilization plots in which the continuous rice cropping experiment started in 1954. The treatments were no fertilization(no fert.), NPK fertilization (N, NPK), NPK plus rice straw compost (NPK+C), and NPK plus rice straw compost, silicate fertilizer and lime (NPK+CLS). After 41 years, SOC content in NPK+C and NPK+CLS treatment in surface soils (0~15 cm) reached at the highest, followed by maintaining a plateau level for 8 years. After 51 years, they showed a tendency to decrease. Peak concentrations of soil organic carbon were
in N, and
in control. Dissolved organic carbon(DOC) contents in surface soil solution were about 2.3 times higher in NPK+C than that in NPK+CLS. Therefore, SOC in subsurface soil(15~30 cm) was greater in NPK+C than the other treatments. These results indicate that continuous application of rice straw compost and silicate fertilizer affected significantly on the level of SOC in surface soils, subsurface soils, and soil solutions. Thus, the combined applications of NPK fertilizers with organic compost and silicate as a soil amendment are recommended as the best fertilization practice for soil carbon accumulation, environment conservation, and enhancement of soil fertility status in the continuous rice cropping system.
Toxicity Assessment of Silver Ions Compared to Silver Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions and Soils Using Microtox Bioassay
Wie, Min-A ; Oh, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Lee, Sang-Phil ; Kim, Won-Il ; Yang, Jae E. ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1114~1119
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1114
This study was conducted to assess the microbial toxicity of ionic silver solution (
) and silver nanoparticle suspension (
) based on the Microtox bioassay. In this test, the light inhibition of luminescent bacteria was measured after 15 and 30 min exposure to aqueous solutions and soils spiked with a dilution series of
. The resulting dose-response curves were used to derive effective concentration (EC25,
, EC75) and effective dose (
) that caused a 25, 50 and 75% inhibition of luminescence. In aqueous solutions,
after 15 min exposure was determined to be <
and remarkably lower than
. This revealed that
was more toxic to luminescent bacteria than
. In soil extracts, however,
with 196 mg kg-1 was higher than
, indicating less toxicity of
in soils. The reduced toxicity of
in soils can be attributed to a partial adsorption of ionic
on soil colloids and humic acid as well as a partial formation of insoluble AgCl with NaCl of Microtox diluent. This resulted in lower concentration of active Ag in soil extracts obtained after 1 hour shaking with
than that spiked with
. With longer exposure time, EC and ED values of both
decreased, so their toxicity increased. The toxic characteristics of silver nanomaterials were different depending on existing form of Ag (
), reaction medium (aqueous solution, soil), and exposure time.
Variation Patterns in Concentration of Inorganic Nitrogen from Liquid Grass Fertilizer during Aerobic Incubation
Lee, Tae-Kyu ; Park, Ji-Suk ; Lee, Min-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Sung ; Ro, Hee-Myong ; Kim, Sang-Jun ; Jeon, Seung-Woo ; Seo, Sang-Gug ; Kim, Kil-Yong ; Lee, Geon-Hyoung ; Jeong, Byung-Gon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1120~1125
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1120
To assess fertilizer value of an quasi-aerobically fermented liquid clipped-grass fertilizer, aerobic incubation experiment using two texturally contrasting loam (L) and sandy loam (SL) soils was conducted for 60 days to investigate temporal variations in N mineralization pattern of the liquid fertilizer applied. To do so, the quasi-aerobically fermented liquid clipped-grass fertilizer was prepared, applied to each soil at a rate of 200 kg-N
in the dark. During incubation, soil water content was adjusted to field moisture capacity (-33 kPa of soil matric potential) by adding distilled water as necessary to maintain their initial weights. At desired time of incubation (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 days after incubation), soil was sampled and analyzed for inorganic nitrogen (
-N) concentrations, pH, EC, total carbon contents and total nitrogen contents. Concentrations of
-N began to decrease right after incubation for L soils, and 10 days after incubation for SL soils, while those of
-N began to increase onset of
-N disappearance. The results of this study showed that quasi-aerobically fermented liquid clipped-grass fertilizer could serve as an alternative to chemical N fertilizer.
