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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 49, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 49, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 49, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 49, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Effect of Carbonized Biomass Application on Organic Carbon Accumulation and Soy Bean Yields in Upland Soil
Lee, Sun-Il ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Gun-Yeob ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.001
Carbonized biomass could be used as a mechanism for long-term storage of C in soils. However, experimental results are variable. Objective of this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of carbonized biomass made from soybean residue on soil organic carbon and seed yield during soybean cultivation. The carbonized biomass was made by field scale mobile pyrolyzer. Pyrolyzer was performed in a reactor operated at
for 2 hours using soybean residue. The treatments consisted of four levels as the control without input and three levels of carbonized biomass inputs as
, C-1 ;
, C-2 ;
, C-3. It was appeared that seed yield of soybean was
for C-2 and
for C-3 at the end of experiment. It was shown that the contents of SOC were
for C-3 and
for the control at the end of experiment. Accumulated SOC contents linearly significantly (P < 0.001) increased with increasing the carbonized biomass input. The slopes (0.00162) of the regression equations suggest that SOC contents from the soil increase by
increase of carbonized biomass rate. Consequently the carbonized biomass for byproducts such as soybean residue could increase SOC. It might be considered that the experimental results will be applied to soil carbon sequestration for future study. More long-term studies are needed to prove how long does SOC stay in agricultural soils.
Effects of Rape Residue on Nitrogen Fertilizer Reduction in Paddy Soil under Double Cropping System
Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Shin, Kook Sig ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 7~11
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.007
Winter crops have been recognized as an alternative to soil management for fertility and crop productivity in paddy soil. Recently, rape has been produced at winter season and there is little research results on reduction of N fertilizer by adding rape residues for rice cultivation. In this study, we investigated the productivity and quality of rice by applying with 0, 27, 63,
of N fertilizer after input of rape residues into soil for two years. The highest yield of rice was average
at the treatment applied with the
with rape residue. It was reduced to N rate from 31.6 to
in comparison to
of maximum yield in treatment added
with rape. Amylose content in rice was similar among treatments with/without rape residue, but protein content was lower in treatment with rape residue than in those without rape residue. In conclusion, input of rape residue in rice cultivation could be alternative to reduction of N fertilization and improvement of quality by adjusting rice productivity in paddy soil under cropping system.
Effects of Straw Mulching on Soil Physicochemical Properties in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
Ryu, Jin-Hee ; Kang, Jong-Gook ; Kim, Young-Joo ; Oh, Yang-Yeol ; Lee, Su-Hwan ; Kim, Sun ; Hong, Ha-cheol ; Kim, Young-doo ; Kim, Sun-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 12~16
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.012
To identify the effects of straw mulching on soil physicochemical properties in reclaimed saline soil, field experiment was conducted for 3 years (2010~2012) in Saemangeum reclaimed land. Soil series of the experimental field was Munpo and soil texture was fine sandy loam. The experiment was conducted at a field with EC of
(field I) and the other field with EC of
(field II). Each experimental field was treated with rye straw incorporation, mulching with rye straw and control. In 2010 rye straw produced from other field was used for the experiment and in 2011~2012 rye straw cultivated at the same experimental field was used. After rye straw application, soybean was cultivated. After 3 years field experiment, by rye straw incorporation, soil salinity decreased from
at field I but increased from
at field II. By mulching with rye straw soil salinity decreased from
at field I and also decreased from
at field II. By rye straw incorporation and mulching soil organic matter increased from
. At field I yields of soybean were similar between rye straw incorporation and mulching but at field II yield of soybean increased apparently by mulching with rye straw compared to rye straw incorporation and control.
