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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Nov 1995
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Jul 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - May 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Mar 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1995
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Verification of Pavement Response Model Using FWD and MDD Testing
Rhee, Suk-Keun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 267~267
The Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and the Multi-Depth Deflectometer (MDD) are useful tools to assess the structural conditions of a pavement through deflection measurement. Especially. MDD is a device that can measure sub-surface deflections at up to six points simultaneously on a vertical line in pavement. Field test was performed at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) on a full scale test section which was equipped with MDD installation. Field measurements by the FWD and the MDD were taken on the test section at four different levels of loading. Comparisons of measured and predicted deflection was made using TTIPAVE program, which is associated with the proposed constitutive model for granular material. It is found that the measured deflections obtained in the field agree well with computed values from the finite element program (TTIPAVE). This indicates that the proposed analysis is apparently suited to analysis and evaluation for pavement structure. Through sensitivity analysis, the effect of bulk stress on de formation of granular layer is found out to be much greater than octahedral shear stress. Total deflection decreases as Poisson's ratio increases. It appears that the higher Poisson's ratio tends to stiffen the base layer causing the smaller total deflection.
A Study on the Diffusion of Chloride Ion in Mortar and Concrete under the Chloride Environment
Moon, Han-Young ; Kim, Seong-Soo ; Ryou, Jae-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 283~283
Under a chloride environment, steel reinforced concrete structure easily corroded when seawater penetrated it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the properties of chloride diffusion in mortar and concrete. Mineral admixtures were used as part of the experiment to study the chloride penetration of concrete. The results revealed that an increase in the water-cement ratio caused an increase in chloride diffusion in the mortar and concrete. Using mineral admixtures, the diffusion coefficient of OC, SC, FA20, and SF10 decreased respectively in a constant water-cement ratio of 50%. In addition, the higher the diffusion coefficient. the larger the area of steel corrosion. The diffusion coefficient was correlative with the area of steel corrosion.
Optimum Design of Framed Structures Considering the Sectional Properties of H Shape Steel
Jung, Young-Chae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 293~293
This study is concerned with the practical optimum design of steel framed structures considering the sectional properties of H shape steel. The optimizing problems of framed structures are formulated with the objective functions and the constraints which take the section areas as the design variables. The objective functions are formulated as the total weights of the structures and the constraints are derived by using the criteria with respect to the working stress considering the buckle of member based on the part of steel bridge in the Korea standard code of road bridge and the 1969 AISC specification. and the lower limit sectional area of each member based
These are formulated by using the correlationship equations obtained from regression analysis for the section moduli and the section areas, and the section inertia moments of H section steel products, The SUMT method using the modified Newton Raphson direction method is introduced to solve the formulated nonlinear programming problems in this study and tested out through the numerical examples. This developed optimizing algorithm is tested out and examined through the numerical examples for the practical use of design on the steel framed structures. And their results are compared and analyzed to examine the possibility of optimization. the applicability and the convergency of this algorithm.
System Reliability Analysis and Safety Assessment of Strut System for Supporting Earth Retaining Walls
Cho, Hyo-Nam ; Gang, Chun-Gil ; Park, Hae-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 305~305
This study develops practical system reliability model and methods for the assessment of safety of strut system for supporting earth retaining walls based on the reliability methods. This study proposes a practical but realistic bending limit state model for safety assessment of strut system for supporting earth retaining walls. The Failure Mode Approach(FMA) is proposed for the estimation of the system reliability of struts system for supporting earth retaining walls and an Importance Sampling Method(ISM) is used for numerical analysis of system failure probability. It may be concluded that the proposed approaches for system reliability of strut system may be successfully used in practice for the more precise evaluation of realistic safety of strut system.
