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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Effects of Organic Matter Concentration in Soil on Phytoavailability of Cadmium in Medicinal Plants
Noh, Yong-dong ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Ki-Yuol ; Hong, Chang Oh ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 319~325
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.319
The safety of plant species used as a source for herbal medicines and dietary supplements has recently been questioned due to poisonings associated with the presence of cadmium (Cd) in these plants. These plants can derive Cd from their presence in the soil. Organic matter (OM) concentrations in soils could affect the availability of Cd for plants. To determine the effect of OM concentration in soil on the concentration of plant available Cd and uptake of this toxic element by medicinal plants, soil and plant samples were collected from 102 fields supporting for 5 species of medicinal plants in 6 province of South Korea. Concentrations of OM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils affected the phytoavailability of Cd. One M
extractable Cd concentration in soil increased with increasing OM concentrations. There were significantly positive relationships between 1 M
extractable Cd concentration and OM concentration in soil and between 1 M
extractable Cd concentration and DOC concentration. Likewise, OM and DOC concentrations significantly affected Cd concentration in medicinal plant soils. Cadmium concentration in medicinal plants increased with increasing OM concentration in soil [Cd concentration
] and with DOC concentration [Cd concentration
]. These results might result from Cd-DOC complex which is easily absorbed Cd form by plant root. Dissolved organic carbon concentration had more positive relationship with Cd concentration in medicinal plants and 1 M
extractable Cd concentration in soils than OM. Cadmium concentration in all 5 species of medicinal plant (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis lanceolata, Platycodon grandiflorum, and Rehmannia glutinosa) significantly increased with increasing DOC concentration in soil. From the above results, formation of Cd-DOC complex caused by OM application might be mainly attributed to increase in Cd concentration in medicinal plants.
Salt Removal in a Reclaimed Tidal Land Soil with Gypsum, Compost, and Phosphate Amendment
Lee, Jeong-Eun ; Seo, Dong-Hyuk ; Yun, Seok-In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 326~331
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.326
High salinity and sodicity of soils play a negative role in producing crops in reclaimed tidal lands. To evaluate the effects of soil ameliorants on salt removal in a highly saline and sodic soil of reclaimed tidal land, we conducted a column experiment with treating gypsum, compost, and phosphate at 0-2 cm depth and measured the salt concentration of leachate and soil. Electrical conductivity of leachate was
at 1 pore volume (PV) of water and decreased to less than
at 3 PV of water. Gypsum significantly decreased SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) of leachate below 3 at 3 PV of water and soil ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) below 3% for the whole profile of soil column. Compost significantly decreased ESP of soil at 0-5 cm depth to 5% compared with the control (20%). However, compost affected little the composition of cations below a depth of 5 cm and in leachate compared with control treatment. It was concluded that gypsum was effective in ameliorating reclaimed tidal lands at and below a soil layer receiving gypsum while compost worked only at a soil layer where compost was treated.
Feasibility Study of Different Biochars as Adsorbent for Cadmium and Lead
Kim, In Ja ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Kim, Ji In ; Kim, Hyoung Seop ; Noh, Hoe-Jung ; Kim, Tae Seung ; Yoon, Jeong-Ki ; Park, Gyoung-Hun ; Ok, Yong Sik ; Jung, Hyun-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 332~339
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.332
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different biochars on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous media. The experiment was carried out in aqueous solutions containing
using two different biochars derived from soybean stover and orange peel (20 mg Cd or
biochar). After shaking for 24 hours, biochars were filtered out, and Cd and Pb in the filtrate were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). In order to provide information regarding metal binding strength on biochars, sequential extraction was performed by modified SM&T (formerly BCR). The results showed that 70~100% of initially added Cd and Pb was adsorbed on biochars and removed from aqueous solution. The removal rate of Pb (95%, 100%) was higher than that of Cd (70%, 91%). In the case of Cd, orange peel derived biochar (91%) showed higher adsorption rate than soybean stover derived biochar (70%). Cd was adsorbed on the biochar mainly in exchangeable and carbonates fraction (1st phase). In contrast, Pb was adsorbed on it mainly in the form of Fe-Mn oxides and residual fraction (2nd and 4th phase). The existence of Cd and Pb as a form of surface-precipitated complex was also observed on the surfaces of biochars detected by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDAX).
Effects of Biomass Application on Soil Carbon Storage and Mitigation of GHGs Emission in Upland
Park, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Lee, Sun-Il ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Jang, Hee-Young ; Na, Un-Sung ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 340~350
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.340
This experiment was carried out to find out the mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission and changes of soil carbon contents in the cropland. In order to minimize the soil disturbance, this study was conducted without crop cultivation at the pots treated with different biomass. Different biomass was buried in the soil for 12 months. Decomposition rates of expander rice hull, pig manure compost and carbonized rice hull were 18%, 11~11.5% and 0.5~1.2%, respectively. It was appeared that carbonized rice hull was slightly decomposed. No difference was shown between chemical fertilizer treatment plot and non-application plot. It was appeared that soil carbon content in the non chemical fertilizer application plot was high when compared to its chemical fertilizer. Its content at soil depth of 20 cm more decreased than the upper layer of soil. Accumulative emission of
with different treatments of biomass was highest of 829.0~876.6 g
in the application plot of PMC (Pig Manure Compost) regardless of chemical fertilizer treatment during 16 months of experiment. However, the emission for expander rice hull treatment plot was lowest of 672.3~808.1 g
. For application plot of the carbonized rice hull, it was shown that non chemical fertilizer plot, 304.1 mg
, was higher than the chemical fertilizer treatment, 271.6 mg
. Greenhouse gas emissions in the PMC treatment were highest of 0.94 ton
. However, it was estimated to be the lowest in the expander rice hull treatment.
