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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Nov 1995
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Jul 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - May 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Mar 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1995
Selecting the target year
Traffic Safety Analysis of Design Elements on Four-Lane Highways
Choi, Jai-Sung ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 511~511
Traffic safety of highway horizontal design elements including highway width, radius, and the length of curves were analyzed on both concrete and asphalt pavement types. The measures of effectiveness (MOE) adopted in this study was accident rate. Limited accident analysis models developed recently were compared to select the optimal accident model and the optimal model developed in this study showed relatively high explanation of sum of squares by
and 0.87, on concrete pavement and asphalt pavement, respectively. Also the statistical significance of the optimal model was reviewed and showed the randomness. The study result would be a good design consideration in high-way design process.
Creepage Mechanism of Cables Laid in the Underground Ducts due to Traffic Loads
Chang, Sung-Pil ; Kim, Jae-Kwan ; Kim, Sung-Bo ; Kang, Young-Sug ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 523~523
Cables laid in the underground ducts may experience movement in a certain environment into the direction of vehicle traffic flow. This phenomenon, so called cable creepage has been known for a long time, but its mechanism has not been clearly understood yet. In this paper, the cable creepage is explained as a contact-slip phenomenon between the flexible cable and the duct which undergoes traveling deformation as vehicles pass on the ground. It is verified by numerical studies using ABAQUS that the creepage can occur according to the newly proposed creepage mechanism. Moreover it is demonstrated that the creepage may occur on the uphill section, which agrees with observations made on the creepage phenomenon.
A Study on the Design Criteria Relating to the Local Buckling of Structural Shapes Composed of Orthotropic Thin Plate Elements
Yoon, Soon-Jong ; Moon, Hwan-Doo ; Lee, Won-Bok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 533~533
In the design of columns and beams composed of orthotropic thin plate elements, one of the strength limit states to be checked primarily is to determine whether the local buckling will take place in which the material yield strength (or ultimate strength) and plate slenderness ratio are required. In this study the component plate boundary conditions of the edges at which the compressive load is applied are assumed to be simply supported against rotation and other two unloaded edges are considered as fixed, simply supported, free, or in combination. In the plate buckling analysis linearly varying distributed load is applied and the energy method is adopted. Based on the energy method solution, modified solutions were generated using nonlinear regression to predict closed-form solutions. From the results the limiting plate slenderness ratios in which the plate will not buckle before material failure are suggested.
An Experimental Study on Structural Behavior of Cement Concrete Pavement Slabs
Lee, Seong-Won ; Jang, Jung-Bum ; Kim, Moon-Kyum ; Choi, Ko-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 545~545
A study on structural behavior of cement concrete pavement slabs has importance as a basic research required for the structural evaluation and the estimation of remaining life, and the developement of new analytical design method, so as to estimate durability exactly and to insure sound transportation condition. In this study, temperature, stresses, and strains are measured periodically by installing permanent gauges in the cement concrete pavement slabs subjected to various loading conditions, and the results are analyzed. In addition, transfer rates in terms of deflections in 8 sections of highway are examined to analyze dowel bar effect. Back calculation for material properties is also performed based on the falling weight deflectometer measurements, and the location of maximum tensile stress is analyzed.
A Study on the Multilevel Optimal Design of Sectional Dimensions in Steel Cable-stayed Bridges
Kim, Kee-Dae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 555~555
The optimization problem that has many design variables takes time for the optimum values, and also the confidence depreciates. For these problems, the constraints and objective function linearizations and the multilevel optimal design were proposed. The former is in general use, but the latter is yet to be generalized. This study presents the application of multilevel optimal design to the long span steel cable-stayed briedges with multi-cellular flat box girders, in which the SQP method was used for the optimization method. As the multilevel optimal design, the two-level optimization of member and structure was applied to the determination method of the optimal cable prestress and the sectional dimensions. As a result, it is found that the proposed algorithm for the optimization of steel cable-stayed bridges appears applicable to real structures with reasonable complexity. It is shown that the SQP method appears more realistic and time saving than the SLP method for this specific study, and the multilevel optimal design method is effective for the long-span cable-stayed bridges.
Discrete Optimum Design of Composite Laminates
Lee, Sang-Kuen ; Han, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 563~563
The present paper treats the discrete optimum design problems of laminated composites subjected to in-plane loads. The sequential linear discrete programming(SLDP) method is used for the solution of nonlinear discrete optimization problems. The method uses approximation techniques to create suitable subproblems for linear mixed-integer programming method. As an initial approach for discrete optimization, it is assumed that the design variables are continuous quantities. The methods employ existing software, ADS, for continuous optimization, and integer programming which is an area of extensive study in operations research for discrete optimization. In this discrete optimum formulation, the design variables are the ply thicknesses, and the total thickness as objective function is minimized to satisfy strain and stiffness limitations. Numerical examples are performed and compared with the continuous and discrete optimum solutions and the solutions by the rounding-up method through their results. It is shown that the SLDP method is effective in converging to discrete optimum solutions that could not be anticipated with conventional methods such as rounding.