Changes of Biological and Chemical Properties during Composting of Livestock Manure with Isolated Native Microbe
Han, Hyo-Shim ; Lee, Kyung-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1126~1135
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1126
In order to produce high-quality fermenting composts, bacteria strains with high activities of extracellular enzymes (cellulase, chitinase, amylase, protease and lipase) were isolated from the soils in 6 provinces of Korea, and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and properties. The selected 7 stains inoculated to livestock manure for 2' fermenting time, and experimental treatment divided into 3 groups, B1, B2 and B3, according to microbial activity and enzyme type. Our results showed that microbe applications (B1, B2 and B3) can increase (p<0.05) both rhizomes (17-38%) and enzyme activities (50-81%) in compost after fermenting time, respectively, compared to non-microbe treatment (control). The microbe application also decreased significantly (p<0.05) the
gas contents 13.4 and 27.3% compared with control, and the Propionic acid and Butyric acid gas contents 14.5 and 19.6%, respectively, as compared to the control. The microbial degradation rate (%) of pesticides and heavy metals increased significantly (p<0.05) after fermenting time, respectively, as compared to the control. Especially, microbe applications were more effective in total rhizomes yields and bioactivities than non-microbe treatment. Thus the results of this study could help in development of potential bioinoculants and composting techniques that maybe suitable for crop production, and protectable for earth environment under various conditions.
Geological Distribution of Aquatic Invertebrates Living in Paddy Fields of South Korea
Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Han, Min-Su ; Nam, Hyung-Kyu ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Kim, Miran ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1136~1142
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1136
The roles of paddy fields are re-evaluated as an artificial wetland. Although 44% of total aquatic invertebrates in South Korea are observed in a rice paddy, information of their distribution and characteristics of habitat use is limited yet. This study was carried out to provide information and characterizing distribution of community of aquatic invertebrates using a rice paddy through the South Korea. Aquatic invertebrates were collected at 284 sites of a rice paddy in South Korea from June to August, 2005, 2006 and 2007. We grouped sampling sites according to its species and population of aquatic invertebrates using a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Total 21 orders 60 families 114 species were collected from a rice paddy. Coleoptera (25%), Heteroptera (17%), Diptera (17%) and Odonata (12%) were observed. Aquatic invertebrates were classified into three groups (Group 1: Gangwon, Gyeonggi and Chungbuk; Group 2: Chungnam, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam and Jeju; Group 3: Gyeongbuk and Kyeongnam). In Group 1, Muljarus japonicas distributed mainly Gangwondo and Chungbuk. In Group 2, Sigara nigroventralis and S. substriata were mainly observed. In Group 3, higher density of Daphnia sp. and Chironomidae gen. spp. was found in the southern part of Korea.
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) for Evaluating Carbon Emission from Conventional Rice Cultivation System: Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Methodology
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Jung, Soon Chul ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1143~1152
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1143
We established a top-down methodology to estimate carbon footprint as national mean value (reference) with the statistical data on agri-livestock incomes in 2007. We also established LCI (life cycle inventory) DB by a bottom-up methodology with the data obtained from interview with farmers from 4 large-scale farms at Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do province to estimate carbon footprint in 2011. This study was carried out to compare top-down methodology and bottom-up methodology in performing LCA (life cycle assessment) to analyze the difference in GHGs (greenhouse gases) emission and carbon footprint under conventional rice cultivation system. Results of LCI analysis showed that most of
was emitted during fertilizer production and rice cultivation, whereas
were mostly emitted during rice cultivation. The carbon footprints on conventional rice production system were 2.39E+00 kg
by top-down methodology, whereas 1.04E+00 kg
by bottom-up methodology. The amount of agro-materials input during the entire rice cultivation for the two methodologies was similar. The amount of agro-materials input for the bottom-up methodology was sometimes greater than that for top-down methodology. While carbon footprint by the bottom-up methodology was smaller than that by the top-down methodology due to higher yield per cropping season by the bottom-up methodology. Under the conventional rice production system, fertilizer production showed the highest contribution to the environmental impacts on most categories except GWP (global warming potential) category. Rice cultivation was the highest contribution to the environmental impacts on GWP category under the conventional rice production system. The main factors of carbon footprints under the conventional rice production system were
emission from rice paddy field, the amount of fertilizer input and rice yield. Results of this study will be used for establishing baseline data for estimating carbon footprint from 'low carbon certification pilot project' as well as for developing farming methods of reducing
emission from rice paddy fields.
