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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 3_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_6 - Nov 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_5 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_4 - Jul 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_3 - May 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_2 - Mar 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3_1 - Jan 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2_1 - Jan 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1_1 - Jan 1997
Selecting the target year
A Study on Design of Expansion Joints in Concrete Bridges Considering Thermal Gradient
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Park, Hong-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 447~447
The thermal conditions at the location of a birdge should be taken into account for a suitable design of a deck joint. According to KBDC (Korea Bridge Design Code) the allowable movement of a deck joint is estimated from the movements of a bridge caused by thermal change, shirinkage, creep and deflection angle at the end of a girder due to live loads. However, the thermal gradient acting on the section of a bridge causes additional movements, in the form of contraction or expansion, depending on the direction of the imposed themal curvature. Therefore, the estimation method for the displacement caused by the action of the thermal gradient in joints of bridges with various types of decks in depths and the thickness of asphalt cover is developed and presented in this paper.
Dynamic Loads and Ground Vibrations Induced by Trains on Bridge
Yun, Chung-Bang ; Kim, Doo-Kie ; Yang, Sin-Chu ; Oh, Woo-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 455~455
The characteristics of ground vibrations due to high-speed train loads in bridge section and the vibration reduction techniques for near-by building structures are studied. Train loads acting on the piers of a concrete bridge are evaluated considering the interactions between trains and bridge. The ground vibration analysis is performed using finite and infinite elements to model the near and far fields of the soil medium. Parameteric studies are carried out for various train speeds and the geotechnical conditions to verify the present method and to analyze the effects of underground barrier and trench for reduction of the ground vibrations.
Fracture Behavior of Multi-Phase Material in a Stacking of Progressive Fracture Mode
Kim, Sang-Chel ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 469~469
To investigate reasons of size-dependence of fracture parameters experimentally observed in concrete, the concrete was idealized as a multi-phase composite material. In this study, fracture behavior of the composite was evaluated in terms of progressive fracture (PF) mode such that all of individual phases are stacked in tougher and less tough sequence alternately. As a result of analysis based on that each individual phase behaves in accordance with Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, it was found that, due to snap-back instability. load-load line deflection curve traces the path of vertical drop instead of moving back when the crack propagates from a tougher layer to a less tough layer. It resulted in the generation of spurious energy and accordingly the increase of fracture energy. In addition, critical stress intensity factor and critic crack tip opening displacement were also found to be dependent on the number of phases.
The Characteristics of High Strength Concrete Members at Early Ages under Axially Restrained Condition
Yang, Eun-Ik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 477~477
This study is performed to verify the effects of the restraint of axial deformation (i.e., thermal and time dependent volume change after placing) on the mechanical behavior of high strength concrete members at early age. For this purpose, the development of the res-trained stress and the mechanism of crack formation due to restrained stress was studied on the basis of the experiments and the numerical analyses. When a high strength concrete member was axially restrained, the crack might propagate in the member which was not demoulded at early age. This is caused by the drop of temperature generated by the hydration heat of cement and not by drying shrinkage which is not started yet. The restrained stress of member was accurately obtained by calculating the externally restrained force and the steel stress. The maximum restrained stress is determined by the cracking strength of concrete. It is concluded that the additional restrained stress is released and the stiffness of member is reduced with the formation of further crack.
Application of Computer Vision to the Study of Concrete Fracture
Choi, Sok-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 487~487
A number of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been developed for the fracture study of concrete in the past several decades. They include laser interferometry methods, ultrasonic and acoustic emission technique, and microtomography. Each of the techniques have their unique strengths and weaknesses. Since the heterogeneous nature of concrete makes it difficult to examine with some of the more traditional techniques, a robust measuring method is essential in obtaining reliable deformation data. A non-destructive displacement evaluation system utilizing a digital image correlation (DIC) scheme, often called computer vision. has been used to obtain fracture information under actual testing conditions. The behavior of concrete panels under different end conditions will be examined using DIC in this paper.
Postbuckling Analysis of Geometrically Imperfect Plates by Finite Elements
Kim, Hyeong-Yeol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 497~497
The influence of initial imperfections on the postbuckling response of plates is studied using the finite element procedure. Based on the von Karman plate equations and Marquerre's shallow shell theory, a rectangular thin plate finite element is developed and utilized. The element formulation is similar to those used in numerous other investigations, but it provides the ability to model a plate with various boundary conditions in a relatively realistic manner. The emphasis is placed on the use of a higher order in-plane displacement function so that this element is also appropriate for the thin-walled plate assembly. An incremental solution algorithm employs the nonlinear incremental method in connection with the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. Several example problems are solved to verify the validity of the present study. Agreement with the existing analytical and numerical solutions is generally excellent.