Role of Diazotrophic Bacteria in Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth Improvement
Shin, Wansik ; Islam, Rashedul ; Benson, Abitha ; Joe, Manoharan Melvin ; Kim, Kiyoon ; Gopal, Selvakumar ; Samaddar, Sandipan ; Banerjee, Somak ; Sa, Tongmin ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 17~29
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.017
Though there is an abundant supply of nitrogen in the atmosphere, it cannot be used directly by the biological systems since it has to be combined with the element hydrogen before their incorporation. This process of nitrogen fixation (
-fixation) may be accomplished either chemically or biologically. Between the two elements, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a microbiological process that converts atmospheric di-nitrogen (
) into plant-usable form. In this review, the genetics and mechanism of nitrogen fixation including genes responsible for it, their types and role in BNF are discussed in detail. Nitrogen fixation in the different agricultural systems using different methods is discussed to understand the actual rather than the potential
-fixation procedure. The mechanism by which the diazotrophic bacteria improve plant growth apart from nitrogen fixation such as inhibition of plant ethylene synthesis, improvement of nutrient uptake, stress tolerance enhancement, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and mineralization of organic phosphate is also discussed. Role of diazotrophic bacteria in the enhancement of nitrogen fixation is also dealt with suitable examples. This mini review attempts to address the importance of diazotrophic bacteria in nitrogen fixation and plant growth improvement.
Effect of By-Product Gypsum Fertilizer on Methane Gas Emissions and Rice Productivity in Paddy Field
Park, Jun-Hong ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Kong, Myung-Suk ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Park, Sang-Jo ; Won, Jong-Gun ; Lee, Suk-Hee ; Seo, Dong-Hwan ; Park, So-Deuk ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 30~35
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.030
Rice cultivation in paddy field affects the global balance of methane (
) as a key greenhouse gas. To evaluate a potential use of by-product gypsum fertilizer (BGF) in reducing
emission from paddy soil,
fluxes from a paddy soil applied with BGF different levels (0, 2, 4 and
) were investigated by closed-chamber method during rice cultivation period.
flux significantly decreased (p<0.05) with increasing level of BGF application.
of BGF addition in soil reduced
flux by 60.6% compared to control. Decreased soil redox potential (Eh) resulted in increasing
emission through a
reduction reaction. The concentrations of dissolved calcium (Ca) and sulfate ion (
) in soil pore water were significantly increased as the application rate of BGF increased and showed negatively correlations with
flux with BGF application implied that
ion led to decreases in electron availability for methanogen and precipitation reaction of Ca ion with inorganic carbon including carbonate and bicarbonate as a source of
formation under anoxic condition. BGF application also increased rice grain yield by 16% at
of BGF addition. Therefore, our results suggest that BGF application can be a good soil management practice to reduce
emission from paddy soil and to increase rice yield.
The Effects of Calcium Nutrition on the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Other Enzymes in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Seedlings Subjected to Flooding
Lee, Chang-Hee ; Park, Man ; Kang, Sang-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 36~43
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.036
With transient flooding followed by poor or slow drainage plant roots may become reduction conditions because the root zone was fully filled with water. This study was examined the effects of calcium treatment in the early growth stage on biochemical changes in leaves and roots of melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings kept under flooding condition for 72 h. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase more gradually enhanced in the roots than those of leaves of melon seedlings treated with calcium. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase associated with alcohol fermentation under low oxygen conditions continuously increased in the leaves and roots of seedlings untreated with calcium under flooding at least 72 h but those was constant within at least 12 h in treated with calcium. These results showed that calcium supplying in the early growth stage mitigated alcohol fermentation of melon seedlings kept under flooding condition for 72 h. Activities of nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase in the leaves and roots of seedlings in treated with calcium somewhat higher than those of non-treated with calcium. The activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase of leaves of seedlings in treated with calcium more higher than those of non-treated with calcium. These results indicated that calcium nutrition mitigate the reduction of activities of some enzymes of melon seedling kept under flooding condition for 72 h.
The Effects of Phosphate Starvation on the Activities of Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, Sucrose-phosphate Synthase and Nitrate Reductase in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Seedlings
Kang, Sang-Jae ; Lee, Chang-Hee ; Park, Man ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 44~52
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.044
Plants response to phosphate starvation include the changes of activity of some enzymes, such as phosphatases, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and nitrate reductase. In this study, to determine the effects of phosphate starvation on the change of activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, and nitrate reductase were studied in melon seedlings (Cucumis melo L.). The content of the protein and chlorophyll tended to relatively reduced in melon seedlings subjected to phosphate starvation. Acid phosphatase activity in first and second leaves of melon seedlings was relatively higher than that of third and fourth leaves of seedlings in 14 days after phosphate starvation treatment, respectively. Active native-PAGE band patterns of acid phosphatase in melon leaves showed similar to activities of acid phosphatase, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity was different from the change in the activity of acid phosphatase. Inorganic phosphate content in melon seedlings leaves was constant. The changes of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities showed similar patterns in melon seedlings leaves, and between these enzymes activities and phosphate nutrition negatively related. Fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities showed significant difference in second and fourth leaves, but nitrate reductase showed significant difference in first and second leaves in 14days after phosphate starvation treatment. We concluded that phosphate nutrition could affect the distribution of phosphate, carbon and nitrogen in melon seedlings.