Agro-climate Characteristics and Stability in Crop Production of Daegwallyeong Area in Korea
Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Oh, Dong-Shig ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1153~1156
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1153
Daegwallyeong area to be formed along the mountainous terrain more above 800 m of sea level is known as the cold zone to occur frequently wind, rain and fog. This study to evaluate the stability of crop production and agricultural production potential in the Daegwallyeong was calculated for the low temperature frequency of occurrence and potential evapotranspiration changes with announce the release of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) from 1972 to 2009 up to 38 years. Evapotranspiration calculated FAO and other international standard method authorized under the PENMAN-MONTEITH Method was used, and the low temperature onset and frequency of the Gumbel probability density function was used. As a result, the variation of day evaporation for 38 years were showed to respectively width of variation from maximum
. The frequency of reappearance to first emergence day that lasts more than 5 days with temperature
over is 3 April a 50-year frequency, 10 April a 25-year frequency, 20 April a 10-year frequency, 28 April a 5-year frequency, 8 May a 2-year frequency. Psychrotrophic crop to growth temperature more than
can be secured to stable production with planting after May 8, prior to planting for normal growth can be seen that the risk of growth.
Life Cylcle Assessment (LCA) on Rice Production Systems: Comparison of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Emission on Conventional, Without Agricultural Chemical and Organic Farming
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Kwon, Young-Rip ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1157~1163
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1157
This study was performed a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) among three rice production systems in order to analyze the difference of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and environment impacts. Its life cycle inventory (LCI) database (DB) was established using data obtained from interview with conventional, without agricultural chemical and organic farming at Gunsan and Iksan, Jeonbuk province in 2011. According to the result of LCI analysis,
was mostly emitted from fertilizer production process and rice cropping phase.
were almost emitted from rice cultivation phase. The value of carbon footprint to produce 1 kg rice (unhulled) on conventional rice production system was 1.01E+00 kg
and it was the highest value among three rice production systems. The value of carbon footprints on without agricultural chemical and organic rice production systems were 5.37E-01
, respectively. Without agricultural chemical rice production system whose input amount was the smallest had the lowest value of carbon footprint. Although the yield of rice from organic farming was the lowest, its value of carbon footprint less than that of conventional farming. Because there is no compound fertilizer inputs in organic farming. Compound fertilizer production and methane emission during rice cultivation were the main factor to GHGs emission in conventional and without agricultural chemical rice production systems. In organic rice production system, the main factors to GHGs emission were using fossil fuel on machine operation and methane emission from rice paddy field.
Farmland Use Mapping Using High Resolution Images and Land Use Change Analysis
Lee, Kyungdo ; Hong, Sukyoung ; Kim, Yihyun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1164~1172
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1164
This study aims to make a "farmland use map" using high-resolution images and to analyze the land use change for about 8 years in Goyang, Namyangju, and Yongin cities. We have made a new numerical map named as a farmland use map using high-resolution images taken mostly in 2007 and digital topographical maps in Goyang, Namyangju, and Yongin cities near metropolitan areas to classify farmland use of paddy, upland, plastic film house, and orchard. We also made a land use map by overlaying the farmland use map and the land registration map of each city made in 2007, and compared the land use map made by RDA (Rural Development Administration) in 1999. Paddy areas decreased at a range of 3,000 to 5,000 ha during 8 years and were changed to residential areas in the cities. Upland and orchard areas also showed similar tendency and were changed to residential areas as well. On the other hand, the areas of the plastic film houses in the cities showed an increase or same in size. It is suggested that farmland use map can be broadly used as a base map for various survey projects including soil survey, statistics, and farmland information management.
