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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Nov 1995
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Jul 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - May 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Mar 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1995
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Estimation of the Cognitive Car-Following Distance with Observed Car-Following Distance Information on Road
NamGung, Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 1~1
An attempt to estmate the cognitive car-following distance with observed car-following distance information on road is carried out theoretically and excrementally in terms of human's cognition on car-following distance. It is ascertained that relation between car-following distance and its cognition is subject to the Weber-Fechner's law, and that the parameters in the Weber-Fechner's model are varied with the driving speed of car. An expression of probability density function of car-following distance through cognitive level is drived theoretically, if the distribution of car-following distance is subject to the lognormal distribution. And a simple estimation method of parameters required for our expression is proposed and its applicability is examined
A Dynamic O-D Estimation Model of Freeway Traffic Flow using the Extended Kalman Filter
Kim, Dong-Sun ; Park, Chang-Ho ; Chon, Kyung-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 9~9
A dynamic system model is presented for time-varying freeway O-D flow pattern and its on-line estimation algorithm. The proposed model employs information from mainline traffic counts, ramp flow measurements, and macroscopic traffic characteristics to construct a set of dynamic system equations which realistically consider the congestion impact on the interrelation between O-D flow pattern and observed flows. With some transformation all time-dependent model parameters can be estimated with the Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. To use in on-line applications and improve the computing efficiency, a revised model using the Sequential Kalman Filter algorithm has also been developed. Adaptability of the model is justified by using a set of observed traffic data. All of statistical results guarantee the reliability of the developed model.
A Study on Vibrational Characteristics of Initially Stressed Antisymmetric Laminated Plates (I) -Focused on Development of Simplified Equations-
Park, Moon-Ho ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Yun, Young-Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 25~25
A simplified method for the calculation of buckling and vibrational characteristics of initially stressed antisymmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminated plates is presented in this paper using the natural frequencies under unloading state. The equation of motion of antisymmetric laminated plates with two opposite edges simply supported is investigated on the basis of Yang, Norris and Starsky (YSN) theory which includes shear deformation and rotary inertia effects. The equations are solved by the use of collocation method. The relationships of the non-dimensional natural frequencies with initial stresses the coefficients of critical buckling and the boundaries of the dynamic principal instability region can be characterized by the non-dimensional natural frequencies under unloading state. Numerical examples are presented to verify the simplified equations and to illustrate potential applications of the analysis.
A Study on Vibrational Characteristics of Initially Stressed Antisymmetric Laminated Plates(II) -Focused on Numerical Analysis-
Park, Moon-Ho ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Yun, Young-Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 35~35
The numerical analyses of initially stressed, antisymmetric Angle-ply and Cross-ply laminated plates are further presented, using the simplified method of the previous paper for the calculation of buckling and vibrational characteristics of the plates. The effects of the initial stresses, shear deformation, curvature, number of layers, plate aspect ratio, and thickness-to-edge length ratio on the natural frequencies. the critical buckling, and the boundaries of the dynamic principal instability are illustrated in numerical examples. The numerical results are compared with the results of Navier, Khdeir, Reddy, and Jones.
Dynamic Infinite Elements for Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis in Multi-Layered Halfspaces
Kim, Jae-Min ; Yun, Chung-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 51~51
This paper presents three types of dynamic infinite elements for soil-structure interaction analysis in a multi-layered halfspace. They are the horizontal, the vertical and the corner infinite elements (HIE, VIE and CIE). The shape functions of the infinite elements are derived from approximate expressions of the analytical solutions. Numerical example analyses are presented for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed infinite elements.
Structural Reliability Analysis Using Improved Response Surface Method
Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Na, Seong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 63~63
Recently, due to the increasing attention to the structural safety under uncertain environments, many researches on the structural reliability analysis have been performed. Some useful methods are available to evaluate performance reliability of structures with explicit limit states. However, for large structures, in which structural behaviors can be analyzed with finite element method and limit states are only expressed implicitly, Monte Carlo simulation method has been mainly used. However, Monte Carlo simulation method spends too much computational time on repetitive structural analysis. Many alternative methods are suggested to reduce the computational work required in Monte Carlo simulation. Among them, Response surface method is widely used to improve the efficiency of structural reliability analysis. Response surface method is based on the concept of approximating simple polynomial function of basic random variables for the limit state which is not easily expressed in explicit forms of design random variables. The response surface method has simple algorithm. However, the accuracy of results highly depends on how properly the stochastic characteristic of the original limit state has been represented by approximated function. In this study, an improved response surface method is proposed, in which the combined use of a linear response surface function and Rackwitz-Fiessler method has been employed. The proposed algorithm is quite simple and requires much less computational work. In addition more consistent convergence is achieved. Accuracy of the proposed method has been investigated through practical examples.