Comparison of Soil Pore Properties between Anthropogenic and Natural Paddy Field Soils From Computed Tomographic Images
Chun, Hyen Chung ; Jung, Ki-Yuol ; Choi, Young Dae ; Jo, Su-min ; Lee, Sanghun ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Shin, Kooksik ; Sonn, Yeonkyu ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 351~360
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.351
Human influence on soil formation has dramatically increased with human civilization and industry development. Increase of anthropogenic soils induced researches on the anthropogenic soils; classification, chemical and physical characteristics of anthropogenic soils and plant growth from anthropogenic soils. However there have been no comprehensive analyses on soil pore or physical properties of anthropogenic soils from 3 dimensional images in Korea. The objectives of this study were to characterize physical properties of anthropogenic paddy field soils by depth and to find differences between natural and anthropogenic paddy field soils. Soil samples were taken from two anthropogenic and natural paddy field soils; anthropogenic (A_c) and natural (N_c) paddy soils with topsoil of coarse texture and anthropogenic (A_f) and natural (N_f) paddy soils with topsoil of fine texture. The anthropogenic paddy fields were reestablished during the Arable Land Remodeling Project from 2011 to 2012 and continued rice farming after the project. Natural paddy fields had no artificial changes or disturbance in soil layers up to 1m depth. Samples were taken at three different depths and analyzed for routine physical properties (texture, bulk density, etc.) and pore properties with computer tomography (CT) scans. The CT scan provided 3 dimensional images at resolution of 0.01 mm to calculate pore radius size, length, and tortuosity of soil pores. Fractal and configuration entropy analyses were applied to quantify pore structure and analyze spatial distribution of pores within soil images. The results of measured physical properties showed no clear trend or significant differences across depths or sites from all samples, except the properties from topsoils. The results of pore morphology and spatial distribution analyses provided detailed information of pores affected by human influences. Pore length and size showed significant decrease in anthropogenic soils. Especially, pores of A_c had great decrease in length compared to N_c. Fractal and entropy analyses showed clear changes of pore distributions across sites. The topsoil layer of A_c showed more degradation of pore structure than that of N_c, while pores of A_f topsoil did not show significant degradation compared with those of N_f. These results concluded that anthropogenic soils with coarse texture may have more effects on pore properties than ones with fine texture. The reestablished paddy fields may need more fundamental remediation to improve physical conditions.
Status of Rice Paddy Field and Weather Anomaly in the Spring of 2015 in DPRK
Hong, Suk Young ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Jang, Keunchang ; Na, Sang-Il ; Baek, Shin-Chul ; Lee, Kyung-Do ; Ahn, Joong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 361~371
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.361
To understand the impact of 2015 spring drought on crop production of DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), we analyzed satellite and weather data to produce 2015 spring outlook of rice paddy field and rice growth in relation to weather anomaly. We defined anomaly of 2015 for weather and NDVI in comparison to past 5 year-average data. Weather anomaly layers for rainfall and mean temperature were calculated based on 27 weather station data. Rainfall in late April, early May, and late May in 2015 was much lower than those in average years. NDVI values as an indicator of rice growth in early June of 2015 was much lower than in 2014 and the average years. RapidEye and Radarsat-2 images were used to monitor status of rice paddy irrigation and transplanting. Due to rainfall shortage from late April to May, rice paddy irrigation was not favorable and rice planting was not progressed in large portion of paddy fields until early June near Pyongyang. Satellite images taken in late June showed rice paddy fields which were not irrigated until early June were flooded, assuming that rice was transplanted after rainfall in June. Weather and NDVI anomaly data in regular basis and timely acquired satellite data can be useful for grasping the crop and land status of DPRK, which is in high demand.
Effect of Soil Textures on Fruit Yield, Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiencies of Cucumber Plant as Affected by Subsurface Drip Fertigation in the Greenhouse
Lim, Tae-Jun ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Park, Young-Eun ; Lee, Seong-Eun ; Kim, Ki-In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 372~378
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.372
Growing crops under different soil textures may affect crop growth and yield because of soil N availability, soil N leaching, and plant N uptake. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of three different soils (sandy loam, loam, and clay loam) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), and water use efficiency (WUE) by subsurface drip fertigation in the greenhouse. Three different soil textures are sandy loam, loam, and clay loam with 3 replications. The dimension of each lysimeter was
. Cucumber was transplanted on April
in 2011. The subsurface drip line and tensiometer was installed at 30 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively. An irrigation with
concentration was automatically applied when the tensiometer reading was 10 kPa. Volumetric soil water content for cucumber cultivation was the highest in 30 cm soil depth regardless of soil texture and was lowered when soil depth was deeper. The volumetric soil water contents at soil depths of 10, 30, 50, and 70 cm were the highest at clay loam, followed by loam, and sandy loam. The growth of cucumber at the
day after transplanting was the lowest at sandy loam. Cucumber fruit yields were similar for all three soil textures. The highest amount of water use at sandy loam was observed. Nitrogen and water use efficiencies for cucumber were higher for clay loam, followed by loam and sandy loam, while the amount of N leaching was the greatest under sandy loam, followed by loam, and clay loam. Overall, growing cucumber on either loam or clay loam is better than sandy loam if subsurface drip fertigation is used in the greenhouse.
Establishment of Best Management Indicator for Sustainable Agricultural Water Quality using Delphi Survey Method
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Hong, Seong-Chang ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 379~383
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.379
Indicators of environmental conditions describe the state of the environment and the quantity and quality of natural resources. This study deduced the evaluation items to assess each sub-indicator for agricultural water quality and conducted the surveying using the Delphi method based on agricultural water quality experts. Considering its importance, environmental, state, and management indicators showed that state indicator such as COD concentration for surface water and
concentration for groundwater was ranked as first and followed by amount of fertilizer. Its indicators were correlated with state and environmental indicators in surface water and groundwater. The best management indicators were calculated to assess the agricultural surface water and ground water quality. The indicator could be used in established policies for management and conservation of water resources.
Estimating the Amount of Nitrogen in Hairy Vetch on Paddy Fields using Unmaned Aerial Vehicle Imagery
Lee, Kyung-Do ; Na, Sang-Il ; Baek, Shin-Chul ; Park, Ki-Do ; Choi, Jong-Seo ; Kim, Suk-Jin ; Kim, Hak-Jin ; Yun, Hee-Sup ; Hong, Suk-Young ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 384~390
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.384
Remote sensing can be used to provide information about the monitoring of crop situation. This study was conducted to estimate the amount of nitrogen present in paddy fields by measuring the amount of nitrogen in hairy vetch using an UAV (Unmaned Aerial Vehicle). NDVIs (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) were calculated using UAV images obtained from paddy fields in Seocheon on May
2015. There was strong relationship between UAV NDVI and the amount of nitrogen in hairy vetch (
). Spatial distribution maps of green manure nitrogen were generated on each paddy field using the nitrogen-vegetation index relations to help farmers determine the amount of N fertilizers added to their rice fields after the application of green manure such as hairy vetch.