Design and Analysis of Partially Prestressed PWR Containment Structure under Internal Pressure Load
Kim, Myoung-Mo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 571~571
A design method for partially prestressed PWR containment structure under internal pressure load is developed. Postulated failure mode of the containment is assumed to be the yielding of prestressing tendon due to internal pressure membrane force. The containment shell section is designed as partially prestressed axial tension member. At cylinder-basemat intersection, the axial force-moment interaction diagram is used for the secondary reinforcement design. Several model containments are designed according to the various design prestressing level. In order to predict the behavior of partially prestressed concrete containment and to compare it with fully prestressed case, a series of model containment structures are analyzed by the nonlinear finite element analysis method. From the design and analysis results, it has been found that, for the nuclear reactor containment structure post-tensioned with suitable prestressing level, the safety margin against accident pressure load is reduced not to be unnecessarily high, and that sustained prestressing forces and prestressed steel materials can be considerably reduced.
Comparisons of Concrete Fracture Models
Yon, Jung-Heum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 583~583
Fracture properties of the LEFM, 5-FPZ and NS-FPZ models were determined from the experimental results of three-point bend tests. The responses under the assumptions of each fracture models were numerically calculated and compared. The three fracture models can simulate the measured load and CMOD versus load-point displacement relations. However the LEFM model was only possible if the stress intensity factor increased continuously by crack extension and the fracture process zone is required for a constant critical stress intensity factor such as the S-FPZ model. The LEFM model shows the largest resistance and the least crack extension, and the NS-FPZ model does the smallest resistance and the largest crack extension. The responses of the S-FPZ model were intermediate values between the LEFM and NS-FPZ models. The total fracture energy density of the S-FPZ and NS-FPZ models were almost same value.
A Moving-Grid Finite Element Method for Modeling Transient Crack Growth in Creeping Materials
Lee, Hae-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 595~595
Many metals exhibit creep behavior at temperatures greater than about 30% of their absolute melting point. Creep behavior governs crack growth in some structures that are exposed to high temperatures throughout their service life, such as nuclear power plants and gas turbines. This paper presents a moving-grid finite element method for the analysis of transient crack growth in creeping materials. The proposed method is based on the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian kinematic description (ELD), which can simulate continuous crack-tip motion by a time-dependent mapping. Since the constitutive equation for a history-dependent material becomes a first-order differential equation in the ELD, a mixed variational principle in which the displacement and the creep strain appear as independent variables is developed. The discontinuous Galerkin method is employed to stabilize the first-order hyperbolic differential equation and the mixed formulation. New results obtained by the proposed methods are presented for transient, mode-III crack growth in creeping materials.
A Comparative Study of Response Spectrum for the Earthquake -Resistant Design Specification of Piers
Chio, Wae-Ho ; Yang, Cheol-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 605~605
In this paper, the response spectrum analysis were carried out on the reinforced concrete piers, using the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum at the damping ratio (2%, 3%, 5%, 7%) calculated from each earthquake wave of EL Centro, Hachinohe, Ouhoku, Taft and the elastic earthquake response coefficient for the soil condition II suggested by the Specification for Korean Standard Road Bridge. It is considered that the response spectrum analysis using the elastic earthquake response coefficient suggested by the Specification for Korean Standard Road Bridge would be relatively safe side in the case of calculating the response of structure with the damping over 5%.
A Study on the Dynamic Behavior of Bridge due to Braking of Vehicle
Im, Jung-Soon ; Jo, Jae-Byung ; Park, Kwang-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 613~613
In this paper, the research is focused on the dynamic behavior of bridge due to braking of vehicle. The effects of the stopping position and the initial velocity of vehicle, the span length and the fundamental natural frequency of bridge on the impact factor are investigated. The maximum impact factors can be obtained with the vehicle stopping when the vehicle weight center is positioned on the center of span. The impact factor are varying within a certain range as the initial of vehicle velocity changes. It is found for the investigated cases, that the impact factors due to braking of vehicle are reduced for the shorter span and the greater fundamental natural frequency of bridge.