Characterization of Clay Minerals in Ranch Pasture
Kang, Sangjae ; Jang, Jeonghun ; Park, Nayun ; Park, Junhong ; Choi, Seyeong ; Park, Man ; Lee, Changhee ; Lee, Donghoon ; Zhang, Yongseon ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.053
This study deals with the distribution of the clay minerals separated from clay fractions of ranch pastures in Korea and their chemical and mineralogical properties. Crystalline phases of the clay minerals were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and FT-IR spectra, and their relative chemical compositions were also analyzed by X-ray flourescence spectrometry (XRF). Primary minerals consisted mainly of quartz and mica and chlorite and kaolinite along with a trace of swelling micas were identified as secondary clay minerals. However, the relative content of these clay minerals was different with the locations, which led to significant effects on physical and chemical properties of soils like inorganic elemental composition. In particular,
content was higher in Gochang ranch pasture than in other ranch pasture. Infrared (IR) spectra did not indicate any significant differences in organic functional groups among the locations. This study clearly showed that ranch pastures had different relative content of clay minerals and chemical properties depending on the location and consequently that those properties are worthy to be taken into account for soil amendment.
Input and Output Budgets for Nitrogen of Paddy Field in South Korea
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Hong, Seung-Chang ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Choi, Soon-Kun ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.060
The main objective of this research was to estimate the total mass of nitrogen discharged from various sources in paddy field area of South Korea in 2010 and 2013. Input and output budgets for nitrogen were estimated by mass balance approach. The mass balance approach reduces the effect of flow variations, and the large scale approach minimizes local effects, resulting in easier and faster establishment of strategy for nonpoint pollution problems. Nitrogen inputs were chemical fertilizer, compost, atmospheric deposition, biological fixation, and agricultural water, while crop uptake, denitrification, volatilization, and infiltration were nitrogen outputs. The estimated total nitrogen inputs for paddy field in South Korea were
, while those of total nitrogen outputs were
in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Annual amounts of potential nitrogen outflow from paddy field were
in 2010 and 2013. Also, annual rate of potential nitrogen outflow were 36.7%, 36.7% in 2010 and 2013, respectively.
Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Agricultural Field with Spent Mushroom Media
Chang, Hee Je ; Hong, Young-Kyu ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Byung-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Park, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 66~74
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.066
Environmental pollution from abandoned metal mines has been awarded as serious problem and many techniques have been applied to remediate pollutants. Main objective of this research was to evaluate efficiency of heavy metal sorption capacity of spent mushroom media (SMM) in aqueous and soil matrix. Laboratory batch experiment was conducted and 4 different heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) were evaluated. In aqueous phase, all 4 heavy metals showed high reduction efficiency ranged from 60-99% and Pb showed the highest sorption efficiency. In case of soil phase, much lower sorption efficiency was observed compared to aqueous phase. The highest reduction efficiency was observed in Cd (average of 38%). With scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive detector (SED-EDS) analysis, we confirmed sorption of heavy metals at the surface of SMM. Overall, SMM can be used as sorption materials for heavy metals in both aqueous and soil matrix and more research should be conducted to increase sorption efficiency of SMM in soil.
