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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 46, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Response of Millet and Sorghum to Water Stress in Converted Poorly Drained Paddy Soil
Jung, Ki-Yuol ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Park, Chang-Young ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Choi, Young-Dae ; Oh, In-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.409
Millet and sorghum are major dryland cereal crops, however their growth and productivity is limited by soil water stress with varying intensity. The major objective of this study was to evaluate water stress of millet and sorghum yield under drainage classes of poorly drained soil and to test the effect of the installed pipe drainage in poorly drained paddy soil to minimize crop stress. The research was carried out in poorly drained paddy fields located at alluvial slopping area resulting in non-uniform water content distribution by the inflow of ground water from the upper part of the field. Stress Day Index (SDI) was determined from a stress day factor (SD) and a crop susceptibility factor (CS). SD is a degree of measurement by calculating the daily sum of excess water in the profile above 30cm soil depth (
). CS depends on a given excess water on crop stage. The results showed that sum of excess water day (
) used to represent the moisture stress index was lower on somewhat poorly drained soil compared with poorly drained soil on 117 days. CS values for sorghum were 57% on
leaf stage, 44% on
leaf stage, 37% on panicle initiation, 23% on boot stage, and 16% on soft dough stage. For proso millet CS values were 84% on
leaf stage, 70% on
leaf Stage, 65% on panicle initiation, 53% on boot stage, and 28% on soft dough stage. And for foxtail millet the values were 73% on
leaf stage, 61% on
leaf stage, 50% on panicle initiation, 29% on boot stage, and 15% on soft dough stage. SDI of sorghum and millet was more susceptible to excess soil water during panicle initation stage more poorly drained soil than somewhat poorly drained soil. Grain yield was reduced especially in proso millet and Foxtail millet compared to Sorghum.
Characteristics of TN and TP in Runoff from Reclaimed Paddy Field of Fine Sandy Loam
Lee, Kyung-Do ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Na, Sang-Il ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 417~425
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.417
This study investigated the runoff from rice paddy located on reclaimed fine sandy loam soil to provide data for the development of policies to protect water quality of estuaries. Total N (TN), Total P (TP) concentrations and runoff loads at outlet were monitored from 2006 to 2008. Soil phosphate adsorptivity was measured and compared with typical paddy soil in watersheds. TP concentration of the paddy water and TP runoff loads were much greater than those of typical paddy field in watershed because phosphate adsoptivity in reclaimed paddy field of fine sandy loam appeared to be a third of those of typical paddy soils by relatively low soil OM and high sand content of the reclaimed soil. Thus, nutrient runoff, particularly phosphate from the reclaimed paddy field needs to be managed more thoroughly to protect estuarine water quality.
Classification of Soil Desalination Areas Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
Lee, Kyung-Do ; Baek, Shin-Chul ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Kim, Yi-Hyun ; Na, Sang-Il ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 426~433
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.426
This study was aimed to classify soil desalination area for cultivation using NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) of high-resolution satellite image because the soil salinity affects the change of plant community in reclaimed lands. We measured the soil salinity and NDVI at 28 sites in the Saemangeum reclaimed land in June 2013. In halophyte and non-vegetation sites, no relation was found between NDVI and soil salinity. In glycophyte sites, however, we found that the soil salinity was below 0.1% and NDVI ranged from 0.11 to 0.57 which was greater than the other sites. So, we could distinguish the glycophyte sites from the halophyte sites and non-vegetation, and classify the area that soil salinty was below 0.1%. This technique could save the time and labor to measure the soil salinity in large area for agricultural utilization.
Risk Assessment of Drought for Regional Upland Soil According to RCP8.5 Scenario Using Soil Moisture Evaluation Model (AFKE 0.5)
Seo, Myung-Chul ; Cho, Hyeon-Suk ; Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Kang, Hang-Won ; Shin, Kook-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 434~444
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.434
In order to evaluate drought risk at upland according to climate change scenario (RCP8.5), we have carried out the simulation using agricultural water balance estimation model, called AFKAE0.5, at 66 weather station sites in 2020, 2046, 2050, 2084, and 2090. Total Drought Risk Index between the first month (f) and last month (l) (TDRI(f/l)) and maximum continuous drought risk index (MCDRI(f/l)) were defined as the index for analyzing pattern and strength of drought simulated by the model. Based on distribution maps of MCDRI (1/12), drought strength was predicted to be most severe in 2084 for all regions. Some regions showed severe risk of drought meaning over 20 days of MCDRI (1/12) in the other years, while MCDRI (1/12) in other regions did not reach 5 days. Even though maximum value of TDRI (1/12) in 2090 was greater than in 2050, more severe drought risk in 2050 than in 2090 was predicted based on MCDRI (4/6). It implies that drought risk should be assessed for each crop with its own growing season.
Effect of seeding rate of Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) on Green Manure Yield and Nitrogen Prodution in Upland Soil
Cho, Hyeoun-Suk ; Seong, Ki-Yeung ; Park, Tea-Sun ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Kang, Hang-Won ; Lee, Hye-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 445~451
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.445
We researched nitrogen and green manure yield of crotalaria by seeding rate; 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 kg
in upland soil to find out crotalaria`s optimal seeding rate. Crotalaria`s plant height and number of leaves increased when the harvest time was later regardless of its seeding rate. Its nitrogen content of above-ground part was 19.8 g
, and C/N ratio was 22.5. The highest nitrogen content (50.3 g
) was found in flowers part, followed by its leaves, roots and stems. The green manure yields of crotalaria increased when the harvest time was later. The green manure yield of crotalaria was biggest in 50kg
which was low in seeding rate. It tended to decrease when the seeding rate was higher, and the nitrogen yield had the same tendency. Therefore, the appropriate seeding rate was 50kg
and the time for application to soil was considered to be the flowering stage.
Investigation of Nutrient Contents in Jujube and Its Orchard Soils under Pesticide-Free Cultivation in Boeun Region
Lee, Gyeong-Ja ; Kang, Bo-Goo ; Kim, Ki-Sik ; Kim, Ik-Hwan ; Han, Jong-U ; Kim, Hyun-Zoo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 452~457
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.452
To obtain the useful data related to optimum nutrient management technique for pesticides-free jujube cultivation, nutrient contents of jujube leaves and fruits and the selected chemical properties of jujube orchard soils were investigated at 9 different orchards with pesticides-free cultivation in Boeun, Chungbuk, Korea. Soil and jujube leaf samples were collected from the different orchards in July and October, and jujube fruit samples were taken in October, 2012. Soil available
contents in the optimum level for jujube cultivation were 11% and 33% of total samples in July and October, respectively, but 56% of total samples was higher than the optimum level in both July and October. Exchangeable K and Ca ion contents were 44% and 67% of total samples, respectively, in both July and October, whereas exchangeable Mg ion content was 100% and 56% of total samples in July and October, respectively. Nutrient contents in jujube leaves were higher than those in fresh fruits. In addition, total nitrate, potassium and magnesium contents in the jujube leaves were higher in the samples collected in July than in October.