Study on Factors Affecting Fatigue Response of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
Kim, Nak-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 619~619
This paper presents laboratory test results demonstrating the effects of aggregate type, asphalt type, asphalt content, air voids content, and testing temperature on fatigue performance of asphalt concrete mixture. In this research, controlled-stress diametral fatigue tests were performed under varying temperatures and mixture variables, including aggregate type. The resilient modulus testing future developed by MTS Systems Corp. in accordance with ASTM D4123 was used with the MTS closed-loop servohydraulic system. Some preliminary testing was performed to identify the fatigue failure criteria of the mixtures under various testing conditions. Regardless of the mixture variables, the tests revealed that in most cases the rate of horizontal deformation increased dramatically at about 0.05 inch (0.127 cm) for tests conducted at
and about 0.1 inch (0.254 cm) for tests conducted at
. The effect of aggregate type on fatigue cracking was evaluated under test combinations with changing asphalt type, asphalt content, air voids content and temperature. Controlled-stress diametral fatigue test results plotted on logarithmic scale of recoverable horizontal deformation and number of cycles to failure showed a good agreement with historic trend of the fatigue data. The test results were analyzed using statistical analysis and graphical comparison of data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to investigate the main effects and interactions of the test variables with the aggregate type. The analysis showed that, with the size of experimentation used in this study, aggregate type has significant effects on fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete, indicating better performance from the mixtures comprised of aggregates with a rough surface texture and an angular shape.
Friction Factor of Composite Surface
Yoo, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 633~633
The present paper suggests the method of estimating the mean friction factor representing composite surface of hydraulically or physically different characteristics, using probability concept. The present averaging technique is compared with the approaches of Colebrook-White and Hazen-Williams, which have been used for estimating the friction factor of commercial pipe, and discussion is made on the similarity and differences between the approaches. The present approach has not been fully verified because of the difficulty of evaluating the probability and Nikuradse roughness equivalent to the commercial pipe. It is, however, found that the present approach gives a fully satisfactory result for the computation of representative friction factor of composite surface compounded with laminar flow and turbulent flow driven by external friction movement in comparison with laboratory results.
An application of the Bounded Ordinary Kriging to Estimate Subsurface Characterization
You, Kwang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 645~645
The bounded ordinary kriging (BOK), which is an extension of ordinary kriging (OK), is introduced. In summary, the associated estimation variance is known to be the sum of the ordinary kriging variance and a non-negative correction term. In this paper, it is investigated that how the BOK can be applied to estimate boundary of bed rock in a specific site. As a case study, the boundary of bed rock at a tunnel construction site, located near the Gupo railway station in Pusan, was estimated from the core logging data. In addition, the boundary of bed rock was estimated for two situations; one case in which a constrained bounded datum was included in the estimation, and the other case in which the datum was not included. The two cases were compared each other in terms of estimation and kriging variance. It was also introduced how to calculate the kriging valiance.
SFEM-based Reliability Analysis of Transmission Tower by the Neumann Expansion Method
Chung, Young-Soo ; Dong, Won-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 653~653
With the aid of finite element method, this research deals with the problem of structural response variability of transmission tower subjected to the spatial variability of material properties, Young's modulus herein. The spatial variability of material property is modeled as a two-dimensional stochastic field which has an isotropic auto-correlation function. Response variabilities have been computed based on three numerical techniques, such as the Neumann expansion method in conjunction with the Monte Carlo simulation and the 1st order Pertubation method. The results by these numerical methods are compared with those by the deterministic approach. Member safety assessment has been evaluated based on the structural response variability which is determined to be normally distributed.
A Study on Flow Characteristic within the Rectangular Basin Circulation adjacent to the Oscilation Flow Field
Choi, Song-Yeol ; Cho, Won-Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 665~665
This study is to investigate the flow characteristics within a small rectangular basin adjacent to tidal channel for different basin Reynolds numbers (Re). A two dimensional channel-basin flow model using the finite analytic method(FAM) is used. It is found that the simulated flow at slack time is well agreed to experimental results. At steady flow in the channel, flow separation line between basin and channel flow concaves into the basin due to the difference of effective viscosity at low Re and is parallel to channel flow direction at high Re. The circulation characteristics due to change of Re in the basin adjacent to the tidal oscillation flow field are examined. The result, shows that the increamental trend of the averaged nondimensional velocity within basin is found with in creasing of Re, up to 500, but when Re is greater than 500 the averaged nondimensional velocity is decreasing. But during the time of slack tide, residual circulation in the basin is not subsided resulting in strong inflow and outflow.
Adaptability as a Classification System for Civil Works by Comparative Study of UCI, CI/SfB, CESMM and ISO System
Kang, Leen-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 675~675
Information classification system consists of classes, a class is a set of documents or concepts dealing with the same subject. The term is relative; a class may be a sub-class of a contaning one, and itself contain sub-classes. Project Informations Classification System(PICS) is to provide a common method of improving co-ordination of information for design, management and cost control. The present study analyzes adaptability as a information classification system for civil works through a comparative study of UCI,SfB,CI/SfB,CESMM system and ISO system which is in the development stage. The study suggests that a skeleton of PICS for civil works makes up of facet system, and classified facets consist of facilities, spaces, elements and construction works.
