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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 3_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_1 - Jan 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_1 - Jan 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_1 - Jan 1997
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p-Version Finite Element Model Based on Equivalent Domain Integral Method for 2-D Cracked Panels
Sin, Seong-Jin ; Hong, Jong-Hyeon ; Sin, Byeong-Cheon ; U, Gwang-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 137~137
In this study, an equivalent domain integral (EDI) method is presented to estimate the crack-tip integral parameter, J-value, for two dimension cracked elastic bodies which may quantify the severity of the crack-tip stress fields. The conventional J-integral method based on line integral has been converted to equivalent area or domain integrals by using the divergence theorem. It is noted that the EDI method is very attractive because all the quantities necessary for computation of the domain integrals are readily available in a finite element analysis. The details and its implementation are extened to both h-version finite element model with 8-node isoparametric element and p-version finite element model with high order hierarchic element using Legendre type shape functions. The variations with respect to the different path of domain integrals from the crack-tip front and the choice of S-function have been tested by several examples.
Flutter Analysis of Long-span Bridge Under Wind Load
Kwon, Soon-Duck ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 149~149
The method for flutter analysis of long-span bridge based on flutter derivative approach is presented. The element aerodynamic matrix for unsteady forces were derived. Aeroelastic equation of motion was formulated using structural element and derived aerodynamic element. The complex eigenvalue problem of flutter condition was solved by modified p-K method. The analysis results show that the flutter analysis scheme presented herein can cheaply and precisely predict flutter velocity and mode of long-span bridge.
Active Aerodynamic Control of Flutter and Gust Response of Bridge
Kwon, Soon-Duck ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 157~157
The control surfaces at the edge of deck is proposed for flutter suppression and gust alleviation. The state space equation of motion considering the aerodynamic and dynamic interaction between the deck and control surfaces is derived. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are included in the equation of motion using rational function approximation. Numerical results show that the system with both trailing and leading edge control is more effective than that with trailing edge only. Proposed active control scheme can simutaneously mitigate flutter and gust response with small control energy.
Analytical Approach to the Governing Equation of Motion Involving Random Parametric and Inhomogeneous Excitations
Kim, Ki-Bong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 167~167
The governing equations of motion for the seismic response of rotor-bearing systems subjected to six-component nonstationary earthquake ground motions or the uncoupled torsional response of long span bridges considering the effects of spanwise wind correlation and turbulence intensity include the random parametric and inhomogeneous excitations. Currently, the method of Monte Carlo simulation appears to be the only practical approach for such problems. Since this method needs a large number of sample functions to obtain accurate statistical response quantities, the required computer time is of great concern. Thus, in this paper the Markov vector approach using the Ito equation and Stratonovich averaging procedures is employed to determine the response statistics analytically. A numerical example is worked out to demonstrate the methodology employed.
System Reliability-Based Safety Assessment and Berth-Capacity Rating of Aged Wharf Structures of Pier Type
Cho, Hyo-Nam ; Lim, Jong-Kwon ; Lee, Woo-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 177~177
Wharf structures of pier type are usually highly redundant due to a large number of piles and the collapse of these structures occurs mostly due to multiple failure modes such as uplift stability limit state, bearing capacity limit state as well as strength limit state of piles. Thus, the study focuses on the development of the model and method for the system reliability-based safety assessment and berth-capacity rating of wharf structures to consider all these failure modes systematically and simultaneously. The proposed models and methods in the paper are applied to existing aged wharf structures of pier type. It is found that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to the system reliability-based safety assessment and berth-capacity rating of existing aged wharf structures of pier type.
Field Load Testing and Reliability-based Integrity Assessment of Segmental PC Box Girder Bridges before Opening to Traffic
Cho, Hyo-Nam ; Choi, Young-Min ; Lee, Jeong-Kon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 187~187
The main objective of this study is to suggest practical methods for field load testing and a reliability-based approach for the assessment of safety, durability, and load carrying capacity of newly constructed PC box girder bridges before opening to traffic. The proposed field proof-load and behavior tests such as static and dynamic proof-load tests, crack behavior test, and the test for the measurement of external post-tension forces are proved to be very practical and effective for the integrity assessment of PC box girder bridges. The response ratios acquired from proof-load tests are incorporated into the limit state model for the assessment of realistic safety and load carrying capacity of the type of bridges. This paper also suggests practical strength and crack durability limit state equations for the reliability-based integrity assessment of segmental PC box girder bridges. The AFOSM and MCS (Monte-Carlo Simulation) are used as reliability methods for the reliability analysis using the proposed models. The proposed reliability-based approach with the results of extensive field static and dynamic tests are applied for the integrity assessment of a new segmental PC box girder bridge, namely, New Haengju Grand Bridge, which have been reconstructed after the collapse during construction 4 years ago.