Biodegradable Check Dam and Synthetic Polymer, its Experimental Evaluation for Turbidity Control of Agricultural Drainage Water
Kim, Minyoung ; Kim, Seounghee ; Kim, Jinoh ; Lee, Sangbong ; Kim, Youngjin ; Cho, Yongho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 458~462
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.458
A drainage ditch is normally a component of drainage networks in farming systems to remove surplus water, but at the same time, it may act as a major conduit of agricultural nonpoint source pollutions such as sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and so on. The hybrid turbidity reduction system using biodegradable check dam and synthetic polymer was developed in this study to manage pollutant discharge from agricultural farmlands during rainfall events and/or irrigation periods. The performance of this hybrid system was assessed using a laboratory open channel sized in 10m-length and 0.2m-width. Various check dams using agricultural byproducts (e.g., rice straw, rice husks, coconut fiber and a mixture of rice husks and coconut fiber) were tested and additional physical factors (e.g., channel slope, flowrate, PAM dosage, turbidity level, etc.) affecting on turbidity reduction were applied to assess their performance. A series of lab experiments clearly showed that the hybrid turbidity reduction system could play a significant role as a supplementary of Best Management Practice (BMP). Moreover, the findings of this study could facilitate to develop an advanced BMP for minimizing nonpoint source pollution from agricultural farmlands and ultimately to achieve the sustainable agriculture.
Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Red Pepper, Chinese Cabbage, and Potato Fields in Gangwon-do, Korea
Seo, Youngho ; Kim, Gunyeob ; Park, Kijin ; Kim, Kyunghi ; Jung, Yeong-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 463~468
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.463
The level of nitrous oxide (
), a long-lived greenhouse gas, in atmosphere has increased mainly due to anthropogenic source, especially application of nitrogen fertilizers. Quantifying
emission from agricultural field is essential to develop national inventories of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission. The objective of the study was to develop emission factor to estimate direct
emission from agricultural field in Gangwon-do, Korea by measuring
emissions from potato (Solanum tuberosum), red pepper (Capsicum annum L.), and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation lands from 2009 to 2012. Accumulated
for red pepper,
for Chinese cabbage cultivated in spring, and
for fall Chinese cabbage. Emission factor of
calculated from accumulated
emission, nitrogen fertilization rate, and background
N for cropland in Gangwon province. More extensive study is deserved to be conducted to develop
emission factor for upland crops in Korea through examining the emission factors from various regions and crops because
emission is influenced by many factors including climate characteristics, soil properties, and agricultural practices.
Survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken and Pig Manure Compost
Jung, Kyu-Seok ; Heu, Sung-Gi ; Roh, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Min-Ha ; Gil, Hyun-Ji ; Choi, Na-Young ; Lee, Dong-Hwan ; Lim, Jeong-A ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 469~473
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.469
Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter for plant. Thus, livestock manure compost is commonly used fertilizer in organic vegetable and fruit production in many countries. However, contaminated or inadequate manure compost can give negative effect to soil microorganisms. This study was conducted to investigate the survival difference of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken and pig manure compost under the selected environmental conditions. Commercially available manure compost (pig, chicken) was inoculated with S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Manure compost was incubated at
and consistent moisture content. Samples had been collected during 200 days depending on the given conditions. S. enterica survived for 130 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. L. monocytogenes persisted for 120 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. It is noted that the number of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes gradually decreased over time. The results indicate that S. enterica survived longer than L. monocytogenes in manure compost at
. S. enterica and L. monocytogenes survived longer in chicken manure compost than in pig manure compost. Increased knowledge of pathogen behavior in agricultural environments is a valuable part of future work on improving risk evaluations and, in a longer perspective, in providing data for guidelines regarding safe handling of pathogen-contaminated manure compost and soil.
Microbial Community Structure of Paddy Soil Under Long-term Fertilizer Treatment Using Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA) Analysis
Daquiado, Aileen Rose ; Kim, Tae Young ; Lee, Yong Bok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 474~481
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.474
Understanding the microbial community structure of agricultural soils is important for better soil management in order to improve soil quality. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis has been popularly used in determining the microbial community structure in different ecosystems. The microbial community structure of paddy soil under long-term fertilizer treatments was investigated after 45 years using PLFA analysis. Treatments were control (no fertilization, Con), compost (COM), NPK, NPK+compost (NPKC), PK, NK, and NP. Soil chemical properties were mainly affected by the addition of compost and inorganic P fertilizer. Total nitrogen and organic matter contents were significantly higher in treatments with compost while available
and exchangeable calcium were significantly higher in treatments with added inorganic P fertilizer. It was found that microbial communities were responsive to the different fertilizer treatments. PLFA results showed that the soils were dominated by gram-negative bacteria, followed by the actinomycetes, then gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. Principal component analysis of the soil chemical properties and PLFA composition proved to be a more reliable tool because it was more responsive to the changes in soil chemical properties.
Assessment of Agricultural Nutrient Surplus in Pig-concentrated Region in Korea
Lee, Yejin ; Yun, Hong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 482~486
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.482
Assessment of nutrient balance in region unit is important to make a decision on nutrient management in agriculture. In this study, the nutrient demand in arable land and nutrient supply from livestock manure and chemical fertilizer were estimated from pig-concentrated areas. Three regions (H, I and J) were selected on the basis of pig numbers per unit area of arable land. In H and I regions, nitrogen amount from pig manure occupied about 50% of total livestock manure. Nutrient supply was three times higher compared to the nutrient demand in each of 3 regions. Soil available phosphate of higher pig-populated area in regional unit was higher than less populated livestock area. Therefore, livestock manure-derived regional management and monitoring of soil nutrient contents is necessary for the minimization and improvement of nutrient surplus.