Distribution of Arsenic Fraction in Soil Around Abandoned Mining Area and Uptake by Rice
Kim, Hyuck-Soo ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Kang, Dae-Won ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 391~396
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.391
Arsenic (As) contamination of agricultural soils resulting from mining activity has caused major concern due to the potential health risk. Therefore the current study was carried out to investigate the relationship between fractionation of As in soil and rice uptake and to provide a basic information for adequate management of As contaminated agricultural soil. Twenty agricultural soils and rice affected by the abandoned mining sites were collected. Soil chemical properties and As concentrations (total and sequential extracted) in soils were determined and As concentrations in polished rice were analyzed. The average concentration of As in non-specifically adsorbed (F1), specifically adsorbed (F2), amorphous hydrous oxides of Fe and Al (F3), crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe and Al (F4) and residual phase (F5) were 0.08, 1.38, 10.34, 3.26 and
, respectively. Both soil pH and available phosphorus were positively correlated with the concentrations of As in F1 and F2. These results indicate that increasing the soil pH and available phosphorus can significantly increase the easily mobile fractions of As (F1 and F2). The average concentration of As in polished rice was
. The concentrations of As in F1 and F2 showed a positive correlation with the concentrations of As in polished rice. Therefore soil pH and available phosphorus affect the distribution of As fractionation in soils and thus affect As bioavailability.
Effects of Cadmium and Arsenic on Physiological Responses and Copper and Zinc Homeostasis of Rice
Jung, Ha-il ; Chae, Mi-Jin ; Kim, Sun-Joong ; Kong, Myung-Suk ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Ju, Ho-Jong ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 397~403
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.397
Heavy metals reduce the photosynthetic efficiency and disrupt metabolic reactions in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, by replacing the metal ions in metalloproteins that use essential metal ions, such as Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe, as co-factors, heavy metals ultimately lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These, in turn, cause destruction of the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation, and eventually cause the plant to necrosis. Given the aforementioned factors, this study was aimed to understand the physiological responses of rice to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) toxicity and the effect of essential metal ions on homeostasis. In order to confirm the level of physiological inhibition caused by heavy metal toxicity, hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) plants were exposed with
) and arsenic (As,
) at 3-leaf stage, and then investigated malondialdehyde (MDA) contents after 7 days of the treatment. With increasing concentrations of Cd and As, the MDA content in leaf blade and root increased with a consistent trend. At 14 days after treatment with
Cd and As, plant height showed no significant difference between Cd and As, with an identical reduction. However, As caused a greater decline than Cd for shoot fresh weight, dry weight, and water content. The largest amounts of Cd and As were found in the roots and also observed a large amount of transport to the leaf sheath. Interestingly, in terms of Cd transfer to the shoot parts of the plant, it was only transported to upper leaf blades, and we did not detect any Cd in lower leaf blades. However, As was transferred to a greater level in lower leaf blades than in upper leaf blades. In the roots, Cd inhibited Zn absorption, while As inhibited Cu uptake. Furthermore, in the leaf sheath, while Cd and As treatments caused no change in Cu homeostasis, they had an antagonist effect on the absorption of Zn. Finally, in both upper and lower leaf blades, Cd and As toxicity was found to inhibit absorption of both Cu and Zn. Based on these results, it would be considered that heavy metal toxicity causes an increase in lipid peroxidation. This, in turn, leads to damage to the conductive tissue connecting the roots, leaf sheath, and leaf blades, which results in a reduction in water content and causes several physiological alterations. Furthermore, by disrupting homeostasis of the essential metal ions, Cu and Zn, this causes complete heavy metal toxicity.
Effect of Slurry Composting and Bio-filtration (SCB) by Fertigation on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Lee, Jong-Eun ; Yun, Yeo-Uk ; Lee, Jin-Il ; Choi, Moon-Tae ; Lee, Dong-Soek ; Nam, Yun-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 404~412
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.404
The slurry composting and bio-filtration (SCB) liquid manure has some obvious advantages including a good source of N, P and K, local availability, effective microorganism and the ability to improve soil properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence on the changes of soil chemical properties and yield of red pepper by fertigation cultivation with SCB application for 2 years. Red pepper was transplanted in early May in 2013 and 2014. The treatment with three replication was composed of 4 types as control (N 1.0), SCB 0.5N, SCB 1.0N, and SCB 2.0N standards of recommended nitrogen fertilizer (
). The fertigation cultivation which was installed the surface drip irrigation system was splitted 10 times as
nutritional solution included with chemical fertilizer and SCB every 10 days during the cultivation. The height and width of pepper plant were 7.0% and 5.8% higher in SCB 2.0N treatment than that in control. The yield of red pepper increased with the increasing of SCB application rates from SCB 0.5N to 2.0N. The yield of SCB 1.0N was much better 10% in average than that of control, and there was significant differences among all treatments. pH of control soil after final harvest decreased to 6.1, however pH of SCB treated soils increased from 6.7 to 7.1 depending on SCB application rates. The Exch.-K contents of SCB treated soils were increased 13.7 to 56.9% after final harvest compared with control by
. Accordingly, these results showed that SCB 1.0N application rate as a recommended nitrogen level based on soil testing can be used as an alternative nitrogen management as well as plant nutrition for red pepper cultivation.
Adsorption Characteristics and Kinetic Models of Ammonium Nitrogen using Biochar from Rice Hull in Sandy Loam Soil
Choi, Yong-Su ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Shin, Joung-Du ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 413~420
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.413
Objective of this study was to investigate adsorption characteristics and kinetic models of
to biochar produced from rice hull in respective to mitigation of greenhouse gases.
concentration was analyzed by UV Spectrophotometer. For the experiment, the soil texture used in this study was sandy loam soil, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and pig compost were
as recommended amount after soil test for corn cultivation. Biochar treatments were 0.2-5% to soil weight. Its adsorption characteristic was investigated with application of Langmuir isotherm, and pseudo-first order kinetic model and pseudo-second order kinetic model were used as kinetic models. Adsorption amount and removal rates of
and 28.0% in 0.2% biochar treatment, respectively. The sorption of
to biochar was fitted well by Langmiur model because it was observed that dimensionless constant (
) was 0.48. The maximum adsorption amount (
) and binding strength constant (b) were calculated as
in Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was more appropriate than pseudo-first order kinetic model for high correlation coefficient (
) of pseudo-second order kinetic model. Therefore, biochar produced from rice hull could reduce
to biochar cooperated in sandy loam soil.
Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Leaf Yield and Pyranocurmarine Accumulation in Angelica gigas Nakai
Seo, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Su ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Park, Chun-Geun ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Cha, Seon-Woo ; Kang, Yoon-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 421~427
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.421
Angelica gigas Nakai is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is known to have many pharmaceutical effects including an anti-oxidant, anti-cancer etc. This study was carried out to investigate an effect of fertilization on leaf yield, production of dry-matter and accumulation of pyranocurmarine compounds such as decursin (DE) and decursinol angelate (DA) in Angelica gigas Nakai. Effect of fertilization was determined from response surface regression equation composing of 2 by 3 factorial arrangement of urea, sodium dihydrogen phosphate and potassium chloride. Yield of leaf in Angelica gigas Nakai significantly increased until 100 days after transplanting. Production of leaf also tended to increase with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Model of regression equation showed that leaf production depended upon nitrogen (
: 0.087, 0.256 and 0.079). Also, statistical results between nitrogen application level and production of dry-matter showed significant relationship (p<0.05) and contents of dry-matter was highest in 10 kg 10a-1 treatment on 24 Sep. Active compound isolated and purified from leaf and root of Angelica gigas Nakai was identified as DE and DA by gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Concentration of DA as prevalent compound in leaf was highest on 20 Aug. but decreased on 24 Sep. Amount of DE and DA accumulated in Angelica gigas Nakai significantly increased with growth stages and nitrogen level. The result of our investigation imply that nitrogen fertilization is important factor for production of leaf and accumulation of pyranocurmarine in Angelica gigas Nakai as a medicinal/food materials.
Hydraulic Characteristics of Mountainous Forest Soils in Korea and Applicability of Pedotransfer Functions
Jung, Kangho ; Sonn, Yeonkyu ; Hur, Seungoh ; Ha, Sangkeun ; Jung, Munho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 428~435
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.428
Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed for each soil horizon to estimate hydraulic characteristics of mountainous forest soils in South Korea. Twenty one dominant soil series from 8 soil catenae such as granite-originated catena and volcanic ash-originated catena were selected for the study; gravel contents of selected soils were 10% or lower. Saturated conductivity (Ks) was measured for each horizon in situ. Particle size distribution and organic matter content of each horizon were also determined. Based on correlation analysis with total data set, sand separate showed positive relationship with Ks (
) while clay separate had negative relationship with Ks (
). The correlation coefficients of sand, clay, and organic matter content with Ks increased to
, respectively, using data from granite- or gneiss-originated catena with exception of volcanic ash-originated catena and sedimentary rock-originated catena. Determination coefficients of PTFs were 0.31 for A horizon, 0.25 for B, and 0.35 for C with all data set while those were 0.74 for A, 0.48 for B, and 0.54 for C. Organic matter was a dominant factor affecting Ks in A horizon but clay content was selected as the only factor influencing Ks in C horizon. It implies that PTFs should be developed with understanding characteristics of parent materials and horizons. Developed PTFs for granite- or gneiss-originated catena were following: A horizon: Log (
) = -0.031C + 0.398OM + 3.49 B horizon: Log (
) = -0.028C + 0.141OM + 4.05 C horizon: Log (
) = -0.072C + 4.66 where C is clay separate (%) and OM is organic matter content (
). The unit of Ks is cm
Status and Changes in Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil in Gyeonggi Province
Roh, Ahn-Sung ; Park, Jung-Su ; Kim, Yoo-Hak ; Kang, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 436~441
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.436
The chemical properties of paddy fields in Gyeonggi province were monitored every 4 years from 1999 to 2015 in order to provide basic information for soil fertility management of paddy fields. In 2015, the soil chemical properties of paddy fields were 5.9 in pH,
in organic matter (OM), and
in available phosphate (Avail.
). Exchangeable (Exch.) potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were 0.30, 5.1 and
, respectively, and available silicate (Avail.
. In the long-term analysis, the contents of Avail.
, Exch. Ca and pH of paddy soils showed increasing tendency. However, Avail.
and Exch. K tended to decrease, and there were no significant changes in the contents of OM and Exch. Mg. Paddy soil within appropriate pH range increased from 44% in 1999 to 76% in 2003, 84% in 2007, 63% in 2011, and 80% in 2015. But soil within appropriate range of Exch. Ca tended to decrease, showing 36% in 1999, 42% in 2003, 38% in 2007, 37% in 2011 and 32% in 2015. In case of Avail.
, soil within appropriate range increased from 14% in 1999 to 17% in 2003, 18% in 2007, 16% in 2011, and 31% in 2015. As a result, paddy fields with less in nutrient level need to be more fertilized based on soil analysis. And the application of silicate fertilizer is strongly recommended to those of paddy fields in need. Also soil management such as the cultivation of green manure crop or application of rice straw will be necessary to increase the organic matter content of paddy soil.
Assessment of Soil Microbial Communities in Carotenoid-Biofortified Rice Ecosystem
Sohn, Soo-In ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Lee, Bumkyu ; Lee, Si-Myung ; Oh, Sung-Dug ; Lee, Gang-Seob ; Yun, Doh-Won ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 442~450
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.442
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Psy-2A-CrtI (PAC), a genetically modified (GM) rice with enhanced
-carotene, on the soil microbial community. The soil used to cultivate GM rice and its wild-type, Nakdong, was analyzed for population density, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and pyrosequencing. It was found that the bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes population densities of the PAC soils were within the range of those of the non-GM rice cultivar, Nakdong. The DGGE banding patterns of the GM and non-GM soils were also similar, suggesting that the bacterial community structures were stable within a given month and were unaffected by the presence of a GM plant. The pyrosequencing result showed a temporal difference in microorganism taxon and distribution ratio, but no significant difference between GM and non-GM was found. The persistence of the transgene DNA in the plant and surrounding soil were investigated for different time periods. There were differences in the persistence within the plant depending on the gene, but they could not be detected after 5 weeks. Also the transgenes were not detected in the surrounding soil. These results indicate that soil microbial communities are unaffected by the cultivation of a PAC rice within the experimental time frame.