Development of a Time-Step Analysis Method for the Determination of the Behaviour Factor
Kook, Seung-Kyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 507~507
In the "Response Spectrum Method", the behaviour factors are applied to take into account the nonlinear behaviour of structures. For the determination of the behaviour factors, numerous time-step calculations should be executed in the nonlinear range in older to consider not only various structural configurations but also eccentricity of mass and stiffness, yield strengths distribution, seismic inputs, etc.. A time-step analysis method based on the modal analysis technique, where the nonlinear behaviour is described with the plastic hinge theory, is developed in this study in order to accomplish such investigations with reasonable time and cost required. The reliability estimation is carried out through comparison calculations.
Analysis of Box Girders by the use of Simplized Plate Elements
Choi, Wae-Ho ; Lee, Hack-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 515~515
A simplified theory is developed for the analysis of straight box girder bridges. A box girder bridge is divided longitudinally into a finite number of segments and then each segment is decomposed into sever rectangular plate elements by cutting it laterally. Elemental rectangular plates are connected each other at their joints located at the center of each longitudinal side of the element to form a segment. Segments are interconnected at the joints located at the midpoint of each transverse side of the element to form a girder. The element stiffness matrix is formulated on the basis of the ordinary beam theory under the assumption that the stresses in an element are distributed varied linearly along sides of the element. Therefore the stiffness matrix in this theory is obtained without using the shape function and the numerical integration which are necessary in the conventional finite element method. A computer program has been written in Fortran language based on this theory A continuous box girder bridge is analyzed to verify the validity and accuracy of this theory The results for the deflections, longitudinal girder moments, and transverse slab moments are compared with those obtained by other methods. Concering the total girder moments, the method developed here in shows good agreement with the folded plate method which generally gives more accurate results than the finite element method or the finite segment method for the same degree of mesh refinement. The deflections and thd transverse slab moments obtained by present theory are slightly smaller in magnitude than those by FEM. The special feature of the theory lies in the fact that it greatly reduces the computer time for the same degree of mesh refinement without losing the accuracy. This theory may, therefore, be directly used as an efficient tool to analyze and design straight box girder bridges subjected to arbitrary loading.
Equivalent Vehicle Load Factors for Slab of Parking Garage Structures
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Song, Jong-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 529~529
The equivalent vehicle load factors which can consider the concentrated wheel load effect in slab design of parking garage structure are proposed. Based on the standard vehicle with total weight of 2.4 ton which is designed through the investigation of small to medium vehicle produced in Korea and the review of numerous foreign design codes for parking garage structure, the effects of moving vehicle loads on slab are analyzed using the finite element method. Besides, the relationships between the equivalent load factors and the sectional dimensions are established by regression analysis. The calculation of design forces can be easily accomplished without taking sophisticated numerical analysis for the moving vehicle load as the results obtained to the distributed load are multiplied by the proposed load factors in practice.
Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis of Underground Rock Structure Considering the Multi-Random Variables in the Physical Properties of Rock mass
Choi, Kyu-Sup ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 541~541
In this study, a stochastic finite element model is proposed with a view to consider the uncertainty of physical properties of rock mass in the analysis of structural behavior of underground caverns. Here, the Latin Hypercube Sampling technique, which can make up weak points of the Monte Carlo Simulation, is applied. To reflect the uncertainty of material properties, the elastic modulus and the poisson's ratio are selected as multi-random variables, all of which could be simulated in terms of normal distribution, log-normal distribution, and rectangular uniform distribution. A computer program has been developed and verified through the analysis of verification examples, and its practical applicability has been confirmed by comparing the measured data obtained from the underground oil storage cavern in korea.
Development and Practical Application of Cable Tension Adjustment System
Chung, Kwang-Sup ; Park, Jung-Il ; Cho, Eu-Kyung ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 555~555
Cable tension adjustment system is developed, which can estimate cable adjustment length for the reduction of cable tension errors due to the estimation error of section modulus, mis-estimation of dead load, fabrication error and the installation errors of cable length etc. in the construction of cable-supported bridges. Error influence matrix is used in the estimation of cable adjustment length. This matrix is derived from the exact solution of elastic catenary cable equation and the equilibrium equation of nonlinear structural system. Cable tension adjustment system calculates optimum adjustment lengths which can reduce evenly the overall errors in cable tension and girder camber within the allowance limits. Practical applications to the cable tension adjustments of the Seokang Nielsen Arch bridge confirm its usefulness.