Effect of Long Term Fertilization on Microbial Biomass, Enzyme Activities, and Community Structure in Rice Paddy Soil
Lee, Chang Hoon ; Kang, Seong Soo ; Jung, Ki Youl ; Kim, Pil Joo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 487~493
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.487
The effects of long-term fertilization on soil biological properties and microbial community structure in the plough layer in a rice paddy soil in southern Korea were investigated in relation to the continuous application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), straw based compost (Compost), combination these two (NPK + Compost) for last 40 years. No fertilization plot (Control) was installed for comparison. Though fertilization significantly improved rice productivity over control, the long-term fertilization of NPK and compost combination was more effective on increasing rice productivity and soil nutrient status than single application of compost or chemical fertilizer. All fertilization treatments had shown significant improvement in soil microbial properties, however, continuous compost fertilization markedly increased soil enzyme and microbial activities as compared to sole chemical fertilization. Results of microbial community structure, evaluated by EL-FAME (ester-linked fatty acid methyl esters) method, revealed big difference among Control, NPK, and Compost. However, both Compost and Compost+NPK treatments belonged to the same cluster after statistical analysis. The combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments could be more rational strategy to improve soil nutrient status and promote soil microbial communities than the single chemical fertilizer or compost application.
Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates and Plant Growth Promotion by Pantoea Strains
Walpola, Buddhi Charana ; Kong, Won-Sik ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 494~501
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.494
Two phosphate solubilizing Pantoea strains (P. agglomerans and P. rodasii) were employed in elucidating their phosphate solubilizing potential under different carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and salt conditions. Plant growth promoting characteristics such as ACC deaminase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA), HCN, ammonia, and siderophore production of the two strains were assessed in vitro. Potential applicability of the strains as bio-inoculants was also evaluated in pot experiments conducted under green house conditions. Phosphate solubilization measured as the amount of phosphorous released into the medium was recorded as 810 and
respectively by P. agglomerans and P. rodasii. Glucose at the rate of 2% was found be the best carbon source, while
was the best nitrogen source for both strains. Despite a slight decrease in phosphate solubilization observed at higher temperature, pH and salt concentrations, both strains could withstand against a range of temperature (
), pH (7-9) and the presence of NaCl (up to 5%) without much compromising the phosphate solubilization. Different plant growth promoting traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA, HCN, ammonia, and siderophore production) of the strains and their ability to promote the growth of green gram seedlings indicate that both strains possess high potential to be used as bio-inoculants.
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System
Ryu, Jong-Hee ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Choi, Eun-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 502~509
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.502
To estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, we established inventory of conventional rice cultivation from farmers in Gunsan and Iksan, Jeonbuk province in 2011~2012. This study was to calculate carbon footprint and to analyse the major factor of GHGs. We carried out a sensitivity analysis using the analyzed main factors of GHGs and estimated the mitigation potential of GHGs. Also we tried to suggest agricultural methods to reduce GHGs that farmers of this case study can apply. Carbon footprint of rice production unit of 1 kg was 2.21 kg
. Although amount of
emissions is largest among GHGs, methane had the highest contribution of carbon footprint on rice production system after methane was converted to carbon dioxide equivalent (
-eq.) multiplied by the global warming potential (GWP). Source of
in the cultivation of rice farming is incomplete combustion of fossil fuels used by agricultural machinery. Most of the
emitted during rice cultivation and major factor of
emission is flooded paddy field in anaerobic condition. Most of the
emitted from rice cultivation process and major sources of
emission is application of fertilizer such as compound fertilizer, urea, orgainc fertilizer, etc. As a result of sensitivity analysis due to the variation in energy consumption, diesel had the highest sensitivity among the energies inputs. If diesel consumption is reduced by 10%, it could be estimated that
potential reduction is about 2.5%. When application rate of compound fertilizer reduces by 10%, the potential reduction is calculated to be approximately 1% for
and approximately 1.8% for
. When drainage duration is decreased until 10 days, methane emissions is reduced by approximately 4.5%. That is to say drainage days, tillage, and reducing diesel consumption were the main sources having the largest effect of GHG reduction due to changing amount of inputs. Accordingly, proposed methods to decrease GHG emissions were no-tillage, midsummer drainage, etc.
Evaluation of Soil Loss According to Surface Covering and Tillage Methods in Corn Cultivation
Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Park, Seok-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 510~518
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.510
Corn was mainly cultivated in slope land during summer season when heavy rain falls so that soil loss occurs severely. Especially, soil disturbance and exposure of topsoil by conventional tillage intensifies soil loss by heavy rain. The aim of this study was to develop surface covering and tillage methods for reducing soil loss in corn cultivation. The experiment was conducted in 17% sloped lysimeter with 8 treatments including strip tillage after surface covering with rye residue, strip tillage after residue covering of several crops and sod culture, black polyethylene film covering after conventional tillage and control. Amount of runoff water and eroded soil, and corn growth were investigated. Amounts of runoff water in all plots except black polyethylene plot ranged from 152 to 375
, accounting for 13~32% of 1,158
in control. Amount of eroded soil decreased by 94 to 99% (3 to 89 kg
) in plots of strip tillage after covering with crop residues compared to control with 1,739 kg
. Corn yields in plots of strip tillage after covering with crop residues ranged from 6.0 to 6.9 Mg
, while that of control was 6.5 Mg
. The results suggest that strip tillage methods after surface covering with crop residues are very effective on soil conservation of slope land in corn cultivation.
The Acid Buffer Capacity of a Horizons in Young Residual Entisols in Korea
Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Lee, Gye-Jun ; Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Hee-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 519~524
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.519
pH buffer capacities (pHBC,
) of 6 residual Entisols derived from granite, granite-gneiss, limestone, sandstone, shale, and basalt in Korea were studied. Soil acidity may become a problem if the soil pH is reduced to critical levels when nutrient cycles are unbalanced (especially N, C and S). The relation between the pHBC and the physico-chemical properties of the 6 soils was also studied. In the A horizons of all the soils except Euiseong series developed from sandstone, the contents of clay, organic matter and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher than those of C horizon, but bulk density and pH were lower than C horizon. Clay content of Euiseong series decreased with soil depth, which might be caused by the elluviation. The soils developed from granite, granite-gneiss and sandstone have a higher
content than those developed from basalt and limestone. The contents of
and MgO were high in the soils from developed from basalt, limestone and shale comparing with the soils from granite, granite-gneiss and sandstone. The soils from basalt and limestone showed higher values of ignition loss than those from the other parent rocks. The pHBC of the soils was ranged from 1.8 to 3.2
showing as follows : basalt, limestone > shale, granite-gneiss > granite sandstone.