Alleviating Effect of the Application of the Easily Decomposable Carbohydrate on Ammonium Toxicity in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)
Ku, Hyun-Hwoi ; Lee, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 451~455
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.451
An excess application of N fertilizer causes physiological and morphological disorder known as ammonium (
) toxicity in Chinese cabbage and it has been to be an issue for appropriate N fertilizer management. Hence, the pot experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the alleviating effect of the application of the easily decomposable carbohydrate on
toxicity in Chinese cabbage. Four levels of urea at 0, 160, 320, and
, represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, were applied. In order to evaluate the alleviating effect of the application of the easily decomposable carbohydrate (sucrose) at T3 and T4 where
toxicity had occurred, five levels of sucrose were applied to meet C/N ratios of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10, respectively. Our results showed that the
toxicity was observed at T3 and T4 at 5 days after treatment (DAT).
toxicity contributed to decrease fresh weight, length of leaves, length of root, and number of leaves significantly (p<0.05). The application of sucrose as a source of mitigating
toxicity had a good performance at T3 with the alleviating effect as 73 % and reduced in
content in soil at 29 DAT. In the maximum N rate of T4, however, sucrose application recovered it as 32 % only compared to T2 even though the same C/N ratio was treated. Consequently, sucrose as the easily decomposable carbohydrate played crucial role to reduce
concentration in soil and finally alleviated
toxicity in plant.
Effects of Granular Silicate on Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) Growth, Yield, and Characteristics of Soil Under Greenhouse
Kim, Young-Sang ; Kang, Hyo-Jung ; Kim, Tae-Il ; Jeong, Taek-Gu ; Han, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Ik-Jei ; Nam, Sang-Young ; Kim, Ki-In ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 456~463
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.456
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of granular type of silicate fertilizer on watermelon growth, yield, and characteristics of soil in the greenhouse. Four different levels of silicate fertilizer, 0(control), 600, 1,200,
were applied for experiment. The silicate fertilizer was applied as a basal fertilization before transplanting watermelon. Compost and basal fertilizers were applied based on the standard fertilizer recommendation rate with soil testing. All of the recommended
and 50% of N and
were applied as a basal fertilization. The N and
as additional fertilization was split-applied twice by fertigation method. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar was 'Sam-Bok-KKuol and main stem was from rootstock (bottle gourd: Lagenaria leucantha Standl.) 'Bul-Ro-Jang-Sang'. The watermelon was transplanted on April, 15. Soil chemical properties, such as soil pH, EC, available phosphate and exchangeable K, Mg, and available
levels increased compared to the control, while EC was similar and the concentrations of soil organic matter decreased. Physical properties of soils, such as soil bulk density and porosity were not different among treatments. The growth characteristics of watermelon, such as stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of watermelon at harvest were thicker and heavier for silicate treatment than the control, while number of node was shorter than the control. Merchantable watermelon increased by 3-5% compared to the control and sugar content was 0.4 to
higher than the control. These results suggest that silicate fertilizer application in the greenhouse can improve some chemical properties of soils and watermelon stem diameter and dry weight, which are contributed to watermelon quality and marketable watermelon production.
Effect of Customized Fertilizer Application and Soil Properties on Amino Acids Composition in Rice Grain
Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Yejin ; Chun, Hyenjung ; Ha, Sangkeun ; Sonn, Yeonkyu ; Lee, Jongsik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 464~468
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.464
Our government has performed to support the nation-wide application of customized fertilizer based on soil-testing results and crop nutrient balance in order to promote the environment-friendly agriculture and to respond the global environment guide-line since 2010. This study was performed at the selected local paddy fields (Hwaseong-si, Uiseong-gun and Miryang-si) with different soil chemical properties in 2012. The contents of amino acids measured showed an increasing trend with fertilization, and glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid, leucine and alanine. However, valine, isoleusine, tyrosine and lysine were not significantly affected by fertilization. The significant differences in grain N, expressed as a crude protein, and amino acids dose was observed between experimental sites (p<0.001), treatments (p<0.01 to 0.001) and interaction of both factors (p<0.01 to 0.001). In our experiment the following order of carbon skeleton backbones to produce amino acids was observed irrespective of experiment sites and fertilization:
-ketoglutarate > oxalate > pyruvate > 3-phosphoglycerate > phosphoenolpyruvate. In conclusion, customized fertilizer had no difference in amino acids compared to the conventional-NPK practice which was higher than in no fertilization, and also the normal paddy represented slightly higher amino acids compared to the reclaimed. Further study based on the present results is required to investigate what is main factor to amino acids between genetic and environmental factors.
Mobilization of Heavy Metals Induced by Button Mushroom Compost in Sunflower
Lee, Jong-Jin ; Lee, Heon-Hak ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yoo, Jeoung-Ah ; Lee, Chan-Jung ; Yoon, Min-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 469~476
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.469
Button mushroom compost (BMC) was prepared by fermenting the mixture of waste button mushroom bed collected from Boryeong area in South Korea (4): sawdust (8) : pig and fowl manure (1) for 40 days at
. The BMC compromised diverse microorganisms including aerobic bacteria
, Gram negative bacteria
, genus Bacillus
, genus Pseudomonas
, and fungi
. BMC was used as a microbial inoculant for estimating the mobilization of heavy metals in soil or plant. When metal solubilization potential of BMC was assessed in a batch experiment, the inoculation of BMC was shown to increase the concentrations of water soluble Co, Pb, Cd, and Zn by 29, 26, 27, and 43% respectively, than those of non-inoculated soils. BMC-assisted growth promotion and metal uptake in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was also evaluated in a pot experiment. In comparison with non-inoculated seedlings, the inoculation led to increase the growth of H. annuus by 17, 15, 18, and 21% respectively in Co, Pb, Cd, and Zn contaminated soils. Moreover, enhanced accumulation of Co, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the shoot and root systems was observed in inoculated plants, where metal translocation from root to the above-ground tissues was also found to be enhanced by the BMC. The apparent results suggested that the BMC could effectively be employed in enhancing phytoextraction from the soils contaminated with heavy metals such as Co, Pb, Cd, and Zn.