Determination of the Initial Configuration for a Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge Introducing Initial Axial Forces
Kim, Ho-Kyung ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 197~197
Contrary to a typical suspension bridge, large axial force is introduced in the stiffening girder of a self-anchored suspension bridge under the dead load state. Consequently the cable anchorages and the tower tops of a self-anchored suspension bridge go through displacement along the bridge axis. For this reason, it is difficult to form the aiming configuration of a self-anchored suspension bridge with only convention determinant method. In order to control the changes of boundary conditions of the main cable, it is necessary to count initial axial forces in calculating the unbalanced force caused by the bridge self-weight. In this paper, an algorithm is developed to consider the initial forces of frame members in establishing the initial configuration of a self-anchored suspension bridge. Based upon an application to an actual bridge, it is necessary to carry out initial-force-included configuration analysis for a self-anchored suspension bridge for the proper control of the configuration.
A Study on the Influence Line Analysis of Suspension Bridges
Choi, We-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 207~207
The purpose of this study encompasses the development of practical suspension bridge analyses methods and its related programs which can be used on the actual day to day applications. The suspension bridges are composed of cables, hangers, towers and girders, and among these, the cables and hangers are special elements which are not capable of providing resistance against bending and compression while only capable of resisting against tension. When the suspension bridges are loaded, the whole structure display very complex nonlinear behavior due to excessive cable deflection. In order to perform structural analyses of suspension bridges which behave nonlinearly, the initial shape analyses are needed to establish the initial shapes which will correspond to the design shapes. Once the initial shapes are established, dead loads are applied to the initially shaped models to establish design shapes, and the geometric nonlinear analyses are performed for each load at this stage. Because the structural analyses involving initial shape analyses, dead loads and others require iterations based on the nonlinear theory, much time and efforts are needed to find solutions and it is difficult to avoid numerical errors due to the iterations. Much difficulties are associated in finding the design values required at various structural elements due to the fact that influence line analyses methods, the performance of which are required for designs, can not be applied in nonlinear theory. This study has developed linearized analyses methods for suspension bridge for the purpose of providing practical suspension bridge analyses which dosen't require the initial shape analyses and reiterated computations, but on which the influence line methods can be applied. The method of this study has found to be effective when structural analyses result of the study had been compared to already established design and analyses results.
Development of Optimization for System of Framed Structures with Steel-Concrete Composite Section
Park, Moon-Ho ; Kwon, Min-Ho ; Kim, Ki-Hong ; Chang, Chun-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 217~217
This study is to develop the optimum design algorithm of framed structures with composite section. Matrix structural analysis which has 3 D.O.F at each node is used to analyze elastic structures, and Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD, 1994) is used to design each structures. The objective function is formulated as the total cost of the composite structure. The ultimate strength requirements and the serviceability of LRFD are taken as design constraints. The difficulty of design at negative moment region is studied. Algorithm for solving the optimizing are to be developed using continuous and discrete optimization techniques by the SUMT method. And practical algorithm is introduced by comparing with numerical examples for each developed algorithm.
Improvement of Aging Mechanisms on Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites
Won, Jong-Pil ; Moon, Je-Kil ; Ahn, Tae-Song ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 229~229
Cellulose fiber reinforced cement composites manufactured by the slurry-dewatering process have been found broad applications in thin cement products as replacement for asbestos cement. This paper focuses on the durability characteristics of these composites under different aging conditions. The effects of wetting-drying and freezing-thawing cycles, carbonation, and exposure to hot and humid environments on the structure and properties of cellulose fiber-cement composites were investigated. The predominant mechanisms of aging in the composites were identified through investigation of structure-property relationships. Measures to control these aging mechanisms were diversed and evaluated. Refined cellulose fiber-cement composites are shown to possess excellent durability characteristics under the effects of various aging processes.
Wheel Load Distribution of the STEDEF System on Concrete Trackbed
Kim, Sung-Chil ; Lee, Ki-Seung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 237~237
The rail, which supports the train loads, distributes the wheel loads to the ties by rail stiffness. The track stress and displacement occur according to the rail pressure, transmit to each tie. As a result, it is very important that the rail pressure should be correctly calculated in track design. The purpose of this study is to predict the linier track displacement limit and examine the load distribution ratio and the rail pressure on the concrete track. In this study the rail pressure was first analyzed based on the finite element theory, and then was verified using field test results. The track pressure-displacement curve was considered in the track model. The displacement was also measured in the field, and the rail pressure at the rail-tie interface was estimated. The results indicate that the tie displacements are linear within a range of 3.2 mm. A wheel load of 4.725 tons on the rail resulted in a static track displacement of 1.27 mm and the dynamic track displacement of 1.46 mm under a train traveling at 55 km/Hr. The maximum distribution ratio of the tie was about 28%.
System Ductility Demands Evaluation Method for Multistory Structures Subjected to Earthquake Ground Motions
Lee, Dong-Guen ; Song, Jong-Keol ; Yun, Chung-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 245~245
System-level ductility is an essential factor for earthquake resistant design of structures. It is related to the response modification factor (or force reduction factor), commonly used in aseismic design procedures. The ductility demands for single-degree of freedom structures or individual structural members can be determined easily. However, there is no established method to determine the ductility demands for structural systems. The object of this study is to develop a method for the estimation of the ductility demand at the structural system level. The validity of the proposed method has been examined for several cases of different structures and different earthquake excitations.