Effect of Scion Root Occurrence on the Flowering, Fruit Quality and Yield of `Shiranuhi` Mandarin Hybrid in Plastic Film House
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Moon, Young-Eel ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 525~529
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.525
As most of citrus, shiranuhi mandarin ((Citrus unshiu
C. reticulata) mainly use the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) as its rootstock which has dwarf and cold hardness in Korea. However, recently, scion root was observed in `Shiranuhi` mandarin tree grafted onto the trifoliate orange. This study was carried out to find out effects of scion root occurrence on the fruit quality, flowering and yield of shiranuhi mandarin. For the experiment, we selected six farmers who have outbreak of scion root in their Shiranuhi mandarin orchards and surveyed the difference of fruit quality of shiranuhi mandarin hybrid between scion root and control (trifoliate orange root). In the results, flowering was severely decreased in scion root trees compared to control. As a result of survey of 174 Shiranuhi mandarins, 160 trees were proved to be scion root, and had less flowering. Fruiting of scion root also severely dropped compared to control and thus, yields of scion root (6.4 kg) reduced by 24% compared to control (26.7 kg). The fruit size, weight and soluble solid contents of scion root were significantly reduced, but there were no differences in acid contents and coloring of fruit. From the results, we concluded that scion root had negative influence on flowering, fruit size and the yields of Shrinanuhi mandarin hybrid.
Effect of Slurry Composting Biofiltration (SCB) Liquid Manure on Shoot Growth and Fruit Qualities of Peach (Prunus persica L.) and Soil Chemical Properties in Orchard
Park, Jin Myeon ; Lee, Seong Eun ; Lim, Tae Jun ; Noh, Jae Seung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 530~535
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.530
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of slurry composting and biofiltration (SCB) liquid manure application on shoot growth, fruit qualities and soil chemical properties in peach orchard. SCB liquid manure was fertigated ten times from April to October in SCB plot, whereas chemical fertilizer was treated two times as basal and additional fertilizers in control plot. The shoot growth, leaf nitrogen and potassium content, soil exchangeable K, fruit weight and yield were higher in SCB plot than in control. Soluble solid content and acidity, soil organic matter, soil available phosphate and soil exchangeable Mg showed no significant difference between treatments, and the leaf calcium and magnesium content were lower in SCB plot than in control. In conclusion, fertigating SCB liquid manure in peach orchard has positive effects on fruit weight and yield, and it is suggested that periodical soil testing is needed because of the possibility of K accumulation in SCB liquid manure treated soil when the orchard is fertigated based on the soil nitrogen content.
Soil Classification of Anthropogenic Soils in a Remodeled Area Using Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources
Lee, Seung-Been ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 536~541
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.536
In Soil Taxonomy system, anthropogenic soils are still classified as Entisols since the International Classification Committee for Anthropogenic Soils is in the process of classifying anthropogenic soils as new orders. In reality, it is difficult to characterize anthropogenic soils because Soil Taxonomy (ST) system does not distinguish between natural and anthropogenic Entisols. On the other hand, World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) considers human impacts on soils and contains an independent category of anthropogenic soils, which makes easier to understand anthropogenic soil characteristics than Soil Taxonomy system. A remodeled paddy field (Gasan) was selected to classify by ST and WRB. Soil samples were taken to analyze chemical and physical properties. Based on the results of the analyses, the ST system classified Gasan as coarse loamy, mixed, mesic, Aquic Udorthents while the WRB did as Stagnic Urbic Technosols (Oxyaquic, Arenic). As a conclusion, the WRB classification information of the anthropogenic provides more detail characteristics of the anthropogenic soils.
A Study on Soil Suitability Criteria for Liriopis Platyphylla
Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Chun, Hyen-Chung ; Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Noh, Dae-Cheol ; Yun, Kwan-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 542~548
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.542
Soil properties and yields of liriopis platyphylla were investigated to establish soil suitability of Korean liriopis platyphylla at 116 farms in Korea. Morphological and physical properties of the soils were investigated along with the average yield of 2~3 years. The impact factors of soil properties to the yield of liriopis platyphylla were selected based on standard error of each factor. The yields of liriopis platyphylla showed the greatest values when the morphology was alluvial plains, when the drainage was well or moderately well, when the slope was 0-2%, the texture was coarse loamy, when the gravel content was less than 15% and when the available soil depth was more than 100 cm. Contribution factors of soil properties to the yields were 0.15 by morphology, 0.15 by drainage level, 0.13 by slope, 0.18 by texture, 0.16 by gravel content and 0.23 by available soil depth, respectively. Soil suitability classes were set as follows; the best suitable land if score was greater than 92, suitable land if score ranged from 91 to 86, the possible land if the score ranged from 85 to 83, and low productive land if score was less than 82. According to the criteria, 17.8% of the production area was the best suitable land, 43.1% was suitable land, 17.3% was possible land, and 21.8% was low productive land. The sum of both the best and suitable lands were 60.9% of the farm area of Miryang in Gyeongsangnam-do.
Computer Tomography as a Tool for Physical Analysis in an Anthropogenic Soil
Chun, Hyen Chung ; Park, Chan Won ; Sonn, Yeon Kyu ; Cho, Hyun Joon ; Hyun, Byung Keun ; Song, Kwan Cheol ; Zhang, Yong Seon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 549~555
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.549
Human influence on soil formation has dramatically increased as the development of human civilization and industry. Increase of anthropogenic soils induced research of those soils; classification, chemical and physical characteristics and plant growth of anthropogenic soils. However there have been no reports on soil pore properties from the anthropogenic soils so far. Therefore the objectives of this study were to test computer tomography (CT) to characterize physical properties of an anthropogenic paddy field soil and to find differences between natural and anthropogenic paddy field soils. Soil samples of a natural paddy field were taken from Ansung, Gyeonggi-do (Ansung site), and samples of an anthropogenic paddy field were from Gumi in Gyeongsangnam-do (Gasan) where paddy fields were remodeled in 2011-2012. Samples were taken at three different depths and analyzed for routine physical properties and CT scans. CT scan provided 3 dimensional images to calculate pore size, length and tortuosity of soil pores. Fractal analysis was applied to quantify pore structure within soil images. The results of measured physical properties (bulk density, porosity) did not show differences across depths and sites, but hardness and water content had differences. These differences repeated within the results of pore morphology. Top soil samples from both sites had greater pore numbers and sizes than others. Fractal analyses showed that top soils had more heterogeneous pore structures than others. The bottom layer of the Gasan site showed more degradation of pore properties than ploughpan and bottom layers from the Ansung site. These results concluded that anthropogenic soils may have more degraded pore properties as depth increases. The remodeled paddy fields may need more fundamental remediation to improve physical conditions. This study suggests that pore analyses using CT can provide important information of physical conditions from anthropogenic soils.