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases by Water Management of SRI (System of Rice Intensification) in Rice Paddy Fields
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1173~1178
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1173
Water competition among domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors has been gradually heightened recently in Korea as the lack of water supply is expected in the near future. About 46% of nation's water use is consumed in paddy farming to produce rice. And the conservation of water resource and quality in agricultural sector is a pending issue in the nation's long term water management plan. New paddy rice farming techniques that use significantly less irrigation water are urgently required. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) that is now well known to produce more rice with less water consumption has not been tried in Korea yet. And environmental effect of SRI on greenhouse gases (GHGs) has not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of SRI on GHGs as well as water use and rice yield in a Korean paddy condition. Three experimental runoff plots
in size were prepared at an existing paddy field. Runoff, GHGs emission and water quality were measured during the 2011 growing seasons while a Japonica rice variety was cultivated. Rice plants grew better and healthier in SRI plots than in continuously flooded (CF) and intermittently drained (ID) plots. Rice yield from SRI plots increased 112.8 (ID)~116.1 (CF)% compared with CF and ID plots. Irrigation requirement of SRI plots compared to CF plot reduced by 52.6% and ID plot reduced by 62.0%, meaning that about 37.9~47.4% of irrigation water could be saved. GHGs emission from SRI plots reduced by 71.8% compared to that from CF plot and by 18.4% compared to that from ID plot, meaning that SRI could help contribute to ease the greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. It was believed that SRI is a promising paddy farming technique that could increase rice yield, and reduce irrigation water requirement and GHGs emission not just in Korea but also other rice farming countries all over the world. However, it was recommended that long term studies under different conditions including rice variety, soil texture, water source, climate need to be conducted for reliable data for the development of environmental policies related to GHGs emission control and management.
Net Ecosystem Productivity Determined by Continuous Measurement Using Automatic Sliding Canopy Chamber
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Choi, Eun-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1179~1186
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1179
For better understanding of carbon cycle dynamics of an agro-ecosystem, an accurate assessment of seasonal and daily
flux is essential to understand the relationship between various environmental factors and crop productivity. We developed the automatic sliding canopy chamber (ASCC) system that measured continuous net ecosystem productivity (NEP) over whole growing season under the natural meteorological rhythm. The ASCC was composed of two main parts which were sliding part for measuring NEP, and automatic opening and closing chamber (AOCC) for measuring soil respiration (SR) on the soil surface. The ASCC was developed by using open flow method for measuring soil
efflux. The disturbance of natural meteorological condition was minimized by opening the base frames. In the field test with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), NEP was calculated at
on a clear day using continuous data and eliminated the possibility of overestimate about 16% using one hour data during the day time. Unlike other small scale chamber system, installation on cropping-field made it possible to take any modifications which might be caused by natural environmental condition.
Effect of Intermittent Drainage on Nitrous Oxide Emission and Global Warming Potential in Rice Paddy Soil
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Choi, Eun-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1187~1193
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1187
Water control is mainly one of the key factors that can affect nitrous oxide (
) emissions from soils. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of intermittent drainage compared to continuous flooding (conventional water regime) on
emission to global warming potential (GWP) with NPK (standard cultivation practice), NPK+Straw, and PK fertilizations. Nitrous oxide emission rates were collected twice a week using a closed chamber method. With continuous flooding, nitrogen (N) application increased
emission by 106.6% (
in NPK) with respect to the PK treatment (
), and straw addition to NPK enhanced 148.3% of seasonal
in NPK+Straw). Although seasonal
emission slightly increased by 16.1-42.9% with intermittent irrigation, its seasonal
emission drastically reduced at 43.5-52.8% resulting in a lower GWP at 48.9-58.5% with respect to that of continuously flooded treatments (
, NPK+Straw). Rice yield, at similar fertilization with the continuously-flooded rice field, was not affected by intermittent irrigation. Conclusively, intermittent irrigation can be very effective and a rational soil management strategy to mitigate GWP with considering rice productivity in a temperate paddy rice field like Korea.
Estimation of Paddy Field Area in North Korea Using RapidEye Images
Hong, Suk Young ; Min, Byoung-Keol ; Lee, Jee-Min ; Kim, Yihyun ; Lee, Kyungdo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1194~1202
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1194
Remotely sensed satellite images can be applied to monitor and obtain land surface information on inaccessible areas. We classified paddy field area in North Korea based on on-screen digitization with visual interpretation using 291 RapidEye satellite images covering the whole country. Criteria for paddy field classification based on RapidEye imagery acquired at different time of rice growth period was defined. Darker colored fields with regular shape in the images with false color composite from early May to late June were detected as rice fields. From early July to late September, it was hard to discriminate rice canopy from other type of vegetation including upland crops, grass, and forest in the image. Regular form of readjusted rice field in the plains and uniform texture when compared with surrounding vegetation. Paddy fields classified from RapidEye imagery were mapped and the areas were calculated by administrative district, province or city. Sixty six percent of paddy fields (
) were distributed in the west coastal regions including Pyeongannam-do, Pyeonganbuk-do, and Hwanghaenam-do. The paddy field areas classified from RapidEye images showed less than 1% of difference from the paddy field areas of North Korea reported by FAO/WFP (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Food Programme).