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGs) by Water Management Methods in Rice Paddy Field
Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Lee, Sun-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Na, Un-sung ; Jang, Hee-Young ; Suh, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 477~484
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.477
Environmental effect of water-saving irrigation on the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water-saving irrigation on GHGs as well as water use and rice production yield in paddy field condition in Korea. Four experimental runoff plots of 4x35 m in size were prepared at an existing paddy field. GHGs emission was measured during the 2012~2013 growing seasons while a Japonica rice variety was cultivated. Four different water management methods, 1) Continuous Flooding (CF), 2) Intermittent Drainage (ID), 3) Water Saving (WS), and 4) CF+WS, were used during a rice growing season to compare the effects of water management methods on GHGs emission. CF method is flooding all the time, ID method makes paddy water drained 40 days after transplanting for about two weeks, WS method maintains 2~3 cm water-level, which should be refilled when the water-level decreased to about 0 cm, and CF+WS method combines CF method before 30 days after transplanting (DAT) and WS method after 30 DAT. Regardless of water management methods, paddy field water was drained about 30 days before harvest. Amount of GHGs emission from WS plot was reduced by 69.3% compared to that from CF plot and by 59.0% compared to that from ID plot. Amount of GHGs emission from CF+WS plot was reduced by 60.7% compared to that from CF plot and by 47.5% compared to that from ID plot. Weed occurrence in CF+WS plots was reduced to 62.2% in comparison with the WS plot, implying that CF+WS plot showed the best effect to mitigation of the greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere.
Isolation and Biocontrol Potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against Fungal Plant Pathogens
Jamal, Qaiser ; Lee, Yong Seong ; Jeon, Hyeon Deok ; Park, Yun Suk ; Kim, Kil Yong ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 485~491
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.485
This study was performed to investigate thermophilic bacteria from soil having broad antifungal spectrum against Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Botrytis cinerea. One isolate selected could resist heat shock of
for one hour, and had broad antifungal activity in dual culture assay against all tested fungal pathogens and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 using 16S rRNA gene sequence. Further investigation for antifungal activity of bacterial culture filtrate (BCF) and butanol crude extract (BCE) of various concentrations showed broad spectrum antifungal activity and fungal growth inhibition significantly increased with increasing concentration with highest growth inhibition of 100% against R. solani with 50% BCF and 11 mm of zone of inhibition against R. solani with 4 mg BCE concentration. Treatment of butanol crude extract resulted in deformation, lysis or degradation of C. gloeosporioides and P. capsici hyphae. Furthermore, B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 produced volatile compounds inhibiting growth of R. solani (70%), C. gloeosporioides (65%) and P. capsici (65-70%) when tested in volatile assay. The results from the study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 could be a biocontrol candidate to control fungal diseases in crops.
Chemical Properties of Paddy Soils and Factors Affecting Their Change in Jeonnam Province
Kim, Sun-Kook ; Kim, Hyeon-Ji ; Kim, Byeong-Ho ; Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Kang, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 492~498
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.492
The long-term changes in the soil properties are closely related to the policy direction and the national program for the soil management. In this study, chemical properties of paddy soils in Jeonnam province were investigated at four-year interval since 1999 and the factors affecting change of chemical properties were analyzed in relation to the soil management policies. Chemical fertilizers supplied to Jeonnam province reduced by 57% in 2013 as compared with 1999, and the ratio of Jeonnam province to the national fertilizer supply gradually decreased to 14.1% in 2013 from 17.6% in 1999 due to national policies to reduce use of chemical fertilizers in the 2000s. In the chemical analysis of paddy soils in Jeonnam province, pH value tended to increase gradually within the optimal range. Available phosphate and exchangeable potassium content were always higher than the optimal range and showed no significant difference since 1999. Organic matter, exchangeable calcium and available silicate content were found to be lower than average content in the whole country as well optimal range for rice cultivation in 1999, but were higher than average content in the whole country and optimal range in 2011 because of faster rate of increase in Jeonnam province than the other region since the mid-2000s. The cause of increase in organic matter, exchangeable calcium and available silicate contents is considered to be the increased use of green manure crops and by-products fertilizer as an alternatives for conventional application of chemical fertilizers and soil amendment such as silicate fertilizer for agronomic control of the disease and insect pest in rice cultivation of environmentally-friendly agriculture.
Infrared Estimation of Canopy Temperature as Crop Water Stress Indicator
Kim, Minyoung ; Kim, Seounghee ; Kim, Youngjin ; Choi, Yonghun ; Seo, Myungchul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 499~504
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.499
Decision making by farmers regarding irrigation is critical for crop production. Therefore, the precision irrigation technique is very important to improve crop quality and yield. Recently, much attention has been given to remote sensing of crop canopy temperature as a crop water-stress indicator, because it is a scientifically based and easily applicable method even at field scales. This study monitored a series of time-variant canopy temperature of cucumber under three different irrigation treatments: under-irrigation (control), optimal-irrigation, and over-irrigation. The difference between canopy temperature (
) and air temperature (
, was calculated as an indicator of cucumber water stress. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was evaluated to define water stress on the basis of the temperature difference between leaf and air. The values of
was negatively related to VPD; further, cucumber growth in the under- and over-irrigated fields showed water stress, in contrast to that grown in the optimally irrigated field. Thus, thermal infrared measurements could be useful for evaluating crop water status and play an important role in irrigation scheduling of agricultural crops.
Effects of Root on Bulk Density of Soils Tested by Volume Check Apparatus through Water-filling
Lee, Gye-Jun ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Ryu, Jong-Soo ; Oh, Dong-Shig ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Lee, Yeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 505~508
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.505
Soil bulk density is a key parameter for soil physical property. Much root placed in rhizosphere soil lump, especially in grassland and orchard, makes it difficult to measure soil bulk density. This experiment was carried out to countermeasure the above drawbacks. Volume check apparatus using water-filling method was made of acryl for higher accuracy in bulk density measurement. 10 types of land cover, including bare, tall fescue, rye, and soybean, were used for determining the relationships between root and bulk density. In this study, higher root volume resulted in higher differences in bulk density between in-situ core soil and root-ridded core soil, which indicated the volume check apparatus through water-filling could be useful for increasing the accuracy of bulk density of soils with much root.