A Study on the Addition of Gypsum for Improving the Properties of High Strength Mortar and Concrete
Moon, Han-Young ; Kim, Ki-Hyung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 315~315
To improve the qualities of high strength mortar and concrete. 3 types of admixture and 4 types of gypsum are applied and fundamental properties of mortar and concrete made from them are investigated experimentally. As gypsum is added to mortar and concrete. the flow loss of mortar and slump loss of concrete are reduced and the slump loss is minimized when cements mixed with fly ash. ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume are used. According to adding the gypsum. the strength of mortar and concrete is improved because of much production of hydration products such as ettringite and calcium silicate hydrates. In addition. mortar added gypsum has the resistance on chemical attack.
Stress Distribution and Crack Control at Anchorage Zones in Prestressed Concrete Box-Girder Bridge Members
Oh, Byung-Hwan ; Lim, Dong-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 325~325
The purpose of the present study is to explore characteristics of the local stress distribution and the failure mechanism in the anchorage zones of the precast prestressed concrete box girder bridges. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive experimental and analytical study has been conducted. From this study, it is found that the failure of the anchorage zones is initiated by crackings along the tendon path and that eventually sudden explosive failure with complete destruction on the anchorage zones is occurred. A realistic failure mechanism of prestressed concrete anchorage zones based on the present study is thus suggested.
An Experimental and Analytical Study for the Reasonable Evaluation of Hydration Temperature in Massive Concrete
Lee, Jang-Hwa ; Byun, Keun-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 337~337
Recently, large sized and massive concrete structures have been constructed in many times, according to development of the construction method. In dam concrete, internal temperature control is a serious problem. But, in most of massive concrete structures, surface temperature must be controlled adequately in construction. In Korea, research of this field has been carried out rarely. Therefore, it is developed analysis program being able to evaluate reasonably about surface temperature of massive concrete structures. And, as compared analytical results with experimental data of test model and actual pier, they are closely resembled.
Prediction of Gas-Driven Hydrofracture at WIPP
Youn, Il-Ro ; Seo, Sang-Gu ; Heo, Gwang-Hee ; Hwang, Chung-Yul ; Walter, Gerstle ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 347~347
The gas pressure in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant may exceed the lithostatic pressure of 14.8 MPa by 10 MPa or more. Rock salt cannot sustain high tensile stress, and therefore such a high gas pressure cannot in reality exist. This high predicted pressure indicates the possibility that large gas-driven hydrofractures will form. Analytical calculations show that, using the assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics, a horizontal penny-shaped fracture several kilometers in radius (with several mm maximum crack opening) is possible. Also, it is possible that after growing horizontally in the weaker anhydrite layer, the crack could break out of this layer and propagate into the halite and toward the ground surface at an inclined angle of
above horizontal. To prevent this latter scenario, it is shown that the anhydrite must have a fracture toughness less than 0.5590 times the fracture toughness of the halite.
A Study on Fracture Toughness of Mortar-Aggregate Interface
Lee, Kwang-Myong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 357~357
Performance of concrete is influenced not only by the physical and chemical properties of the materials composing of concrete, such as cement paste and aggregate, but by the characteristics of the interfaces between constituent materials. With the increase of the use of high strength concrete, there has been a renewed interest in the study of the role of either cement paste-aggregate interface or mortar-aggregate interface on the concrete behavior. In the present paper, concrete is modelled as a two-phase composite consisting of mortar and aggregate, and based on interface fracture mechanics methods for the measurements of the fracture toughness of mortar-aggregate interface are described. By testing proposed specimens, fracture toughnesses of mortar-aggregate interfaces are determined. Finally, the role of interfacial fracture toughness on the cracking behavior in concrete is discussed.
Dynamic Analysis of Highway Bridges Considering Roadway Roughness and Vehicle Braking
Kim, Gyu-Chun ; Lee, Hak-Eun ; Yu, Chul-Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 367~367
When the moving vehicle is braked abruptly, its load is redistributed into the front axle, to which the bigger force is applied. In this study the bridge is assumed as a simple beam of continuous system with the linear behaviour and the DB-24 vehicle is modeled as a two-axle sprung mass. The dynamic response of the bridge due to the vehicle braking is analysed, considering road surface irregularities. Its responses appear bigger than impact factors which are specified in the Korean and AASHTO Highway Bridge Code.