The Influence of Attached Mass/Masses on Natural Frequencies of Vibration of Laminated Composite Plates for Bridge Decks
Sim, Do-Sik ; Hong, Chang-Woo ; Park, Je-Sun ; Kim, Duck-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 565~565
Composite materials can be used economically and efficiently in broad civil engineering applications when standards and processes for analysis, design, fabrication. construction and quality control are established. Many of the bridge and building floor systems, including the girders and cross-beams, and concrete decks behave as the special orthotropic plates which have
fiber orientations. In this paper, the result of application of simple method of vibration analysis to the special orthotropic plates with variable cross-section, and with a pair of opposithe edges simple supported and the other pair of opposithe edges free is presented. The effect of attached point mass/masses is also studied. The merit of the presented method is that one uses such values, used already for calculating deflection, slope, moment, and shear, to get the eigenvalues, at present, the natural frequency of the structure.
A Study on the Patch Test for Mindlin Plate Bending Elements with Emphasis on the Nonconforming Element
Park, Yong-Myung ; Choi, Chang-Koon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 577~577
In this paper, the classical Irons' patch tests which have been generally accepted for the convergence proof of finite elements are performed for the conforming and non-conforming Mindlin plate bending elements. The elements considered are 4-node and 8-node quadrilateral isoparametric elements which have been dominantly used for the analyses of plate bending problems. The clues to pass the Irons' patch tests for Mindlin plate elements are investigated. The convergence of Mindlin plate elements, either pass the patch tests or not, is examined by numerical tests. Again, the convergence characteristics of Mindlin plate elements which do not pass the Irons' patch tests are analyzed by weak patch tests.
The Study of Interaction Analysis of Circular Plate under Axisymmetric Loading Resting on Elastic Half-space Considering Local Separation between Plate and Soil-foundation
Kim, Sung-Chirl ; Cho, Hyun-Yung ; Cheung, Jin-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 589~589
The circular plate resting on Boussinesq's half-space model under axisymmetric loading is studied with a finite element procedure to evaluate the distribution of contact pressure between plate and elastic half-space. The circular plate on elastic half-space is simulated by the 8-node isoparametric elements. The displacement of half-space due to axisymmetric surface loading can be evaluated by double integration of Boussinesq's solution. On that case the analytical integration can be executed for the radial direction but the analytical integration for the circumferential direction is impossible and the numerical integration should be considered. With the radial integration we can get non-dimensional function about the ratio
be the radial distance of any point and R be the radius of uniform circular loading. Then the numerical integration for the formula is executed for the circumferential direction and the results are approximated 5th order polynomials by using the least square method. With these 5th order approximate formula for the surface displacement of half-space under the uniformly distributed circular loading, the flexibility matrix of half-space is constructed as the coefficient matrix of nodal contact pressure by the finite element procedures. According to the relative stiffness between half-space and circular plate some part of plate can be separated with half-space. In this study, an iteration procedures are attempted to determine the separated region.
A Study on Load Distribution Effect in Skew Slab Bridges
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 597~597
The proper design of skew slab bridges and evaluation of existing ones require an accurate prediction of live load moment per unit slab width. The design method specified by the Korea Bridge Design Code does not account for the effect of skew. The use of wheel load distribution width given by codes of practice does simplify the analysis and design of bridges, but use of inappropriate wheel load distribution width can mislead to design moment, expecially in the case of skew bridges. In this paper, the influence of skew, as well as other design parameters, on the wheel load distribution widths of skew slab bridges are investigated. Finite element model used in the study is verified by results from Held tests on two skew slab bridges. The finite element analysis is then employed to conduct an extensive parameter study on more than 315 prototype bridge cases. Several parameters are varied. such as aspect ratio, an히e of skew and number of lanes. The span vary between 10.5 and 26.25 m. The angle of skew are varied between
The results show that the presence of skew causes significant reduction in moment per unit slab width. Therefore, wheel load distribution widths increase significantly with increase in the skew angle.
An Experimental Study on the Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Box Columns
Song, Jun-Yeup ; Kwon, Young-Bong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 607~607
An experimental study on the behavior of concrete-filled steel box columns was performed. Welded steel box columns with and without stiffeners were also tested under concentric compressive load to failure. The test results showed that composite box columns had high ductility as well as high strength due to mutual confinement between filled-in concrete and steel plate. The effect of longitudinal stiffeners and the width-thickness ratio on the buckling and ultimate strength of composite columns has been investigated. Equations for the inelastic local buckling stress of the box columns based on the elastic buckling stress were derived. In addition. simple formulas for the design of the steel box columns and composite columns were proposed based on the test results.
Damage Assessments of Structures Using Neural Networks
Choung, Hwan-Chin ; Kim, Ju-Tae ; Oh, Ju-Won ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 617~617
In this paper, damage assessments are accomplished by using neural networks in time domain. Backpropagation neural network is adopted to fulfill the damage assessments. When the damages occur on a structure, the structural responses changed contain the information about damage locations and extents, implicitly. Throughout the changes of structural responses. the neural networks can detect damage locations and extents. simultaneously. In the conventional damage assessments using neural networks, the vibration signatures are measured by means of impacting the seismic loads and static loads on structures. In such cases, it is difficult to obtain the data surveying on the structures, practically. However, the vibration of beam structure considered in this study is induced by the moving load. The acceleration is the input of neural networks. The neural network is trained and tested with the acceleration data. The simulation informs that it is efficient to use neural network in damage assessments and how to determine the sampling time of input data for neural networks.