State Indicator of Water Quality for Surface Water and Groundwater in Agriculture
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Ro, An-Sung ; Choi, Seung-Chul ; Choi, Won-Il ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Yun, Yeo-Uk ; Kim, Kab-Cheol ; Ko, Do-Young ; Kim, Byeong-Ho ; Kim, Hyeon-Ji ; Park, Sang-Jo ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Heo, Jae-Young ; Yang, Sang-Ho ; Kang, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 509~514
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.509
Indicators of environmental conditions qualitatively and quantitatively describe the state of the environment and natural resources, and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) has initiated and suggested AEIs (Agri-Environmental Indicators) to assess trends over time of the effects of agriculture on the environment and the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural and environmental policy measures since 1990's. This study aims to develop the state indicators of water quality for agricultural water, surface and groundwater, to evaluate the environmental impacts of agricultural activities and policies by qualifying the environmental levels of a nation. Status indicators were calculated according to the agricultural water quality standards of OECD and Korea, and their trends were analyzed over time. Particularly, nitrate (
) status indicators of ground water in 2013 were significantly lower than the ones in 2000. Overall, the water quality indicators of surface water in 2013 were higher than the ones in 2012, except for pH and DO. The groundwater quality indicators in 2013 were lower than those of previous years. The optimal management indicators were calculated to assess agricultural surface water and groundwater quality. The findings of this study indicated that the state indicators could play a significant role to establish policies and procedures for managing and conserving water resources. This study also discussed water pollution caused by agricultural and industrial effluents.
Heavy Metal(loid) Levels in Paddy Soils and Brown Rice in Korea
Kunhikrishnan, Anitha ; Go, Woo-Ri ; Park, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Kim, Hyuck-Soo ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Kim, Won-Il ; Cho, Nam-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 515~521
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.515
There is an increasing concern over heavy metal(loid) contamination of soil in agricultural areas including paddy soils. This study was conducted to monitor the background levels of heavy metal(loid)s, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in major rice growing soils and its accumulation in brown rice in Korea. The samples were collected from 82 sites nationwide in the year 2012. The mean and range values of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in paddy soils were 4.41 (0.16-18.9), 0.25 (0.04-0.82), 13.24 (3.46-27.8), 0.047 (0.01-0.20), 13.60 (3.78-35.0), 21.31 (8.47-36.7), and 54.10
, respectively. This result indicated that the heavy metal(loid) levels in all sampled paddy soils are within the permissible limits of the Korean Soil Environment Conservation Act. The mean and range values of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in brown rice were 0.146 (0.04-0.38), 0.024 (0.003-0.141), 4.27 (1.26-16.98), 0.0024 (0.001-0.008), 0.345 (0.04-2.77), 0.113 (0.04-0.197), and 22.64
, respectively. The mean and range BCF (bioconcentration factor) values of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in brown rice were 0.101 (0.01-0.91), 0.121 (0.01-0.70), 0.399 (0.05-2.60), 0.061 (0.016-0.180), 0.033 (0.004-0.44), 0.005 (0.003-0.013), and 0.473 (0.19-1.07), respectively, with Zn showing the highest. The results show that the levels of all metal(loid)s in all sampled brown rice are generally within the acceptable limit for human consumption.
Decision of Available Soil Depth Based on Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Soils for Landscape Vegetation in Incheon International Airport
Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Lee, Hyun-Il ; Jung, Mun-Ho ; Lee, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Tae ; Yang, Jae E ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 522~527
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.522
Decision of available soil depth based on soil physical and hydraulic properties for the
Landscape Vegetation Project in the Incheon International Airport was attempted. The soil samples were collected from the 8 sites at different depths, 0-20 and 20-60cm, for the three project fields, A, B, and C area. Physical and chemical properties including particle size distribution, organic matter content and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Hydrological properties including bulk density and water holding capacity at different water potential, -6 kPa, -10 kPa, -33 kPa, and -1500 kPa were calculated by SPAW model of Saxton and Rawls (2006), and air entry value was calculated by Campbell model (1985). Based on physical and hydrological limitation, feasibility and design criteria of soil depth for vegetation and landfill were recommended. Since the soil salinity of the soil in area A area was
in top soil and
in deep soil, respectively, landscape vegetation without amendment would not be possible on this area. Available soil depth required for vegetation was 2.51 m that would secure root zone water holding capacity, capillary fringe, and porosity. Available soil depth required for landscape vegetation of the B area soil was 1.51 m including capillary fringe 0.14 m and available depth for 10% porosity 1.35 m. The soils in this area were feasible for landscape vegetation. The soil in area C was feasible for bottom fill purpose only due to low water holding capacity.
Effects of Continuous Application of Green Manures on Microbial Community in Paddy Soil
Kim, Sook-Jin ; Kim, Kwang Seop ; Choi, Jong-Seo ; Kim, Min-Tae ; Lee, Yong Bok ; Park, Ki-Do ; Hur, Seonggi ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 528~534
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.528
Green manure crops have been well recognized as the alternative for chemical fertilizer, especially N fertilizer, because of its positive effect on soil and the environment. Hairy vetch and green barley are the most popular crops for cultivation of rice in paddy field. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of hairy vetch and green barley on soil microbial community and chemical properties during short-term application (three years). For this study, treatments were composed of hairy vetch (Hv), green barley (Gb), hairy vetch + green barley (Hv+Gb), and chemical fertilizer without green manure crops (Con.). Hv+Gb treatment showed the highest microbial biomass among treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 (73.0 %) was affected by microbial biomass and PC2 (21.5 %) was affected by fungi, cy19:0/18:
(stress indicator). Combined treatment with hairy vetch and green barley could be more efficient than green manure crop treatment as well as chemical fertilizer treatment for improvement of soil microorganisms.