Seismic Analysis of a Crane Considering Dynamic Wheel Slipping
Joe, Yang-Hee ; Nam, Hyun-Tae ; Paik, Shin-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 73~73
Cranes subjected to earthquake loadings exhibit highly nonlinear responses due to slipping of the wheels, compressionless hoist cable, and the gaps between the wheel flanges and rails. However, the sophisticated and tedious nonlinear analysis techniques are not always practically adopted for the seismic design of the cranes. In this paper, focusing on the slipping behavior of the crane wheels, three different types of seismic analyses were performed: i.e., equivalent static analysis. linear dynamic analysis, and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In the equivalent static analysis, the friction force between the wheels and rails was approximated as a lateral earthquake load. Based on the various analysis results, it was found that the suggested equivalent static analysis satisfactorily estimates the nonlinear seismic behavior of the crane related to the wheel slipping.
The Effects of Fibers on the Fracture Toughness and Strength of Concrete
Kim, Kyoung-Soo ; Kim, Nam-Wook ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Bae, Ju-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 83~83
This experimental study is to investigate the effects of the length and volume contents of steel, carbon and glass fibers on the fracture toughness and strength of concrete. The notched fiber reinforced concrete beams with different fiber length (30, 60mm) and fiber volume content (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0%) were tested under 3-point bending, and the cylinderical specimens for compressive strength were tested by the UTM and PUNDIT. This study aimed at measuring the maximum load, compressive and flexural strength, deflection, CMOD and fracture energy, etc., The fracture energy was used as a means to evaluate the fracture toughness of concrete. The conclusions are as follows; The fracture toughness increased as the volume contents of each fiber increased, but it was little influenced by the length of steel fiber. And the fracture toughness increasing rate was high in SFRC and was similarly low in both CFRM and GFRM, but CFRM is more favorable than GFRM from the viewpoint of the fracture toughness. The flexural strength increased as the length of steel fiber and the volume contents of each fiber increased, and the flexural strength increasing rate was high in SFRC and was similarly low in both CFRM and GFRM, but CFRM was stronger than GFRM from the viewpoint of the flexural strength. The compressive strength was little influenced by the length and volume content of SFRC, but in both CFRM and GFRM it generally increased as the volume content increased.
Creep and Shrinkage Effects in the Thermal Stress Analysis of Mass Concrete Structures
Oh, Byung-Hwan ; Paik, Shin-Won ; Joe, Yang-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 97~97
Recently, serious cracking problems have been reported in this country in the course of actual massive concrete construction. Major cause of this cracking is found to be mainly due to the hydration heat of mass concrete. The hydration heat arising from the chemical reaction of cement with water causes temperature differentials between inside and outside of a structural member and these temperature differentials induce thermal stresses. The magnitude and direction of thermal stresses are much dependent upon the types and amount of cement, the size and boundary conditions of the member, and also ambient temperature distributions. The purpose of the present study is therefore to develop an analytical tool that can predict the temperature distributions and thermal stresses of any massive concrete structures. The creep and shrinkage of concrete may seriously influence the thermal stresses. The effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete are, therefore, included in the present analysis. The aging of concrete and thus strength development phenomenon is also considered. The ACI, CEB and BP models for creep and shrinkage prediction are incorporated in the present program. The maturity concept is introduced to account for accurate strength development due to hydration. The present study indicates that the effect of shrinkage is significant in the resulting stresses while the creep of concrete influences little the thermal stresses.
An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of High Strength Concrete Members with High Tension Bar
Kang, Suck-Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 107~107
Recently, practical application of high tension bar as well as high strength concrete is attempted. The main object of using high tension bar is strengthening of material property and decreasing of steel amount. In this study, the flexural behavior of high strength concrete members which includes high tension bar is examined experimentally. The experiment program is consisted with bending test to verify the effect of concrete strength, longitudinal steel ratio and strength of steel. In this experimental study, it is recognized that member ductility can be expressed as the function of
Also the experimental results indicate improvements of flexural ductility, however major increase of flexural capacity is not observed. In case of reducing steel amount by substituting with high tension bar, the member keeps the equivalent flexural capacity. However the substitute gives poor flexural ductility.