Damage Detection of Structural System by the System Identification Method
Choi, Wae-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 377~377
Damage detection algorithm is developed based on the system identification method. This algorithm can be used as a non-destructive diagnostic technique to aid in decisions of repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. The response error estimator has been implemented to estimate the parameters. The developed algorithm can be applied to detect and assess damage in a structure. Damage is defined as the reduction in estimated parameters between two time seperated inferences. The damage indices are determined from the simulation for the undamaged base-line structure and are used to determine damage in the existing structure. The current algorithm can be used to apply static and modal responses as the measured data in identifying the given structural system. Case studies are performed on a planar tower truss structure and a free vibration structure to verify the validity and accuracy of this damage assessment algorithm. Simulated static responses are used to identify damage in the planar tower truss structure and a modal response calculated by the constant velocity method is used to identify the free vibration structural system. One degree of freedom of vibrating system shall be considered to estimate mass and stiffness simultaneously, and in two degrees of freedom of vibrating system only stiffness can be used to identify damage assuming that the mass matrix is known.
The Shape Optimization of Truss Structures Using the Multi-Level and Multi-Objectives Optimization Method
Lee, Gyu-Won ; Kim, Woan-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 389~389
This study aims at development of algorithm for the shape optimization of truss structures having several conflicting objectives by means of Multi-Level Multi-Objective(MLMO) optimization method. The algorithm developed utilizes the two-level technique. In the first level utilizing the Feasible Direction method, design variables are taken as the cross-sectional areas of truss members, volume as the first objective function and displacement conflicting with the first objective function as the second objective function. In the second level utilizing unidirectional search of the Powell method which makes it possible to minimize only the objective function, which consists of the volume as the first objective function and the displacement as the second objective function, design variables are chosen as configuration or geometric layout variables. The algorithm in this research is numerically tested for truss structure having the two and thirteen members. The numerical results can be summarized as:1) The algorithm in this approach is suitable for optimization of complex structures with conflicting design criteria. 2) The optimal shape differs according to weighting factors in optimum design problem having several conflicting objectives. 3) The weight of truss structures by means of shape optimization considering several conflicting objectives is also decreased. 4) The algorithm in this research can simplify the process of shape optimization considering several conflicting objectives, because of the number of constraints and that of design variables being decreased by decomposition of optimization procedure.
Laboratory Characterization on Permanent Deformation(Rutting) of Asphalt Concrete by Uniaxial Incremental Static Creep Testing
Kim, Nak-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 401~401
This paper presents laboratory test results demonstrating the effects of aggregate type and gradation on permanent deformation(rutting) of asphalt concrete mixtures. Uniaxial incremental static creep tests were performed in accordance with the VESYS(Viscoelastic Structural System) method to determine the permanent deformation characteristic of the asphalt concrete. Axial deformation was measured by using two extensometers which were held by upper and lower c1amps directly fastened to the 4in. by 8in. cylindrical specimen with a gauge length of 4in.. The effects of aggregate type and gradation on permanent deformation of asphalt concrete were evaluated under test combinations with changing asphalt type, asphalt content. air void content. testing temperature and applied stress level. The test results were analyzed using statistical analysis and graphical comparison of data. The analysis of variance(ANOVA) tests were performed to investigate the main effects and interactions of the test variables with the aggregate type or gradation. The analysis results revealed that, with the size of experimentation used in this study, aggregate type has significant effects on permanent deformation of asphalt concrete, indicating better performance from the mixtures comprised of aggregate with a rough surface texture and an angular shape. Coarse gradation did not show significant effects on permanent deformation. Interactions of aggregate type with gradation, asphalt type, air void and temperature were found to be significant for the permanent deformation of asphalt concrete.