Effects of Soil Acidity and Organic Matter by Application of Organic Materials and Soil Mulching with Pine Needles for Soil Surface Management in Blueberry Eco-Friendly Farming
Ahn, In ; Kim, Sam-Hyun ; Maeng, Woon-Young ; Lee, In-Eae ; Chang, Ki-Woon ; Lee, Jong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 556~562
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.556
The blueberry eco-friendly farming requires the soil condition of pH 4.2 ~ 5.2 and high in organic matters for stable growth. Most of soil types of blueberry-growing land in Korea, however, belongs to alkaline soils with low organic matter content. As a result, the eco-friendly blueberry growers use peat moss and sulfur powder heavily to improve the soil condition, but the guideline on the effective use of organic materials was not established yet. Therefore, this sturdy was performed to investigate the effect of increasing soil acidity and organic matters by using organic materials. Among 5 organic materials, the pH of soil was lowest in degradable sulfur + bentonite (pH 4.1) and followed by Peat moss+Chaff+Pine Needlesmixtures(pH 4.5), OrganicAcid +vinegar (pH 4.7), Sulfur powder (pH 4.8), Temperature response Elutioner (pH 5.2). The soil organic matter content were increased in the following order: Peat moss+Chaff+Pine Needlesmixtures (8.4%) > degradable sulfur + bentonite (7.8%) > Organic Acid + vinegar (7.2%) > Sulfur powder
Temperature response Elutioner (6.3%). Although different in the degree, all organic materials treated was recognized a good material for improving soil pH and organic matter content. The plant height and stem diameter of blueberry were no clear difference among 5 organic materials. Another study was carried out to investigate amending soils with organic matter by soil mulching with pine needles for soil surface management in blueberry organic cultivation. The effect of increasing the soil pH by pine needle mulching in blueberry eco-friendly farming was recognized in four test fields. Pine needle mulching for soil surface management in blueberry appeared several advantages, such as improving of soil pH and organic matter content. Therefore, pineneedle mulching in blueberry organic farming is considered as the most efficient means of mulching cultivation for amending soil pH, weed suppression and moisture conservation among mulching materials.
The Yield and Economical Efficiency by Application Methods of Liquid Pig Manure on Forage Crops
Ahn, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Woo-Sik ; Park, Jee-Sung ; Ahn, In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 563~569
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.563
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of liquid-pig-manure application method (Tr.1: surface appl. LPM 150%, Tr.2: surface appl. LPM 50% + LPM 50%, Tr.3: chemical fertilizer, Tr.4: soil injection LPM 150%, Tr.5: soil injection LPM 50% + surface appl. 50%, Tr.6: no fertilizer) and the economic efficiency of yield on forage crops cultivaion. In barley cultivation experiment, Tr.5 was found to be best, showing the yield of 1,462 kg
, and followed by Tr.2(1,226 kg
), Tr.3(1,226 kg
), Tr.4(1,225 kg
) and Tr.1(1,209 kg
) in order. In maize cultivation experiment, Tr.4 was found to be best, showing the yield of 2,142 kg/10a, and followed by Tr.1(2,125 kg
), Tr.3(2,024 kg
), Tr.5(2,011 kg
) and Tr.2(1,925 kg 1
) in order. The income was showing 1,274,000 ~ 1,591,000 Won
in barley, whereas 766,000-794,000 Won 1
in maize. There was more economical efficiency in barley cultivation than maize cultivation. Rather than the LPM surface application, LPM soil injection was more effective.
Assessment of Nitrous Oxide (N
O) Emissions from Farmland in 2011 with IPCC Guideline Methodology
Jeong, Hyun Cheol ; Kim, Gun Yeob ; Lee, Jong Sik ; Choi, Eun Jung ; Ko, Jee Yeon ; So, Kyu Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 570~574
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.570
This study was conducted to assess
emissions in agricultural soils of Korea under the 1996 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology.
emissions in agricultural soils were calculated the sum of direct emission and indirect emission by the N sources and emissions by field burning of crop residues.
emission was highest in animal manure as 1,547
-eq Gg. Indirect emissions by atmospheric deposition and leaching and runoff were 1,463 and 1,753
-eq Gg, respectively.
emission by field burning of crop residues was highest in pepper due to the residue/crop ratio and field burning ratio.
Assessment of Methane (CH
) Emissions from Rice Paddy and Crop Residues Burning in 2011 with the IPCC Guideline Methodology
Choi, Eun Jung ; Lee, Jong Sik ; Jeong, Hyun Cheol ; Kim, Gun Yeob ; So, Kyu Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 575~578
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.575
Rice cultivation in the paddy field and the burning of crop residues have been identified as the important sources of methane emission in agricultural sector. This study aimed at assessment of the methane emission from croplands in the year of 2011 with the IPCC guideline methodology. Methane from rice cultivation was emitted 6,813
-eq Gg in 2011. According to the water management, methane emission amounts by continuously flooded and intermittently flooded were 1,499 and 5,314
-eq Gg, respectively. Methane emission by crop residues burning was highest in red pepper and followed by rice straw, pulses and barely in 2011. Methane emission by field burning was very little compared with rice cultivation.