Efficiency of Chemical Amendments for Reducing Ecotoxicity in Heavy Metal Polluted Agricultural Fields
Choi, Won-Suk ; Kim, Dae-Bok ; Hong, Young-Kyu ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Byung-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Park, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.075
This study was conducted to evaluate effect of chemical amendments on reducing bioavailable fraction of heavy metals in soil along with ecotoxicological effect on earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Three different chemical amendments, lime (L), steel slag (SS), and acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS), were applied with varied application ratio (1, 3, 5%). Heavy metal contaminated soil was mixed with chemical amedments and earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were cultivated for 28 days. Bioavailable fraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) extracted with 0.1N HCl was monitored and also, mortality, growth, and metal concentration in earthworm were assessed. Result showed that all three amendments had high efficiency to reduce bioavailable fraction of heavy metals in soil. In particular, lime showed the highest reduction rate of Cu (63.9-87.7%), Pb (7.90-24.65%), and Zn (40.83-77.60%) among three amendments. No mortality of earthworm was observed during experimental period except 3% and 5% AMDS treatment indicating that application of chemical amendments is safe in terms of ecotoxicological aspect. However, no positive correlation was observed between reduction of bioavaialble fraction of heavy metals in soil and earthworms. Overall, application of chemical amendments in agricultural field can be adapted for reducing bioavailable fraction of heavy metals and detoxification in soil.
Evaluating Ecotoxicity of Surface Water and Soil Adjacent to Abandoned Metal Mines with Daphnia magna and Eisenia fetida
Kim, Dae-Bok ; Choi, Won-Suk ; Hong, Young-Kyu ; Kim, Soon-Oh ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Byung-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Park, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.081
Heavy metal pollution in agricultural fields at the abandoned metal mines has been serious problems in Korea. In order to manage heavy metal pollution in surface water and soil, numerous remediation strategies have been established. Therefore, main purpose of this research was to examine feasibility of ecological toxicity assessment for establishing management strategy in heavy metal polluted agricultural fields. Heavy metal concentration in surface water and soil was monitored along with ecotoxicity experiment with Daphnia magna and Eisenia fetida. Result showed that high toxicity was observed in heavily polluted agricultural field with heavy metals. In case of mortality of Daphnia magna (85%) and Eisenia fetida (6.7%), the highest ratio was observed when heavy metal concentration in surface and soil was high. Calculated ecotoxicity index (EI) ranged 0.06-0.30 and the highest EI was observed in heavily polluted sites among 5 abandoned metal mines. Overall, ecological toxicity assessment is necessary to evaluate heavy metal pollution in agricultural fields near at the abandoned metal mines along with chemical concentration analysis.
Evaluation of Field Applicability of Phosphorus Removal Capability and Growth of Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ According to Environmental Factors
Yoo, Jin ; Kim, Deok-Hyun ; Chung, Keun-Yook ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.087
With the population growth and industrialization, the characteristics of discharged waste water and sewage have become more diverse. The removal of phosphorus (P) in the wastewater is essential for the prevention of eutrophication in the river and stream. This study was performed in order to estimate the field application of the Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ. Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ was cultured in the raw wastewater and synthetic medium at the 5 L reactor. The best optimum conditions for P removal by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ in the synthetic medium at the 5 L reactor were as follows: temperature,
; P concentration, 20 mg/L; carbon sources, glucose + acetate (1:1); oxygen concentration, alternatively anaerobic and aerobic conditions. P removal efficiency under the optimum condition was 89.4%. In case of wastewater, P removal efficiency was 95.5% under controlled at
. Through this study we confirmed that P removal by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ in case of wastewater was as effective as the synthetic medium. It is considered that Bacillus sp. 3434 BRRJ can be applied to the treatment of wastewater in order to biologically remove P from the wastewater on a large scale.
Australian Soil Classification: an Review
Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Cho, Hyun-Jun ; Jung, Kangho ; Choi, Jung-won ; Jung, Sug-Jae ; Kwak, Woo-Ri ; Kim, Woon-Sun ; Hong, Se-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, volume 49, issue 1, 2016, Pages 93~114
DOI : 10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.1.093
As a means of improving Korean Soil Classification System, we have reviewed Australian Soil Classification System by comparing Soil Taxonomy and FAO/WRB Classification System. Australian Soil Classification System is composed of 14 of Order, 87 of Sub-order, 556 of Great-group, 2,451 of Sub-group, and 7,276 of Family. Interestingly, soil order has the Anthroposols which is not classified with Soil Taxonomy, and the classification for some of soils is based on soil texture abruption horizon and soil structure. Seven of 14 soil orders are classified with an old version based on soil color rather than morphological characteristics. The distribution scale of Australian soil order is the largest in Tenosols, and followed by Kandosols, Rudosols, Sodosols and Vertisols in Australia.