Development of A Statistical Quality Control Specification for Asphalt Concrete Pavement Density
Kim, Kwang-Woo ; Yeon, Kyu-Soek ; Lee, Jung-Kyu ; Park, Yong-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 119~119
This study was conducted to suggest a modification of current acceptance criteria for asphalt pavement compaction. According to 249 density data collected in Korea, it was shown that approximately 18% of lots tested for field density did not satisfy current specification limit and that the variance was greater than that of developed countries. It was also shown that the data could be controlled 2% point strictly if the specification based on maximum theoretical density was used. For more practical use, a new specification including a pay adjusting system was suggested using percent within limit (PWL) concept which is more realistically taking into account the practical field data based on estimation of unknown population, and determines an acceptance or a rejection based on statistics background.
Estimation of the Transition Time between Dry and Wet Climate in the Large River Basin
Lee, Jae-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 131~131
The surface hydrology of large land areas is susceptible to several preferred stable states with transitions between stable states induced by stochastic fluctuations. This comes about due to the close coupling of land surface and atmospheric interaction. An interesting and important issue is the duration of residence in each mode. In this study, mean transition time between the stable modes are analyzed for Arkansas river basin. On the basis of historical data, the nonlinear model is calibrated for the Arkansas River Basin. The transition times between the stable modes in the model are studied based on the stochastic representation of the physical processes and on the calibrated model parameters. This study has implications for prediction of the transition time between stable modes or residence times, that is, the time the system spends in a given stable mode, since this would be equivalent to predicting the duration of droughts or wet conditions.
Zero-Velocity Point and Pipe Friction Factor
Yoo, Dong-Hoon ; Kang, Ki-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 139~139
The characteristics of pipe-flow which are divided into laminar and turbulent flow may depend on relative roughness and Reynolds number. Yoo(1993a, b) classified the pipe-flow into laminar, smooth turbulent, rough turbulent and their transitional flows by reanalyzing Nikuradse(1932, 1933) laboratory experiments, and proposed explicit equations to estimate the pipe friction factor defining the boundary conditions by relating Reynolds number to the relative roughness. In the present work, it was found from Nikuradse data that the ratio of zero-velocity point against roughness height
also shows a clear trend with respect to relative roughness and Reynolds number in each region, and explicit equations of friction factor were deduced from the equations of
The equations presented in this paper well reflect the pipe-flow characteristics found in Nikuradse' experiment and excellent agreement of
was obtained against the laboratory results over all flow regions including the transition turbulent region.
GIS Applications in Groundwater Research
Kim, Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 149~149
Though development of an accurate geological and hydraulic database is essential to study groundwater problems, there is usually only a limited amount of data available because of the high cost of drilling wells to collect new data. Thus topographic, computer-based methodology known as the GIS is used to study such problems. The purpose of this paper is to review GIS applications in groundwater research and to predict the spatial distribution of groundwater quantitatively using GIS. The field of GIS applications in groundwater research is classified as developing 3-dimensional subsurface profile, wellhead protection area delineation, groundwater contamination, and inferring of most promising areas of groundwater occurrence. ARC/INFO is used to convert point data of well logs into TIN and LATTICE data structures. Polygon overlay technique is used to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater from the TIN and LATTICE SURFACES. Though it is not applied to a regular geological strata, the results proved to be an important method to predict the spatial distribution of groundwater quantitatively using GIS.
Terminal Velocity of Spheres
Yoo, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 157~157
The paper presents the explicit formula, which do not require any iteration process, for the estimation of terminal velocity of spheres under various flow conditions such as laminar flow and turbulent flow. For this purpose the flow over immersed body is classified referring to the distribution of drag coefficient and the drag coefficient is evaluated by the explicit form of equations. The terminal velocity or settling velocity is the result of equilibrium between gravity, buoyancy and drag forces, which are expressed by two characteristic numbers; Reynolds number and Froude number. Both are related to the diameter of sphere and terminal velocity, but the ratio of Froude number to Reynolds number is no more related to the terminal velocity. It is found that the terminal velocity is solely determined by the ratio, and the explicit formula are obtained by one-step substitution, which are found to be relatively accurate in comparison with laboratory data.