Physicochemical Properties of Organic Liquid Fertilizer with Oil Cake and Rice Bran as Affected by Microorganism and the Ratio of Molasses
An, Nan-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Cho, Jung-Rai ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Lee, Byung-Mo ; Yoon, Jong-Chul ; Choi, Ji-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 579~584
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.579
The study was conducted to investigate changes in the characteristics of inorganic components during fermenting process of organic liquid fertilizers according to the type and ratio of microorganism and the amount of molasses when producing organic liquid fertilizers using sesame oil cake and rice bran. To select appropriate microorganisms, liquid fertilizers were produced through a 90-day fermentation process by adding mag-ggeo-li, yogurt, dried yeast, and leaf mold. The pH in liquid fertilizer was decreased, and then increased in all microorganism samples except the mag-ggeo-li sample. The EC was rapidly increased in all samples until the
days after production, and showed no changes after the
days in dried yeast and after the
days in the other samples. The concentration of
-N was generally increased with time. The concentration of
was rapidly increased until the
days after production and was maintained at about 1% regardless of the type of microorganism. In terms of the characteristics of liquid fertilizers according to the ratio of selected dried yeast, the pH was decreased until the
days after producing the liquid fertilizers, and then was increased regardless of the ratio of dried yeast. The EC was increased with time and showed no differences depending on the amount of dried yeast. The concentration of
-N was increased with time and in proportion to the amount of dried yeast. In terms of the characteristics of liquid fertilizers according to the ratio of molasses, the pH was decreased with increasing the molasses. The EC and concentration of
were no differences according to the amount of molasses. When 3% molasses was added, the content of
-N was 2.6 mg
at the beginning and was at 3,025 mg
Analysis of Community Structure of Metabolically Active Bacteria in a Rice Field Subjected to Long-Term Fertilization Practices
Ahn, Jae-Hyung ; Choi, Min-Young ; Lee, Hye-Won ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Song, Jaekyeong ; Kim, Myung-Sook ; Weon, Hang-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 585~592
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.585
To estimate the effect of long-term fertilization on metabolically active bacterial communities in a rice field, RNA was extracted from endosphere (rice root), rhizosphere, and bulk soil that had been subjected to different fertilization regimes for 59 years, and the 16S rRNAs were analyzed using the pyrosequencing method. The richness and diversity of metabolically active bacteria were higher in bulk soil than in the endosphere and rhizosphere, and showed no significant difference between non-fertilized and fertilized plots. Weighted UniFrac analysis showed that each compartment had characteristic bacterial communities and that the effect of long-term fertilization on the structure of bacterial community was more pronounced in bulk soil than in the endosphere and rhizosphere. The 16S rRNAs affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were more abundant in the endosphere than in bulk soil while those affiliated with Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria were more abundant in bulk soil than in the endosphere. Several dominant operational taxonomic units (clustered at a 97% similarity cut-off) showed different frequencies between non-fertilized and fertilized plots, suggesting that the fertilization affected their activities in the rice field.
Changes of Potential NPK Input by Chemical Fertilizers and Livestock Manure from 1990 to 2011 in Korea
Yun, Hong Bae ; Lee, Ye Jin ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Sung, Jwa Kyung ; Zhang, Yong Seon ; Lee, Sang Min ; Kim, Suk Chul ; Lee, Yong Bok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 593~598
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.593
The livestock manure is a good source of major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient that plants require. As aspect of establishment of nutrient management policy in nation scale, the use of livestock manure for agricultural purpose is a key factor for improving national nutrient balance. In this study, we evaluated the tendency of livestock manure production and amount of chemical fertilizer used in Korea from 1990 to 2011. The number of pig and chicken has been increased about two times in 2011 compared with 1990 and therefore livestock manure continually increased with the lapse of year, but cattle and dairy was not changed significantly. The chemical fertilizer consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium per hectare arable land was decreased by 54.6, 66.0 and 63.2% in 2011 compared with 1990, respectively. In contrast, the potential input of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to arable land through livestock manure was increased by 220, 210 and 210% during this period, respectively. Therefore we need a reasonable strategy for nutrient management such as combination of both manure and chemical fertilizers in near future.
Effects of Water Management Methods on CH
O Emission From Rice Paddy Field
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 599~605
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.599
The effects of water-saving irrigation on the emissions of greenhouse gases and the prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soils were investigated through a field experiment. In the Water-Saving (WS) irrigation, the water layer was kept at 2~3 cm while it was kept at 6 cm in the Continuousiy Flooding (CF) irrigation. A plot was treated with Intermittently Drainage (ID) that is drained as fine cracks on the floor were seen after transplanting. GHGs emission amounts from WS plots were reduced by 78.1% compared to that from CF plot and by 70.7% compared to that from ID plot, meaning that WS could help contribute to mitigation of the greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere.
Effects of Partial Tillage Seeding of Hairy vetch on Green Manure Biomass and Rice Yield in Rice-based Cropping System
Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Choi, Jong-Seo ; Kim, Sook-Jin ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ; Park, Ki-Do ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 606~609
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.606
To investigate the effect of partial tillage seeding of hairy vetch on green manure biomass and rice yield, on-farm experiment was conducted at eco-friendly hairy vetch cultivation area located in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do. Seeding methods of hairy vetch consisted of partial tillage seeding (PTS) and broadcasting before rice harvesting (BBRH). Hairy vetch was incorporated into soil on May 18 and rice seedling was transplanted on May 26. The growths of hairy vetch before overwintering were investigated on November 11. Plant height of BBRH plot was longer than that of PTS plot, but somewhat larger number of seedling stand was found in PTS. Biomass and N production of hairy vetch were investigated on May 18. Results of the investigation showed no difference between two seeding methods. Although the seeding time was 21 days late in PTS, the biomass of hairy vetch and rice yield were equivalent to those of BBRH seeding, so we conclude that PTS could improve overwintering survival of hairy vetch in rice cropping system.
Metal-Urea-Montmorillonite Hybrid Incorporated with Citric Acid
Kim, Kwang Seop ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Choi, Jong-Seo ; Park, Ki Do ; Kang, Hang-Won ; Park, Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 610~614
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.610
Massive intercalation of urea into montmorillonite (MUCH) was recently proposed to enhance urea use efficiency through smart suppression of emission of
and NOx. This study was to synthesize citrate-incorporated MUCH (Cit-MUCH) which can enhance suppression of
volatilization. The XRD pattern of Cit-MUCH was very similar to that of MUCH to indicate successful incorporation of citric acid into MUCH. Incorporation of citric acid was confirmed by the existence of
symmetric stretching vibration. During the initial 4 days after application,
volatilization from both bare and perilla-planted soils was much more suppressed by application of Cit-MUCH than MUCH. A peak volatilization rate decreased from 28.3 N mg
of MUCH-broadcasted soil to 22.2 N mg
of Cit-MUCH-broadcast soil.
volatilization was less in planted soil than bare soil for 72 hrs after application. These results showed that incorporation of citric acid led to increase in suppression of ammonia volatilization from urea-applied soils.