An Integrated NAS Information System for Estimating and Scheduling
Lee, Bae-Ho ; Kang, Leen-Seok ; Park, Hong-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 685~685
An essential function for the effective performance of project constructions may broadly be divided into project scheduling and control of schedule and cost. Of late, in project construction fields, various computer softwares of project scheduling and control of schedule and cost are being used for introduction of scientific network method. It was, however, found impossible to apply in practice the optimal schedule, because functions of scheduling and estimating are separated and analyzed, and as a result, progress analysis could not be timely performed and thus the effectiveness of field applications was not satisfactory to the input investment. The present study aims to present an estimate and schedule NAS information system conceptual model to be incorporated in developing a computer system of project scheduling and control with all necessary informations covering project schedules and project costs by each work item.
A Review of Tunnel Design Techniques by Applying a Nonlinear FEM
Lee, Bong-Yul ; Kim, Kwang-Jin ; Kim, Hak-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 699~699
A nonlinear finite element computer program for the analysis of tunnels and underground caverns was exammined with the field measurement data, and the result was reviewed. An empirical rock model based on a wide range of field strength parameter of in-situ rock mass was incorporated in the FEM program. It was found that the empirical based rock model was a powerful and valuable tool in tunnelling practice.
A Study on the Development of the Tip Measuring Negative Pore Pressure of Soils
Moon, Joon-Bai ; Jang, Yeon-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Kyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 715~715
The suction of unsaturated soil is one of the important variables to influence on volume change behavior and shear strength of soil. Conventional instruments (e.g. Thermal conductivity sensor, filter paper) used for measuring soil suction are often difficult to operate and the time to respond to capillary pressure of soil takes too long. To solve these problems, tips that have high air entry value and short lag-time are made using kaoline or Seosan clay with standard sand. Applicability of the tips are examined by performing the soil column test and by comparing the magnitude and lag-time of soil suction of the test tips with those determined by Jet fill tensiometer. From the result of soil column test, it was recognized that soil suction of unsaturated soil is influenced by the change of water content more than soil density. Use of different tips (i.e. No.7 tip for sand and No.3 for fine grained soil) for measuring soil suction is recommended to reduce the time of response and to adjust tips to various air entry value of soils. The result of the ceramic tip are validated by comparison with those of Jet fill tensiometer and Tempe pressure cell. It was recognized that time of response for the tip developed is much shorter than that of Jet fill tensiometer. The result of ceramic tip is well matched with that of two other instruments.
An Experimental Study on Nutrients Behavior in Biological Wastewater Treatment Process
Lee, Woo-Jin ; Choung, Youn-Kyoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 725~725
In order to investigate the basic phosphorous removal mechanism, batch test with lower fatty acid, which is most influential to phosphorous mechanism, was conducted. Also the results of ORP that measure the anaerobic and aerobic condition have been monitored. In this batch test, increase in acetate which is a kind of lower fatty acid, from 0 to 200 mg/L, provided increased phosphorous release in anaerobic condition and increased phosphorous uptake by microbes in aerobic condition. Addition of acetate was found to be 4 times more effective than no addition in phosphorous removal. Thru the conditions (anaerobic and aerobic), phosphorous release and uptake by microbes are 1st order reaction with respect to time and the addition of acetate has shown direct effects on reaction coefficient. The measured ORP in batch process might be able to be used as a parameter to evaluate the process operation of field workers in wastewater treatment plant, by interacting with phosphorous release concentration in anaerobic condition and nitrate concentration.
A Study on the Degradation of 2, 4-DCP Using Photocatalytic Oxidation
Choung, Youn-Kyoo ; Chung, Yeon-Kyoon ; Kwon, Dae-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 15, issue 3, 1995, Pages 731~731
Lots of researches have been studied since complelete mineralization to
by the attack of active radical species, generated on the UV irradiated
had been observed. This study is made on two subjects ; first, photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol that can substitute for the present water treatment processes those have the potential of the secondary pollution. Second, we tried out organic fate analysis and process evaluation using toxicity test. As the results of experiments, with the advance of the rate efficiency and adding a separate oxidation devices, photdcatalytic oxidation process is a possible treatment method. From data analysis using rate constant of the L-H model, pH and pKa were proved to be minor factors of the photocatalytic 2,4-Dichlorophenol oxidation and best treatment efficiencies were obserbed when natural pH and 2 LPM aeration were provided. From efficiency experiments,
turned out to be the better electron acceptor than
and reaction with
100 ppm showed the best efficiency. Evaluation of photocatalytic oxidation using toxicity test, in case of the Oryzias toxicity test, effluent was possible between reaction time from 540 min. to 1080 min. and intermediates were less toxic than 2,4-dichlorophenol.