Nonparametric Flood Frequency Analysis using Variable Kernel Estimator
Moon, Young-Il ; Lee, Jong-Kyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 413~413
Kernel Density Estimation Methods have recently been introduced as viable and flexible alternatives to parametric methods for flood frequency estimation. Key properties of such estimators are reviewed in this paper. Two parametric estimators of normal and gamma and a variable kernel estimator with a heavy-tailed kernel(Cauchy) and bandwidth selection based on Adamowski criteria (VK-C-AC) are applied to three situations - Gaussian data, skewed data (gamma) and mixture data. The performance of VK-C-AC was relatively consistent across the estimation situations considered in terms of bias and root mean square error (RMSE). In particular, this is true for mixture data. The variable kernel estimator appears useful because it gives stable and accurate flood frequency estimates without requiring a distributional assumption.
Analysis of the Wave Characteristics of Parallel Submerged Porous Breakwaters by Boundary Element Method
Kim, Nam-Hyeong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 425~425
The reflection and transmission of surface waves due to the parallel submerged porous breakwaters are examined theoretically using boundary element method. The analysis method is based on the wave pressure function with the continuity in the analytical region including fluid and porous structures. Wave motion within the porous structures is simulated by introducing the linear dissipation coefficient and added mass coefficient. The results indicate that transmission coefficient is determined due to the volume of submerged porous breakwaters and reflection coefficient is effective even in the long period incident waves.
A Study of Stochastic-Dynamic Model for Real-Time Flow Forecasting
Bae, Deg-Hyo ; Cho, Won-Cheol ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 433~433
The objectives of this study are to develop stochastic-dynamic model and to evaluate its performance for flow forecasting. An Integrated Hydrometeorological Forecast System, IHFS, which is composed of a precipitation model, a surface-runoff model, a channel routing model and state updating component was extended to couple exponential loss rate method of HEC-1 model. Three different types of storm events were selected to test the model. This model was evaluated for the capability of real-time flow forecasting under different updating conditions. In addition, the effects of basin response time and forecast lead time to predict flows were examined. It was, finally, compared calculated flows from HEC-1 Flood Package with predicted flows from extended IHFS. Significant effect due to changing basin response time was apparent for flow prediction in the case of updating from precipitation only, but this effect was reduced by updating from both precipitation and stage. The model performance was best when all available meteorological data and stage data were utilized. It is concluded that the extended IHFS for real-time flow forecasting is feasible and produces reliable forecast system for short forecast lead time.
Derivation of Governing Equation for a Macroscale Unsaturated Flow System by Stochastic Approach
Yun, Soung-Yong ; SonU, Jung-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 443~443
A new framework for modeling macroscale unsaturated flow systems is proposed in order to overcome the problem of limited information about spatial variability of soil. A stochastic approach, by which local soil properties can be assumed as a realizations of three-dimensional random fields, is used to derive a macroscale unsaturated flow system. The resulting macroscale model is represented by a partial differential equation in which averaged or effective parameters occur. These effective parameters are evaluated by means of a quasi-linearized perturbation equation and a spectral representation of stationary processes. This model, which has relatively few parameters, considers the macro scale effects on variability of the soil property.
Water Quality Analysis by QUAL2E for the Downstream of the Han River
Baek, Kyung-Won ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Han, Kun-Yeun ; Song, Jai-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 451~451
QUAL2E model was applied to assess the water quality (BOD and DO) variations for the downstream of the Han River. The varied flow analysis is performed in the reach of Paldang dam to Indogyo considering the effect of Jamsil submerged weir. A sensitivity analysis was made to determine the significant reaction coefficients and an optimization technique was used to estimate them. The calibration and verification were performed by using observed water quality data for the Han River. The calculated BOD and DO concentrations showed good agreements with the observed. The predictions of water quality in the river were made for the various discharge conditions and wastewater treatment alternatives.