Analysis of Microbiological Contamination in Cultivation and Distribution Stage of Melon
Park, Kyeong-Hun ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kang, Jun-Won ; Millner, Patricia D. ; Micallef, Shirley A. ; Kim, Byeong-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 615~622
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.615
The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of melons in Korea. A total of 123 samples including melon fruits, leaves, seeds, soils, and irrigation water were collected from farms and markets to detect total aerobic bacteria, coliform, Escherichia coli, and pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. Samples were collected from Iksan and Nonsan farms to monitor bacterial levels on pre-market melons. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria on melon cultivation were between 0.43 and 6.65 log CFU
, and 0.67 and 2.91 log CFU
, respectively. Bacillus cereus, a fecal coliform, was detected in soils and melon leaves from Iksan farm at 2.95, 0.73 log CFU
, respectively, and in soils from Nonsan farm at 3.16 log CFU
. Market melon samples were collected to assay bacterial load on melon being sold to consumers. The contamination levels of total aerobic bacteria in agricultural markets, big-box retailers, and traditional markets were 4.82, 3.94, 3.99 log CFU
, respectively. The numbers of coliform in melon on the markets ranged from 0.09 to 0.49 log CFU
. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected in any samples. The count of total aerobic bacteria on melon seeds ranged from 0.33 to 3.34 log CFU
. This study found that irrigation water, soil, manure and various farm work activities including post-harvest processes were latent sources of microbial contamination. These results suggest that hygienic management and monitoring of soil, water, and agricultural material should be performed to reduce microbial contamination in melon production.
Soil Organic Carbon of Soil Series from 2003 to 2010 in Korea
Kim, Yoo Hak ; Kang, Seong Soo ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Kong, Myung Suk ; Choi, Soon Kun ; Oh, Taek Keun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 623~640
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.623
Soil organic carbon (SOC) of soil series is necessary to calculate soil C sequestration due to IPCC default categorized by climate regions and by soil types. The 3,400 thousand data were downloaded from agricultural soil information system and analyzed to get averages of soil order, soil series, and textual family for the three different soil management practices in Korea. The SOC content was
in paddy field,
in upland field, and
in orchard soil, respectively. As SOC in orchard was 10% greater than that in upland, orchard must be managed with applying compost. The SOCs of inceptisols, which was largely distributed in Korea, were
in paddy field,
in upland field, and
in orchard soil, respectively. The SOCs of alfisols were
in paddy field,
in upland field, and
in orchard soil, respectively. The SOCs of entisols were
in paddy field,
in upland field, and
in orchard soil, respectively. The SOCs of ultisols were
in paddy field,
in upland field, and
in orchard soil, respectively. The fact that soils containing greater clay content in textual family had also more SOC content revealed that SOC could be also dependent on some soil properties as well as soil order. Because SOC differences among soil series representing same textual family were greater than those among textual family, SOC differences should be mainly affected by management practices such as compost application.
Status and Change in Chemical Properties of Polytunnel Soil in Korea from 2000 to 2012
Kang, Seong Soo ; Roh, Ahn Sung ; Choi, Seung Chul ; Kim, Young Sang ; Kim, Hyun Ju ; Choi, Moon Tae ; Ahn, Byoung Gu ; Kim, Hee Kwon ; Park, Sang Jo ; Lee, Young Han ; Yang, Sang Ho ; Ryu, Jong Soo ; Sohn, Yeon Gyu ; Kim, Myeong Sook ; Kong, Myung Suk ; Lee, Chang Hoon ; Lee, Deog Bae ; Kim, Yoo Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 641~646
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.641
Chemical properties of agricultural soils in Korea have been investigated at four-year interval in order of paddy, polytunnel, upland, and orchard soils since 1999; polytunnel soils were investigated over the whole country in 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Polytunnel soils were taken from the surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) at 2,651, 1,274, 1,374 and 1,374 sites in all provinces of South Korea. One hundred sampling sites located in more than 400 m altitude were additionally investigated in 2008 and 2012. Average of soil chemical properties in 2012 except Jeju province were 6.6 for pH, 3.2 dS
for EC, 37 g
for organic matter (OM), 1,049 mg
for available (Avail.) phosphate, 1.58
for exchangeable (Exch.) K, 10.6
for Exch. Ca, and 3.3
for Exch. Mg. Except pH, averages of all chemical properties exceeded the upper limit of optimal range. The median values except pH showed a lower value than the averages. The pH, OM and Exch. Ca had slightly increased from 6.3 to 6.6, from 34 to 37 g
, and from 7.7 in 2000 to 10.6
in 2012, respectively. The order of sample ratios exceeding the optimal range were Avail.
(83%) > Exch. Ca (80%) > Exch. K (70%) > Exch. Mg (65%) > EC (55%) > OM (48%) > pH (29%) in 2012. The order of sample ratios below the optimal range was OM (25%) > Exch. K (25%) > pH (20%), Exch. Mg and Avail.
(9%) > Exch. Ca (6%) in 2012. The excessive proportion of pH, Exch. Ca, Exch. Mg and OM slightly increased, while the insufficient proportion of those decreased. Approximately 55% of polytunnel soils exceeding EC 2 dS
was evaluated with salt accumulated soils having the risk of growth disorder of crops. Nutrient contents in polytunnel soils in Korea showed high level especially Avail.
and Exch. cations. Therefore, recommended fertilization based on soil testing or plant testing is needed for soil nutrient management.
Effect of Temperature on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in Livestock Manure Compost
Jung, Kyu-Seok ; Heu, Sung-Gi ; Roh, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Min-Ha ; Gil, Hyun-Ji ; Choi, Na-Young ; Lee, Dong-Hwan ; Lim, Jeong-A ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 647~651
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.647
Animal manure compost is a commonly used fertilizer in organic vegetable and fruit production in Korea. However, livestock manure compost produced from animal feces can contain a lot of the non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Of particular concern are bacteria causing human food-borne illness such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of temperature on survival of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in livestock manure compost. Commercial livestock manure compost (manure 60%, sawdust 40%) was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Compost was incubated at four different temperatures (10, 25, 35, and
) for 20 weeks. Samples were taken every week during incubation depending on the given conditions. E. coli O157:H7 persisted for up to 1 day in livestock manure compost at
, over 140 days at
, 140 days at
, and 120 days at
, respectively. L. monocytogenes persisted for up to 1 day in livestock manure compost at
and 140 days at
, 70 days at
, and 40 days at
, respectively. The results indicated that E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes persisted longer under low temperature condition. E. coli O157:H7 survived longer than L. monocytogenes at three different temperatures (10, 25, and
). The results are being used to develop guidelines on the management of manure to reduce the risks of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes transmission to foods produced in the presence of animal waste.