The Development of Estimation Model (AFKAE0.5) for Water Balance and Soil Water Content Using Daily Weather Data
Seo, Myung-Chul ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Cho, Hyeon-Suk ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kim, Min-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1203~1210
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1203
As the area of upland crops increase, it is become more important for farmers to understand status of soil water at their own fields due to key role of proper irrigation. In order to estimate daily water balance and soil water content with simple weather data and irrigation records, we have developed the model for estimating water balance and soil water content, called AFKAE0.5, and verified its simulated results comparing with daily change of soil water content observed by soil profile moisture sensors. AFKAE0.5 has two hypothesis before establishing its system. The first is the soil in the model has 300 mm in depth with soil texture. And the second is to simplify water movement between the subjected soil and beneath soil dividing 3 categories which is defined by soil water potential. AFKAE0.5 characterized with determining the amount of upward and downward water between the subjected soil and beneath soil. As a result of simulation of AFKAE0.5 at Gongju region with red pepper cultivation in 2005, the water balance with input minus output is recorded as - 88 mm. the amount of input water as precipitation, irrigation, and upward water is annually 1,043, 0, and 207 mm, on the other, output as evapotranspiration, run-off, and percolation is 831, 309, and 161 mm, respectively.
The Impact of Air Temperature During the Growing Season on NEE of the Apple Orchard
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Ryu, Jong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1211~1215
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1211
Terrestrial ecosystem are a strong sink of carbon. Forest ecosystem, one of them, has been expected to play an important role in climate changing process by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide. On the other hand, agricultural ecosystem that consists mainly of annual crops is regarded as poor contributor to carbon accumulation, because its production (carbon hydrate) is decomposed into carbon at a short period, which is emitted to the atmosphere. However, it is thought that fruit tree plays a great role in decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, same as forest. Net ecosystem exchange of
(NEE) was measured to estimate carbon fixation capacity using an eddy covariance (EC) system method in 2 years from 2005 to 2006 at an apple orchard in Uiseong, Gyeongbuk. Average air temperature values were higher in 2006 than in 2005 during the dormant season, and lower by about
over the growing season causing visible cold injuries. Accordingly, we investigated long-term exchange of carbon to determine how much difference of carbon fixation capacity was shown between 2006 and 2005 in terms of environmental and plant variables such as NEE, leaf area index (LAI), and Albedo. NEE was
in 2005 and
in 2006, respectively. Low temperature after July in 2006 decreased LAI values faster than those in 2005. Meanwhile, Albedo values were higher after July in 2006 than in 2005. These results show that the low temperature after July in 2006 apparently affected apple growth.
Biological Hazard Analysis of Angelica gigas Nakai on Production and Marketing Steps
Park, Kyeong-Hun ; Kim, Byeong-Seok ; Lee, Jeong-Ju ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Se-Ri ; Kim, Won-Il ; Yun, Jong-Chul ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1216~1221
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1216
This study is aimed to investigate microbiological contamination of Angelica gigas Nakai. A total of 111 samples including root, soil, and irrigation water were collected from farms and market to detect aerobic bacteria, Bacillus cereus, coliform, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes,. Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The contaminations of aerobic bacteria, coliform, and Bacillus cereus in the root during cultivation were found 6.71 log CFU
, 4.13 log CFU
, and 3.54 log CFU
, respectively. The contamination of coliform and B. cereus were detected in all steps from harvesting to processing, with the highest count recorded from the cutting step. In marketing, the contaminations of aerobic bacterial, coliform, and B. cereus were 5.5~6.0 log CFU
, 2.4~2.6 log CFU
, and 3.5~4.0 log CFU
, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected in any of samples. This result indicated that hygienic soil management and post harvest management should be performed to reduce the contamination of hazard microorganisms and to produce safe agro-products.