Experimental Study for Prevention of Scouring around Bridge Piers
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Jeong, Dong-Won ; Lee, Chang-Hae ; Yook, Woon-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 165~165
Based on the experimental results on the clear-water condition of cohesionless bed sediments for three types of the pier shape, either a column or a collar was attached to the nose of pier as a device for remedying the local scour and then the experiments were carried out under the same conditions as before to obtain its effect of the remedying devices were obvious and large when the geometric standard deviation of sand was large. For the attached column, the local scour reduction effect showed the similar trend for both sand I and sand II irrespective of the types of pier and the attached locations. Meanwhile, for the case of collar, it had relation with the attached location for the sand II. The data obtained in the tests were discussed for the velocity, the pier Froude number and the tractive force ratio, compared with those got in the scour tests without the column or collar.
A Study on Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifer Using SUTRA Numerical Model
Song, Jai-Woo ; Baek, Kyung-Won ; Jeong, Woo-Chang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 173~173
Flow property and saltwater intrusion between freshwater and saltwater are analyzed in the Kwang-young li's coastal aquifer located on the north of Jeju island through the numerical model. The numerical model used for this work is SUTRA(Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) developed in the USGS. The analysed result is that mixing flow of freshwater and saltwater exists on the coastal line and saltwater is lineary intruded from upper boundary of costal line to about 2800 m into land. For the verification, the result is compared with both values from electric specific resistance survey and values by steady-state Gyhben-Herzberg's formula using isopiestic line for the projected area. From the compared result, estimated values show some differences with electric specific resistance survey, but nearly close with values by steady-state Gyhben-Herzberg's formula.
A Study on Water Supply Facility Management Using Geo-Spatial Information System
Yeu, Bock-Mo ; Jang, Ji-Won ; Kwon, Hyon ; Lee, Kang-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 181~181
Today Geo-Spatial Information System(GSIS) is recognized as a good tool to process and manage various information such as graphic, image, attribute and positional information. So that, efforts are being made in the government and business sector to implement Geo-Spatial Information System for rapid decision need many manual processings to input and revise various data. This paper aims to build attributive and positional database of urban facilities such as metwork of fwater supply and roads and to invent application program which contributes effectibve urban administration spatial data using water suply construction map, and draft. As a result, application program for urban facility management is invented and data design and data input/output method is shown.
Three-Dimensional Stability Analysis on Logarithmic Spiral Failure of Slopes
Seo, In-Shik ; Kim, Young-Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 189~189
This paper presents the deterministic model to evaluate three-dimensional stability of layered
soil slopes. Rotational slides are assumed to be a cylindroid central part terminated with plane ends. And the potential failure surfaces in this study are assumed as the logarithmic spiral curves refracted at boundary of layers. Seismic forces are considered by seismic intensity. The program, SSALS(=Slope Stability Analysis on Logarithmic Spiral), developed in this study is compared with the program PCSTABL5. The ratio of three-dimensional case to two-dimensional case at minimum factor of safety is examined and the changes of factor of safety are showed for the ratio of cylindroid length to slope height and number of slices.
A Suggested Method to Predict Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Korean Granites by Schmidt Hammer Value
Lee, Su-Gon ; Lee, Song ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 199~199
Schmidt hammer test has proved a suitable and easily conducted method to quantify the stage of weathering of Korean granites as well as a fairly reliable strength index to estimate uniaxial compressive strength. Schmidt hammer rebound values have a relatively good relationship with uniaxial compressive strength values of Korean granites. The relationship between these two values can be improved by considering seperately the Cretaceous and Jurassic granites. Schmidt hammer's other relevant figures and equations were proved to be unsuitable to predict the uniaxial compressive strength of Korean granites. This study, therefore, intends to formulate an equation representing the best-fit relationship between Schmidt hammer rebound values and uniaxial compressive strength values of Korean granites. It is recommended however that before using the published formulae, their reliability with respect to rock type should be studied.
Elasto Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Interaction between Strip Footing and Unlined Tunnel in Soft Ground
Yoo, Chung-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 211~211
An investigation on interaction mechanism between a strip footing and an unlined soft ground tunnel is presented. In the analysis, continuous unlined tunnels with its axes parallel with the footing axis are considered, and therefore plane strain approximations are adopted. Using an elasto plastic finite element computer program, a parametric study was performed on a wide range of boundary conditions with various tunnel locations and footing embedment depths. The mechanistic behavior of footing-unlined tunnel system was evaluated using the results of finite element analysis such as development of plastic yielding, stress distributions, deformation pattern, and footing pressure vs. settlement relation. The results indicate that the foundation soil yielding pattern and its extent significantly vary with the tunnel location as well as the level of footing embedment depth. Also revealed is that the lateral tunnel location with respect to the footing significantly affects the stress distribution around the tunnel as well as the footing settlement pattern.