Classification of Anthropogenic Soil "Ingwan" Series
Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Shin, Kook-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 535~541
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.535
Korean soil classification system is based on the US soil taxonomy. This study aimed to understand and inform the soil taxonomy of 2010 and 2014 US soil classification systems. Ingwan series belonged to anthropogenic soil was classified to coarse loamy over sandy, mixed, mesic family of Aquic Udorthents based on the soil taxonomy of 2010 and coarse loamy over sandy, mixed, mesic family of Anthroportic Udorthents based on the soil taxonomy of 2014. An anthropogenic soil is increasing in Korea. Considering the domestic relationship depending on US soil taxonomy, it is important to be well-informed of the taxonomy and apply the updated taxonomy system properly to the domestic soil classification. This study of defining the anthropogenic soil will provide useful information on soil management and its utilization.
The Determination of Anaerobic Biodegradability Rates Livestock Byproducts Using Double First-Order Kinetic Model
Shin, Kook-Sik ; Yoon, Young-man ; Jung, Ha-Il ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Cho, Hyun-Joon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 542~548
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.542
This study investigated methane productions and a degradation rate of organic matters by German standard method, VDI4630 test. In this study, 4 livestock byproducts from livestock farm were selected for the investigation. The objective of this study was to estimate a distribution of organic matters by using the double first-order kinetics model in order to calculate the rate of biodegradable organic matters which degrade rapidly in the initial stage and the persistently biodegradable organic matters which degrade slowly later. As a result, all the byproducts applied in this study showed rapid decomposition in the initial stage. Then the decomposition rate began to slow down for a certain period and the rate became 5 times slower than the initial decomposition rate. This trend of decomposition rate changes is typical conditions of organic matter decompositions. The easily degradable factors (
) ranged between
and persistent degradable factors (
. Among these results, greater organic matter decomposition rates from VDI4630 had greater
) and smaller
) for dairy wastewater and forage byproduct, respectively.
Effect of the Application of Carbonized Biomass from Crop Residues on Soil Chemical Properties and Carbon Pools
Lee, Sun-Il ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ; Choi, Yong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 549~555
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.549
Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbonized biomass from crop residues on chemical properties of soil and soil carbon pools during soybean cultivation. The carbonized biomass was made by field scale mobile pyrolyzer. A pot experiment with soybean in sandy loam soil was conducted for 133 days in a greenhouse, by a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four levels including the control without input and three levels of carbonized biomass inputs of
, C-1 ;
, C-2 ;
, C-3. Soil samples were collected and analyzed pH, EC, TC, TN, inorganic-N, available phosphorus and exchangeable cations of the soils. Soil pH, Total-N and available phosphorus contents correspondingly increased with increasing the carbonized material input. The contents of soil carbon pools were
for C-3 and
for the control at the end of experiment, respectively. Increased contents of soil carbon pools relative to the control were estimated at
for C-2 and
for C-3 at the end of experiment, respectively, indicating that the soil carbon pools were increased with increasing the input rate of the carbonized biomass. Consequently, it seems that the carbonized biomass derived from the agricultural byproducts such as crop residues could increase the soil carbon pools and that the experimental results will be applied to the future study of soil carbon sequestration.
Estimation of Chinese Cabbage Growth by RapidEye Imagery and Field Investigation Data
Na, Sangil ; Lee, Kyoungdo ; Baek, Shinchul ; Hong, Sukyoung ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 556~563
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.556
Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetables in Korea and a target crop for market stabilization as well. Remote sensing has long been used as a tool to extract plant growth, cultivated area and yield information for many crops, but little research has been conducted on Chinese cabbage. This study refers to the derivation of simple Chinese cabbage growth prediction equation by using RapidEye derived vegetation index. Daesan-myeon area in Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea is one of main producing district of Chinese cabbage. RapidEye multi-spectral imagery was taken on the Daesan-myeon five times from early September to late October during the Chinese cabbage growing season. Meanwhile, field reflectance spectra and five plant growth parameters, including plant height (P.H.), plant diameter (P.D.), leaf height (L.H.), leaf length (L.L.) and leaf number (L.N.), were measured for about 20 plants (ten plants per plot) for each ground survey. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each of the 20 plants was measured using an active plant growth sensor (Crop
) at the same time. The results of correlation analysis between the vegetation indices and Chinese cabbage growth data showed that NDVI was the most suited for monitoring the L.H. (r=0.958~0.978), L.L. (r=0.950~0.971), P.H. (r=0.887~0.982), P.D. (r=0.855~0.932) and L.N. (r=0.718~0.968). Retrieval equations were developed for estimating Chinese cabbage growth parameters using NDVI. These results obtained using the NDVI is effective provided a basis for establishing retrieval algorithm for the biophysical properties of Chinese cabbage. These results will also be useful in determining the RapidEye multi-spectral imagery necessary to estimate parameters of Chinese cabbage.
Effect of Deep Ploughing with a Spading Machine and an Excavator on Improvement of Physical Properties in the Highland Applied Saprolite
Zhang, Yongseon ; Moon, Yong-Hee ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Jung, Kangho ; Cho, Hye-Rae ; Han, Kyeong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 48, issue 5, 2015, Pages 564~569
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2015.48.5.564
In highland crop fields, saprolite is piled up approximately every three years as deep much as 20 to 30 cm because farmers expect that adding new materials may improve productivity and mitigate hazards by continuous cultivation of a single crop. Piling saprolite, however, has been reported to induce poor soil drainage. Effects of deep ploughing with a spading machine and an excavator were studied in sites located in Daekwanryeong-myeon, Pyeongchang in which soil physical properties were deteriorated by piled saprolite. The soil made of parent material of Samgag series was piled up over surface soil of Haggog series naturally developed in the area. Carrot was cultivated in the field. Productivity and growth factors of carrot were compared among control and deep ploughing by a spading machine and an excavator. Effective soil depth extended to 60 cm or greater by 60 cm deep ploughing by an excavator or 50 cm deep ploughing by a spading machine. On the other hand, effective soil depth was within 50 cm at control plot. Productivity of carrot responded to amelioration of soil physical properties. The productivity was greater in deep ploughing treatments than that of control or 30 cm ploughing. It suggested that increased productivity by deep ploughing was mainly related to breaking plough pan which inhibited extension of rooting zone.