Characteristics of a Reclaimed Tidal Soil for Effective Resalization at Saemangum and Youngsan-River
Chung, Doug-Young ; Kim, Hyejin ; Park, Misuk ; Lee, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1222~1229
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1222
The total area of a reclaimed tidal soil distributed on the south-west coast is approximately 156,600 ha, and the soil contains high contents of sand and silt as well as highly saline. Most of the reclaimed tidal soils are used as a paddy due to bad permeability and high groundwater table, resulting in easy accumulation of salts on the soil surface by capillary rise. Therefore, resalinization may occur because of rise of groundwater table after desalinization. The researches related to the reclaimed tidal soil mainly focused on desalinazation while most of the researches completed were limited to yields of crop based on desalinazation. pH of old reclaimed tidal soil is neutral or less than 7 while that of newly developed reclaimed tidal soils is greater than 7, that cause N-fertilizer to be volatile as ammonia. Thus, the physical and chemical properties should be investigated to be used as an arable upland instead of a paddy soil due to change in government policy. We need to develop measures to make soils grow crops normally by identifying problems related to reclaimed tidal soils.
A Study on Salt Removal in Controlled Cultivation Soil Using Electrokinetic Technology
Kim, Lee Yul ; Choi, Jeong Hee ; Lee, You Jin ; Hong, Soon Dal ; Bae, Jeong Hyo ; Baek, Ki Tae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1230~1236
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1230
To verify that the electrokinetic remediation is effective for decreasing salinity of fields of the plastic-film house, field tests for physical property, chemical property, and crop productivity of soils have been conducted. The abridged result of those tests is as follows. In the EK treatment, the electrokinetic remediation has been treated at the constant voltage (about 0.8 V
) for fields of the farm household. At this time, an alternating current (AC) 220 V of the farm household was transformed a direct current. The HSCI (High Silicon Cast Iron) that the length of the stick for a cation is 20cm, and the Fe Plate for an anion have been spread out on the ground. As the PVC pipe that is 10 cm in diameter was laid in the bottom of soils, cations descend on the cathode were discharged together. For soil physical properties according to the EK treatment, the destruction effect of soil aggregate was large, and the infiltration rate of water was increased. However, variations of bulk density and porosity were not considerable. Meanwhile, in chemical properties of soils, principal ions of such as EC,
were better rapidly reduced in the EK treated control plot than in the untreated control plot. And properties such as pH,
had a small impact on the EK. For cropping season of crop cultivation according to the EK treatment, decreasing rates of chemical properties of soils were as follows;
-N 78.3% >
72.3% > EC 71.6%
36.8%. As results of comparing the experimental plot that EK was treated before crop cultivation with it that EK was treated during crop cultivation, the decreasing effect of chemical properties was higher in the case that EK was treated during crop cultivation. After the EK treatment, treatment effects were distinct for
-N and EC that a decrease of nutrients is clear. However, because the lasting effect of decreasing salinity were not distinct for the single EK treatment, fertilization for soil testing was desirable carrying on testing for chemical properties of soils after EK treatments more than two times. In the growth of cabbages according to the EK treatment, the rate of yield increase was 225.5% for the primary treatment, 181.0% for the secondary treatment, and 124.2% for third treatment compared with the untreated control plot. The yield was increased by a factor of 130.0% for the hot pepper at the primary treatment (Apr. 2011), 248.1% for the lettuce at the secondary treatment (Nov.2011), and 125.4% for the young radish at the third treatment (Jul. 2012). In conclusion, the effect of yield increase was accepted officially for all announced crops.
Determining Soil Quality of Heavy Metal Contaminated Agricultural Field in Korea
Kim, Ju Hee ; Chung, Doug Young ; Oh, Se Jin ; Kim, Rog Young ; Yang, Jae E. ; Park, Gwan In ; Lee, Jin Soo ; Kim, Sung Chul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1237~1241
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.6.1237
Heavy metal pollution in agricultural field has been a critical issue in worldwide. For this reason, remediation technologies for heavy metal polluted soil are applied especially near at the abandoned metal mine. Soil quality analysis is also an important factor for proper management in heavy metal polluted agricultural field. In this study, scoring function was utilized to evaluate soil quality in heavy metal polluted agricultural field. Among other soil properties, bulk density, soil pH, EC,
-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined for minimum data set (MDS) with principal component analysis. Result showed that both upland and paddy soil contaminated with heavy metal were not suitable for crop growth except scoring of soil pH for paddy soil and CEC for upland soil. This result might indicate that chemical stabilization technology with chemical amendment could be adapted for remediation method for heavy metal polluted agiclutural field not only for heavy metal immobilization but also enhancement of soil condition for crop growth.