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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 3_6 - Nov 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_6 - Nov 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_6 - Nov 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3_5 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_5 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_5 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3_4 - Jul 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_4 - Jul 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_4 - Jul 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3_3 - May 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_3 - May 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_3 - May 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3_2 - Mar 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_2 - Mar 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_2 - Mar 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3_1 - Jan 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2_1 - Jan 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1_1 - Jan 1996
Selecting the target year
Application of the QUAL2E Model for the Water Quality Management of the North Han River Basin
Oh, Kyoung-Doo ; Jun, Byong-Ho ; Lee, Hong-Keun ; Paik, Do-Hyeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 209~209
In this paper, a systematic and objective approach for the water quality management with respect to BOD concentration of the North Han River Basin through the application of the QUAL2E model is presented. To improve consistency of water quality data, only those data sets that had been measured on the same day or at least within one week were used. Deoxygenation coefficients
were estimated from the deoxygenation coefficient as a function of depth curve, based on the degree of pollution of the reach and the depth of flow computed from hydraulic simulation using the QUAL2E model. The formula for the prediction of the BOD loading rate from the basin area through tributaries were derived from regression analysis between BOD loading rate nil the sum of inflow rates to the Hwachun Dam and the Soyang-gang Dam. From the simulation study of the 1989 and 1992 water quality data, the simulated results were in relatively good agreement with the measured data even without any further adjustment of water qualify parameters. Using this verified QUAL2E model, alternatives to improve the water quality of the inflow to the Paldang Dam wert investigated.
Estimation of Areal Mean Rainfall Using Bivariate Interpolation Method for Storm Events in Han River Basins
Kim, Kyung-Duk ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ; Cho, Won-Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 219~219
It is important to observe the accurate rainfall data and to estimate the areal mean rainfall in hydraulic structures design and water resources planning. In this study, the areal mean rainfall of the sub basins of the Han River System for heavy storm events from 1984 to 1990 were estimated by the bivariate interpolation method. The grid interpolations were performed by Kriging, inverse distance, and minimum curvature interpolations. And normal, quadrant, and octant searching methods were used. The areal mean rainfall were estimated by calculating the rainfall volume obtained from the bivariate interpolation. As results, there were about 10 mm differences of rainfall depths among 3 grid interpolation methods. The interpolated rainfall data were close to the observed values by using the bivariate interpolation based on the Kriging grid interpolation and the normal searching method.
The Improvement of Discharge Estimation Formula of Paldang Dam by Considering Downstream Change
Seo, Kyu-Woo ; Jung, Il-Moon ; Lee, Won-Hwan ; Kim, Jong-Hak ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 229~229
The present discharge estimation formula of Paldang dam was decided based on the hydraulic model experiment by Sofrelec(1968). This formula has been used except partial modification due to the construction of Chungju multipurpose dam in 1985, which affected the flood forecasting system in Han River. The average water level has been lowered about 3m because of the channel maintenance as a part of Han River development project. Thus, it is inevitable to re-evaluate the discharge estimation formula which uses the difference of up- and downstream water levels and opening heights. In this study from the hydraulic model experiment of 1/100 scale the coefficients of discharge for 5, 10,and 15 gate operation rules were estimated by considering the lowered downstream water level. Then, new discharge estimation formula of Paldang dam was proposed for proper gate operation.
On the Normality of Concentration Distribution in Stochastic Groundwater Quality Management Modeling
Lee, Sang-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 239~239
Various groundwater quality management models are being developed and used for identifying effective remediation strategies of contaminated aquifer. Those models combine simulation models predicting groundwater flow and solute transport and an optimization model determining the best management strategies. Recently, significant efforts are being made to develop stochastic models in which uncertainties and adaptability to external disturbances are accounted for In stochastic groundwater quality management models, constraints imposed on the water quality are expressed in a probabilistic way and converted into deterministic equivalents for optimization under a certain assumption on the probability distribution. To date most models with time-invariant pumping policies have employed the normality assumption on the concentration distribution, but recent field studies show that the distribution can be very site-specific and call for careful examination on the assumption. This paper presents the procedure to check the validity of normality assumption when the contaminated aquifer is remediated using time-varying pumping policies. A hypothetical two-dimensional confined aquifer was studied to demonstrate the procedure.
A Study on Mixing and Entrainment Mechanism in a Two-Layered Flow System with an Enclosed Downstream Boundary Exposed to Wind Stresses
Yoon, Jong-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 247~247
Two-dimensional experiments have been performed for clarifying the wind- induced current, the interface movement and entrainment mechanism in a two-layer stratified flow system with a downstream enclosed boundary, which is exposed to wind stresses at the water surface. Research works concerning vertical processes in the stratified water areas are also reviewed. The mixed-layer dynamics and mixing phenomena in the on closed water body can be classified and analyzed according to Wedderburn. In these experiments, it is observed that the upwelling phenomena of density interface occur only in the range of Wedderburn number smaller than 4.0.
Closed-Form Solutions for Hydrodynamics of Freshwater and Saltwater in a Layered Soil Column
Park, Nam-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 259~259
Hydrodynamics of freshwater and saltwater in a layered vertical soil column is investigated using closed-form solutions. The solutions descirbe steady-state density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport. Although dimensionally simple, solutions are mathematically complete and physically general. No approximation is made in the derivation. Given the frame of steady state and one dimension, solutions are general in that physics relented to flow and transport are reflected correctly. All transport mechanisms, advection, molecular diffusion, and velocity-dependent dispersion, are accounted for. Across layers porosities, intrinsic permeabilities, and dispersivities are allowed to vary.