Techniques of Management for Road Ledger Using Aerial Photogrammetry
Park, Kie-Tae ; Lee, Kang-Won ; Kang, In-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 463~463
The purpose of road ledger investigate the property of road facility, the present condition of the location, the quality of the material of the ground and underground facility. Also, this is used to make the plan for construction, and investment program of the road. The method of geo-spatial information database is classified as the method of the existing map and aerial photogrammetry. To build road database, photogrammetry, ground control surveying and aerial photogrammetry must be performed. After the research of the road facility, an underground facility map and the road drawings are to be made. The model area is the Kumjung-ku in Pusan and the area is
of 3 aerial photos. In this study, authors propose the method of scientific management of road ledger using aerial photogrammetry.
Development of the Prediction Model of Baseline Error caused by Base Station Error in GPS Relative Positioning
Kim, Yong-Il ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Park, Min-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 471~471
In GPS relative positioning. baseline accuracy depends on the differencing method to be used. Generally a proper differencing method is decided by baseline length, but the error of base station coordinates which is known before calculation influences the results. So it is necessary to consider baseline length and base station error simultaneously in order to decide the optimal differencing method. This paper aims at developing the prediction model of baseline error with the results from the optimal differencing method which satisfies the required accuracy about baseline length and directional angle when we put some errors on base station coordinates.
Back Analysis of Tunnel Behavior in Elasto-Plastic Ground
Kim, Moon-Kyum ; Jang, Jung-Bum ; Park, Tae-Kyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 483~483
In general, the behavior of underground structures largely depends on variety of material property of soil and loading condition. Therefore, analysis of its behavior is very complex. Recently, the back analysis method based on in-situ deformation measurements has appeared as a strong tool to obtain reasonable material properties of ground media for optimal design and analysis of underground structures. In this study, the finite element method and the direct method are used for the back analysis. To estimate unknown material properties by the back analysis, Davidon -Fletcher- Powell method which is a non-linear optimization method is employed to minimize error between computed and measured value. It is found that the proposed method yields comparable results with good accuracy and reliability.
Vertical Earth Load in Ditches due to Fills
Chung, Sung-Gyo ; Cho, Ki-Young ; Kwen, Jun-An ; Chung, Jin-Gyo ; Lee, Man-Yeol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 491~491
In general the buried engineered works have been carried out with excavation of upperditch consisting of stable backslopes and ditch bottom, as well as underditch consisting of vertical faces. In this study. the theory of vertical earth loads induced by fills in such ditches is newly extended using the concept of fiat arching. Parametric studies of the effect of excavation geometry or boundary conditions upon the vertical load are ex plained. And the load calculated by the theory is inclusively compared with those by exiting theories and the results of finite element analysis as well. As a result. the vertical loads are mainly dependent upon ditch slope
and ditch-bottom width
And the vertical loads are greater than geostatic loads when sloped excavation backfill is beyond a critical backslope, and are less than those by Kellogg's theory except the case of a equal to
In the finite element analysis the vertical loads are less than those by the above two theories. but they show a similar trend qualitatively. And the analysis results show fiat arching in the upper part of the upperditch and curved arching in the lower part and everywhere in the underditch.
Postconstruction Settlement Prediction of Rockfill Dam
Park, Choon-Soo ; Lim, Heui-Dae ; Park, Soo-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 501~501
The layer settlements during the period of construction can be calculated by using the numerical method based on the total stress concept. but it is difficult to predict the postconstruction settlements. In this study. an equation which can calculate the settlements during the period of construction has been formulated in terms of the layer settlements. The investigation of the initial tangent modulus and deflections of 5 rockfill dams has been carried out. The result of investigation has shown that there is a linear relationship between the initial tangent modulus and the residual settlement ratios. Based on this linearity, a model which can predict the postconstruction settlements is proposed. This model is coupled with the initial tangent modulus and the maximum layer settlements obtained from the finite element analysis based on the total stress concept. The postconstruction settlements of 5 rockfill dams have been predicted by the proposed model. These values have been compared with those measured by field instruments for the verification of the proposed model. As a result. it is observed that the predicted postconstruction settlements by the proposed numerical model are in good agreement with the measured values.