Development of PC Graphics Software for Efficient Education in Coastal and Harbor Engineering
Kim, Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 223~223
A PC graphics software for efficient education in coastal and harbour engineering was developed using MS-FORTRAN, Lahey FORTRAN, and HALO graphic library as a development tool. Four modules, which are wave characteristics and classification module, linear wave theory flow field module, linear wave theory particle displacement module, and propagation of nonlinear long wave module were developed. Animation techniques such as memory swapping and XOR mode were used to develop the modules. The software can be used to teach basic wave characteristics and the students can understand the results intuitively by changing input data.
A Study of Numerical Shoreline Change Model for SANGJU beach (The Model of 1-Line and N-line)
Lee, Sang-Hwa ; Shin, Dong-Soo ; Heo, Sang-Gie ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 229~229
In order to expand the camping area around Sangju beach, a jetty was constructed in
As the result, the function of beach has been gradually declined, the right hand side of beach surfferd the beach erosion and the other side-the sedimentation. The study, based on the field measurements, involved the two numerical models(1 & N-line model) which were selected for the prediction of shoreline change to prepare coastal protection methods of Sangju beach.
A Study on Design High Water Level of Tidal River at Urban Area
Park, Sang-Kil ; Kang, Kyung-Uk ; Choi, Byung-Seub ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 239~239
To utilize tidal river basin, runoff needs to be controlled effectively. The planning of water control is influenced by analysis of water level when the flood runs off in the river mouth. In order to analyze the water level of the tidal river, several hydraulic parameters are employed. The analysis showed that the gentler the bottom slope, the longer the period of tide oscillation, and the bigger amplitude of tide, the more affected the highest water level of the river. The analysis using perturbative method with above parameters proved that third order approximation is more accurate than second order. Therefore, the third solution can be adopted in deciding the design high water level of tidal river. In this study, we established the high water level design concept in river mouth, and elements which affect this notion is also discussed. Finally, the results are applied to urban tidal river basin to verify the propriety.
A Study on the Characteristics of Wastewater Treatment by the Intermittently Aerated Fluidized Bed
Lee, Jeoung-Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 251~251
The charateristics of wastewate treatment of the fluidized bed filled with sand media and intermittently aerated were studied experimentally, and the obtained results were as follows; 1. The minimum available DO level for microbial metabolism is lower in the intermittently aerated fluidized bed than in the continuously aerated bed, and this can be resulted in the increased BOD removal. 2. In the intermittent aeration system, the microorganisms uptake more oxygen in the early times of aeration than in the other times. 3. Unlike the case of continuous aeration, the extension of bed height lead to the greatly improved BOD removal rate in the intermittent aeration. 4. The time rate of non-aeration/aeration must be operated below maximum 0.75, under the BOD loading rate of
it must be operated below maximum 0.7 for the standard of water quality namely influent BOD 20 mg/l. 5. In intermittent aeration the energy consuption rate for circulation can be decreased greatly to 67.5% from 73.3%. and for aeration to 59% from 66. 7%.
Filtering Characteristics of Activated Sludge in Fabric Bioreactor
Chun, Yang-Kun ; Choi, Yong-Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 1, 1995, Pages 257~257
Membrane bioreactor is a relatively new process that selected the advantages of conventional activated sludge process and membrane separation process. However, the application of membrane to wastewater treatment processes is still limited due to highly expensive membrane cost and technical problem that is membrane fouling. This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of fabric filter to replace membrane. Fabric bioreactor coupled with rotary-typed filtering system was designed and tested to choose proper filtering materials, fabric filters comparing to membranes. The fluxes and performance of the 5 fabric filters and 12 membranes with various pore sizes were measured. From the experimental results, the fluxes of rotary-typed filtering system combined with fabric filter were 5-7 times higher than that of microfiltration membrane system. It was found that the range of proper filter resistance to maintain sufficient fluxes and high water quality in fabric bioreactor was
therefore the fabric bioreactor can be used for pretreatment process in advanced membrane system and water reuse system.