Analysis of Runoff Effect Based on Pipeflow Routing Method on Small Urban Watersheds
Kim, Dock-Hwa ; Seo, Kyu-Woo ; Bae, Deg-Hyo ; Cho, Won-Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 271~271
In this study, several river channel routing methods including Convex method, Muskingum method, kinematic wave method, and pipeflow routing method are applied for the comparative analysis of runoff characteristics on small urban watersheds. The selected areas are the Hongje and the Bulkwang stream basins. The SCS synthetic unit hydrograph on RUNOFF model is used for simulation of flows. The results indicate that the reduction of peak flow by Muskingum method is greater than that by Convex method, but peak time is similar between these two methods. Also, kinematic wave method shows the largest peak flow and fast peak time due to no consideration of river storage effect. The results from pipeflow routing method are compared with those from other three methods, the storage effect by pipeflow is significant and the average reduction of peak flow is about 8.1%. Thus, pipeflow routing method is recommended for the runoff analysis on urban watersheds.
Predicting Mixing Characteristics of Heated-Water Discharged by Submerged Multi-port Diffuser
Lee, Jae-Hyung ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 281~281
The numerical investigation has been performed to predict excess temperature distribution in the near-field region of the discharging port when the heated-water is being discharged using submerged multi-port diffuser. CORMIX2 model was used to simulate excess temperature distribution induced by the submerged multi-port diffuser, and this model was verified using the laboratory experimental data. Comparing with the experimental data, simulated temperature distributions by the CORMIX2 model are in good agreement with the measured temperature distributions. To test the efficiency of the submerged multi-port diffuser, Kori nuclear power plant discharging the heated-water by surface discharge system was selected as a study site. The computed temperature distributions of the submerged multi-port diffuser were compared with the measured distributions of the surface discharge system. The result shows that initial dilution induced by the submerged multi-port diffuser is much higher than that induced by the conventional surface discharge system.
Nonlinear Analysis of the Stationary Displacement of Catenary Moored Floating Structures
Chun, In-Sik ; Park, Hyun-Joo ; Sim, Jae-Sul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 291~291
In the present study, a numerical method for determining stationary displacements of 6degrees of freedom is developed for the three dimensional floating structures with arbitrarily placed mooring lines. The mooring lines considered here are of catenary type generally corresponding to chains or wire ropes. The catenary type shows a strong non-linearity so that the elastic coefficient of a mooring line varies for every instantaneous position of the floating body. The elastic coefficients are here mathematically determined from catenary formula and incorporated into the numerical method in order to completely reflect the nonlinearity. The Newton method is used for the iterative calculation to determine the 6 d.o.f. displacements of floating body and the mooring tension of each mooring line, and an example analysis showed that its convergency is excellent. In the design of floating structures, it is necessary to flexibly consider several layouts of mooring lines. and the present numerical method may be effectively used for that purpose.
Numerical Simulation of Transoceanic Propagation of Tsunamis
Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 303~303
A finite difference model is proposed to simulate the transoceanic propagation of tsunamis. In numerical simulation a set of linear shallow-water equations is solved. The spatial and temporal step sizes are properly manipulated, so that the numerical dispersion induced by the leap-frog finite difference scheme plays an equivalent role of the physical frequency dispersion of the linear Boussinesq equations. A numerical example simplifying an undersea earthquake is used to verify the performance of the proposed model. Time histories of free surface displacements obtained from the numerical model are well agreed with the analytical solutions.
Enhancement of Phosphorus Removal Efficiency by addition of the Supernatant from an Anaerobic Digester in Intermittently Aerated Biological Nutrient Removal Processes
Ko, Kwang-Baik ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Yim, Seong-Keun ; Jeon, Seok-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 16, issue 2_3, 1996, Pages 311~311
Since the biological removal of phosphorous may be enhanced by adding artificially volatile fatty acids into biological nutrient removal processes, the possible use of anaerobic digester supernatant as a source of volatile fatty acids was investigated in this study. The removal efficiencies of organic substrates, nitrogen and phosphorus were estimated by additionally supplying acetic acid, propionic acid or butyric acid into a series of batch reactors. The removal efficiencies of them were also investigated by adding the supernatant from an existing anaerobic digester into the batch reactors under the different sets of operational conditions. The phosphorus removal efficiencies were up to about 68%, 55% and 61% for the reactors of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, respectively. which indicates the efficiencies were increased by 8-21%, comparing to that of 47% for the reactor with no volatile acids added. There were no significant difference in removal efficiencies for organic substrate and
between the batch reactors without regard to addition of volatile fatty acids. However, the removal efficiency of total nitrogn in the effluent was increased in the reactors into which volatile fatty acid were added, since
was less produced in them.
were removed higher in the reactors into which the supernatants were added in amount of 1/100 (v/v ratio) and
were removed higher in the reactors into which the supernatnats were added in amount of 1/50 than that in the other reactors. It indicates that the amount of the supernatant supplied should be determined by considering the characteristics of supernatants, as well as those of influent wastewaters into biological nutrient removal processes.