Damping Modeling for the Analysis of Collapse Motion of Structures
Koh, Hyun-Moo ; Park, Young-Ha ; Cho, Keun-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 627~627
There exist independent structural systems having no constraints in the collapse, which are characterized by the rigid body mode. If the original Rayleigh damping model is applied to the system, the motion is improperly described because the mass proportional damping causes the resistant force to the motion. In this paper, a new damping model, so called rigid-body-mode-removed damping model. is proposed, which separates the rigid body mode component from the mass proportional damping of the conventional Rayleigh damping model, so that damping force for the only deformation mode be evaluated. Utilizing the central difference time integration method, mass orthogonality of the rigid body mode and the rigid body mode being the nullspace of the stiffness matrix, it is shown that the rigid body mode velocity can be pre-evaluated at the current time step, which enables the explicit time integration.
Choice of Measurement Locations for Parameter Estimation by Static Response
Choi, We-Ho ; Eun, Chung-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 635~635
Civil structures mainly require sophisticated finite element models having a number of degrees of freedom, also much effort and cost have to be conducted in experiments and measurements on structures. Necessarily accompanying measurement errors in parameter identification of structures, sparseness and errors of measured da are subjects that are certainly considered. Noisy static force and displacement measurements are used for parameter identification of structures, but limited measurements by experiment are not enough to estimate parameters, and measurement location and the level of accuracy in the measured data can drastically affect the accuracy of the identified parameters. To perform a successful parameter identification in this study, a limited number of degrees of freedom (DOF) on the identified parameters are selected and error sensitivity analysis is used to determine the effect of measurement errors on the parameter estimates. Consequently, a selected DOF to estimate parameters of structures is able to reduce errors when parameters of structures are estimated, and greatly helps to select measurement locations. Numerical examples in this study are presented to demonstrate that using the measurement at the selected subset of the DOF can reduce the error in the parameter estimates.
A Plan for Work Progress Control Using Computerized Schedule of Construction Management System
Park, Hong-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 649~649
PERT/CPM method was introduced in Korea since the 1960's. Numerous theory and technique have been introduced and utilized in many construction sites. However, the practical use of this techinique has not been active and rather superficial so far. It was found that one of the important reasons was lack of proper application and existence of effective schedule management system. Accordingly, the schedule management information system was reorganized and the characteristics of schedule management systems utilized in Korea were compared and analyzed in order to upgrade the better understanding of schedule management, which plays an important role in a construction management system. As a result, this study presents the schedule management system model for individual site. Based on the schedule management system model. the operation plan for integrated schedule management, which clients and contractors are able to operate. Also an appropriate operation plan for schedule management is presented. The method proposed in this study can be used as an effective tool which will reduce the inappropriate use of conventional method, when clients control and manage the construction progress of the contractor.
A Basic Study for Improvement of Procedure in Successful Performing Construction Project
Koo, Jai-Dong ; Chin, Kyung-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 661~661
Currently Korea construction industry is faced with environments to prevent from poor quality construction, to prepare for claims along with the construction market open, and to improve competitive capability. To meet these challenge, more clear and specific procedure to perform construction projects should be established. In particular, more enough time and cost investment in the pre-project planning and feasibility study stage is requested. As the result of the basic research, this report analyzes the basic procedure to perform construction project, performs literature reviews, investigates related-regulations on the construction project procedure, and identifies problems in performing construction project. Based on the study. this research suggests a new procedure to improve the identified problem areas at each stage. In addition, to reflect the new procedure in performing construction project, this research proposes a new specification for construction project procedure which will replaces the existing procedure specified in the Construction Technology Management Law.
A Study of Construction Workers' Motivation for Improving Productivity at the Building Construction Sites
Lee, Tai-Sik ; You, Chul-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 17, issue 1_4, 1997, Pages 671~671
Nowadays, it is important to motivate construction workers for making higher productivities of them. This study indicates that a highly motivated workforce enhances productivity and project effectiveness. One area for concerning this multi-faceted problems is construction workers' motivation. Construction workers seem to take less pride in their work during past years. The workers seems to have weakened considerably because of social welfare programs and unemployment benefits. The nature of construction work also may have been changing in recent years. Workers' motivation appears to be one of factors in reduced productivity, increased absenteeism, and increased turnover. This study was explored for making fundamental reviews to improve the motivation of construction workers by communicating effectively and educating and improving safety.