A Study on Failure Behavior of Structures Using Modified Distinct Element Method
Kim, Moon-Kyum ; Oh, Keum-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Woo-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 259~259
Under strong shock loads such as earthquake or blast, structures may include stress concentrating members. The members include cracks and are separated by discontinuous faces. The each fragmented members of structure interact and move as rigid body motion. In this study, a modified distinct element method is improved to be able to analyze the complex structural behavior including continuous behavior, rigid body motion, and interaction of the discontinuous faces. In order to analyze the continuous behavior, a concept that contact face between distinct elements is fully bonded is assumed. Interaction of the contact face is modeled by continuum contact spring of which stiffness is calculated from contact area and distance of the element centers according to elements array. To consider the interaction of the discontinuous face, a concept that a large number of contact points may interact instead of the contact area is assumed. Mechanical behavior of each contact points is able to be calculated by using analytical solutions of contact problem for circular disks. By applying the contact spring stiffness differently according to contact face in continuum and contact points of discontinuous face, practical analysis can be improved. To verify the improved method for the continuum media, the stress propagation in one dimensional simple bar is investigated. The failure behavior of the rectangular specimen subjected to the static loading is analyzed in order to inspect the failure conditions of the contact springs. By representing the cracking behavior of the simply supported beam member, the possibility which the micro mechanically developed numerical method can be used for analysis of macro mechanically behavior is proved.
Vibration Analysis of Strip Foundations in Layered Soils using Infinite Elements
Yun, Chung-Bang ; Kim, Doo-Kie ; Kim, Yoo-Jin ; Lee, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 271~271
In this paper, two dimensional vertical and corner infinite elements which can include multiple wave components to model the underlying half-space are developed. These elements are natural and economical to describe the underlying half-space or stiff rock. To prove the behavior of the proposed infinite elements, vertical, horizontal, and rocking compliances of a rigid strip foundation on a viscoelastic soil profile are analyzed and compared with those obtained by boundary solution method. Good agreements are found between the two sets of results. The influences of material properties like Poisson's ratio, material damping, and stiffness ratio of layers as well as the influence of geometrical properties such as layer thicknesses and depth of foundation embedment are studied. Example analysis is also carried out for a foundation of a large shaking table, and the computed vertical and horizontal displacements are compared with the measured.
Modal Analysis of Offshore Structures by Using the Component Mode Synthesis
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Lee, Il-Keun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 283~283
To analyze the vibration of the structural system having the intricate shapes and boundary conditions, the number of D.O.F for the large structures like offshore ones are enlarged and the solution for those problems needs much time. This paper uses the Component Mode Synthesis Method to efficiently analyze the free vibration for the dolphin structure having the large number of D.O.F in example of the large structural system. Firstly, after dividing the structure in two components it linearly combinates the vibration displacement shapes of each component. It creates the condensed vibration equations of the total structure in mode coordinate by synthesizing the connecting points between each component and satisfying the displacement and the compatibility condition, from which it obtains the natural frequencies and the natural mode shapes. Also, this paper proves the accuracy of the solution in point of the skill and the efficiency in point of economizing time by comparing the CMS method for component system to the existing FEM method for total system.
A Study on the Dynamic Vibration Reduction of Steel Box Bridge
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 293~293
Steel box bridge was modelled to improve the dynamic characteristics under moving loads (DB-24), which obtained using 3Axis-2DOF system that considers moving mass, and the kinetic equation for the bridge was derived based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam, which ignores the torsional DOF. The effects of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) lead to the fellowing conclusions that there is little efficiency of the maximum deflection, and more efficient to control the dynamic amplitude than the maximum static deflection.
Unified Interaction Equation for Beam-Columns with Box Section
Yang, Chang-Hyun ; Choi, Jae-Ick ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 303~303
Most of the steel design specifications prescribe two interaction equations which is to check the strength and stability of beam-column members subjected to a combination of axial compression force and bending moments. However, there is a problem of discontinuity occurring in the interaction curve. To solve this problem, this study proposes a logical method of deriving a unified interaction equation to satisfy both strength and stability criteria for beam-column members composed of box-sections. And for the load-carrying capacity of unbraced steel frames, the results of the proposed equation are compared with those of the FEM analysis and the current design specifications. It is found that the proposed interaction equation can provide the load-carrying capacity of beam-column members more easily and accurately than the other methods.
Dynamic Behavior of Rotating Machine Foundations Equipped with a Vibration Isolation System under Earthquake Loading
Lee, Jong-Rim ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_2, 1997, Pages 313~313
An experimental study and 3-dimensional analyses were performed to overcome the inadequacy of the existing 2-dimensional analysis method which is strictly valid only for the foundations with coincident centers of mass and resistance. A 1/10 scaled model structure simulated for the prototype structure that is a 400 MW turbine-generator foundation was constructed and a 6 DOF shaking table test was performed to investigate its dynamic and seismic response due to employing the spring elements as a vibration isolation system. A comparison of test results and 3 dimensional analytical results by Finite Element Method was made. Also, this paper demonstrates the torsional effect of spring supported turbinegenerator foundations through parametric studies and provides several suggestions to improve the design of low-tuned foundations under earthquake loading.