Source-Sink Partitioning of Mineral Nutrients and Photo-assimilates in Tomato Plants Grown under Suboptimal Nutrition
Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Suyeon ; Lee, Yejin ; Yun, Hongbae ; Ha, Sangkeun ; Ok, Yongsik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 652~658
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.652
A huge number of greenhouse soils in Korea have accumulated mineral elements which induce many nutritional and pathological problems. The present study was performed to the effects of the reduced fertilization on plant growth, and uptake and partitioning of minerals (N, P, K) and soluble carbohydrates using highly minerals-accumulated farmer`s greenhouse soil. On the basis of the recommended application for tomato crop, the application rates of N, P and K were 110(50%)-5.2(5%)-41.5(35%)kg
, respectively, using Hoagland`s nutrient solution. Tomato growth rates during the whole experiment were not significant between treatments, but it was found that a decrease in daily growth represented after 60 days of treatment (DAT). The reduced application led to a drastic decrease in the concentration of N, P and K in fruits, and, thus, this resulted in lower uptake after 40 DAT. The lower phloem export and utilization of soluble carbohydrates caused an accumulation of extra-carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits in the reduced application. The reduced fertilization induced the capture of N, P and K in leaves and of soluble carbohydrates in stems compared to the conventional application. In this study, we suggest that it is possible to delay the first fertigation time in minerals-accumulated soils without an adverse impact on crop growth, but it is necessary to regularly monitor mineral status in soil to ensure a balanced uptake, synthesis and partitioning of minerals and carbohydrates.
Photochemical Response Analysis on Drought Stress for Red Pepper (Capsiumannuum L.)
Yoo, Sung-Yung ; Lee, Yong-Ho ; Park, So-Hyun ; Choi, Kyong-Mi ; Park, June-Young ; Kim, A-Ram ; Hwang, Su-Min ; Lee, Min-Ju ; Ko, Tae-Seok ; Kim, Tae-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 659~664
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.659
The aim of this study is to determine the drought stress index through photochemical analysis in red pepper (Capsiumannuum L.). The photochemical interpretation was performed in the basis of the relation between Kautsky effect and Photosystem II (PSII) following the measurement of chlorophyll, pheophytin contents, and
assimilation in drought stressed 5-week-old red pepper plants. The
assimilation rate was severely lowered with almost 77% reduction of chlorophyll and pheophytin contents at four days after non-irrigation. It was clearly observed that the chlorophyll fluorescence intensity rose from a minimum level (the O level), in less than one second, to a maximum level (the P-level) via two intermediate steps labeled J and I (OJIP process). Drought factor index (DFI) was also calculated using measured OJIP parameters. The DFI was -0.22, meaning not only the initial inhibition of PSII but also sequential inhibition of PSI. In real, most of all photochemical parameters such as quantum yield of the electron transport flux from Quinone A (
) to Quinone B (
), quantum yield of the electron transport flux until the PSI electron acceptors, quantum yield of the electron transport flux until the PSI electron acceptors, average absorbed photon flux per PSII reaction center, and electron transport flux until PSI acceptors per cross section were profoundly reduced except number of QA reducing reaction centers (RCs) per PSII antenna chlorophyll (RC/ABS). It was illuminated that at least 6 parameters related with quantum yield/efficiency and specific energy fluxes (per active PSII RC) could be applied to be used as the drought stress index. Furthermore, in the combination of parameters, driving forces (DF) for photochemical activity could be deduced from the performance index (PI) for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII antenna until the reduction of PSI acceptors. In conclusion, photochemical responses and their related parameters can be used as physiological DFI.
Effects of a Chelate (DTPA) on Cucumber Growth and Soil Chemical Properties in Nutrient-accumulated Soil of Polytunnel Greenhouse
Kim, Myung Sook ; Kim, Yoo Hak ; Kang, Seong Soo ; Kong, Myung Suk ; Hyun, Byung Keun ; Lee, Chang Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 665~672
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.665
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a chelating agent on cucumber growth and changes in soil nutrients availability in polytunnel greenhouse fields. Diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) was selected as a chelating agent. Two experiments were carried out as follows: i) For field experiment in the autumn season of 2010, each plot was treated by varying the concentration and the number of times being applied with DTPA; [DTPA (0.5 mM, 1 time/3 months), DTPA (0.06 mM, 1 time/1 week), DTPA (0.13 mM, 1 time/2 weeks), DTPA (0.06 mM, 1 time/1 week)+N]. Conventional practice was also investigated. ii) In the spring and summer seasons of 2011, each plot was treated by varying the concentration (0, 0.06, 0.13, 0.19 mM) of DTPA, chemical fertilizers (NPK), and combination of chemical fertilizers and DTPA 0.06 mM. The fruit yields of cucumber and soil chemical properties had no significant differences between treatments. However, in the spring season of 2011, DTPA 0.06 mM plot added 1 time per 2 weeks increased the yield of cucumber, but caused the reduction of yield in next cultivation season. This result showed that excess use of DTPA can cause the damage of crop growth. The inorgainc contents such as Ca and Mg absorbed by cucumber plant had significant differences between DTPA 0.19 mM (2 times/1 week) and fertilizers plus DTPA treatments [DTPA 0.06 mM (2 times/1 week) + 1/2 NPK, DTPA 0.06 mM (2 times/1 week) + NPK]. The input cost of fertilizers was saved when the concentration and the number of times added with DTPA was 0.06 mM and 1 time a week, respectively. This treatment used 67% less of applied fertilizers cost than the plot of conventional practice did. Thus, this research suggested that the application of DTPA 0.06 mM by 1 time a week can be effective for sustainability of crop production and reduction of fertilizers usage in polytunnel greenhouse.
Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus Removal Efficiency of Phosphorus Accumulating Microorganisms (PAOs)
Sin, Da Hee ; Kim, Deok Hyeon ; Kim, Jong In ; Lee, Moon-Soon ; Chung, Keun-Yook ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 46, issue 6, 2013, Pages 673~680
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.673
Phosphorus accumulating microorganisms (PAOs) are influenced by various environmental factors and heavy metals. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the selected heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal capacity of Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ, Pseudomonas aerunogisa, and Bacillus Subtilis, well known as PAOs. The heavy metals used in this study included Cu, Cd, As, and Zn. The
(median inhibition concentration) values of Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ for the Cu, Cd, As, and Zn were 8.07 mg
, 0.18 mg
, 73.62 mg
and 0.25 mg
, respectively. The
values of Pseudomonas aerunogisa for the Cu, Cd, As, and Zn were 4.45 mg
, 0.16 mg
, 18.51 mg
and 2.34 mg
, respectively. The
values of Bacillus Subtilis for the Cu, Cd, As, and Zn were 3.81 mg
, 0.18 mg
, 11.31 mg
and 0.47 mg
, respectively. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of the three bacteria, Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ, Pseudomonas aerunogisa, and Bacillus subtilis were 93.12%, 71.81%, and 65.31%, respectively. Based on the results of the three PAOs obtained from the study, it appears that Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ may have the best results in terms of their growth rate and P removal efficiencies.