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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 3_6 - Nov 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_6 - Nov 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_6 - Nov 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3_5 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_5 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_5 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3_4 - Jul 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_4 - Jul 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_4 - Jul 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3_3 - May 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_3 - May 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_3 - May 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3_2 - Mar 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_2 - Mar 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_2 - Mar 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3_1 - Jan 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2_1 - Jan 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1_1 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
Determing the Instream flow of Youngsan River for the Conservation of Water Quality
Park, Sung-Chun ; Kang, Sung-Hoo ; Lee, Kwan-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 1~1
In this study. the instream flow of the Youngsan river, which is neeassary to preserve the water quality of the river during the dry season in the target year 2001, is determined. The 60 Km long reaches of the Youngsan River are divided into 6 channel reaches, and the objective water quality of each channel is estimated. The BOD concentration of the target year is estimated using the QUAL2E model. The estimate of BOD concentration is made based on the planned construction of wastewater treatment facilities in the Youngsan river basin. and the consideration of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50% BOD reduction rates respectively. The representative point on each channel reach to improve the estimated BOD concentration to a satisfactory level. Inflow is the amount of clear water which fills the water requirement in each channel reach. Two separate methods of inflow are considered : one method is a sole concentrated inflow to the Youngsan river and the other method is a divided inflow to the Youngsan river and Hwangyong river. The result of the analysis shows that the divided inflow method, which means less inflow, can achieve the target water quality in each channel reach. A formula for calculating inflow using regression analysis based on the various BOD reduction rates of the target basin is suggested.
Riprap Design Formula for Protecting Local Scour Around a Circular Pier
Yoon, Tae-Hoon ; Yoon, Sung-Bum ; Oh, Cheol-Seung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 13~13
To derive an empirical formula which determines the proper size of riprap stones placed around a circular pier for the protection of local scour, extensive experiments for critical velocity of riprap stone are conducted using various combinations of different hydraulic factors such as pier width, approach flow depth and flow velocity, riprap coverage, and stone size. The effects of these factors on the critical size of riprap stone are analysed. Based on the experimental data, a new riprap formula accounting for various factors is derived. The accuracy of the new formula is tested through the comparisons with the experimental data of Chiew (1995) and other empirical formulae.
Temporal-Spatial Change of Soil Moisture Variability due to Rainfall
Yoo, Chul-Sang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 23~23
The change of soil moisture field variability due to rainfall is investigated using a model for the soil moisture dynamics and the WGR (Waymire-Gupta-Rodriguez-Iturbe) precipitation model. This study has shown that the variability of the soil moisture fold in time and in space is impacted by the rainfall during a short time period of storm, but the field recovers its original structure shortly after the storm. This has been done by the spectral analysis of the soil moisture field with the forcing of rainfall based on the WGR model. The close relation between the original structure of soil moisture field and the soil property field (for example. the soil porosity field) was already observed by Yoo et al. (1997) in the analysis of the Washita '92 data set. In the long term variation of the soil moisture field, the role of the rainfall could be simplified as a source of water without considering its variability or its structure as its effect is limited to a short time period of rainfall.
Development of Digital Atlas of World Water Balance Using Soil Water Balance Model
Kim, Chul ; Maidment, David. R. ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 31~31
The digital atlas of precipitation. temperature, water-holding capacity and net-radiation on a 0.5 degree grid of the earth were created. These data sets were used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration of the entire grid of the world by use of the Priestly-Taylor method. The evaporation was also estimated using the newly developed method that uses an empirical relationship between the Bowen ratio and soil moisture. The surplus or deficit map of water on the earth was developed using the precipitation and evapotranspiraition data. Good agreement was made between the calculated evaporation using the Bowen ratio method and the data in Atlas of World Water Balance published by UNESCO in 1977, so the method seems to be reasonable to calculate evaporation. The data set of the digital atlas are in Arcview GIS format, so it can provide a qualitative view of the distribution of water resources in the earth. and can be used as a basic data in macro scale study of the world water resources.
Amplification of Tsunami Run-up Heights at Costline
Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 41~41
In this study the maximum run-up heights of tsunamis along the coastline are ivestigated by using several different ratios of the transverse lengths of incident tsunamis to the base diameter of a circular island. The huge run-up height observed in the lee of a circular island is studied in detail.
A Study on the Numerical Prediction Model for Harbor Tranquility -Establishment of Open Boundary and Partial Reflection Condition-
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Lee, Jong-In ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 47~47
In this study the open boundary condition and partial reflection problems frequently encountered in the harbor tranquility analysis are numerically investigated. The sponge layer technique proposed by Larsen and Dancy (1983) is improved and then used to control the partial reflection. A set of linear hyperbolic type equations including the bottom friction and wave breaking is used as the governing equations. The finite difference technique is used to discretize the governing equations and the modified leap-frog scheme is used to reduce the numerical dispersion error. To examine the developed numerical model it is applied to both a constant water depth channel and the fully opened harbor problems. The numerical results obtained by the present study are compared with the existing laboratory experimental data.
A Study on Numerical Analysis of Breaking Waves by the Permeable Submerged Breakwater
Kim, Do-Sam ; Hur, Dong-Soo ; Jeong, Yeon-Tae ; Yun, Duk-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 59~59
The objective of this study is to regenerate breaking wave phenomena by permeable submerged breakwater using the boundary element method. The study on wave transformation by permeable submerged breakwater has been performed mainly in case of non-breaking wave, and the characteristics of breaking wave on the permeable submerged breakwater have not been discussed. In this study, the numerical wave tank using sponge layer as open boundary and Euler-Lagrangian discription in the free water surface are applied, and waves are generated by line source. It is shown that the breaking phenomena of waves on the permeable structure are well regenerated. Especially, this numerical results give good agreement with other experimental and numerical results in case of non-breaking waves. Therefore. it is concluded that this numerical method is ap-plicable to the prediction of full nonlinear wave transformation by the permeable coastal structures in case of both breaking waves and non-breaking waves.
Movements of Heavy Metals and Characteristics of Desorption of the Heavy Metals in the Landfill Underground Soil
Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Geon ; Chun, Ok-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 67~67
Solubilities of 4 heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd were obtained for an individual sample and a mixed sample in different pHs. The movements of heavy metals through the landfill underground soil were investigated using column tests. Column tests were performed with two different samples. One sample was used without pH adjustment (pH 0.7), and the other one was used with pH adjustment (pH 7.0) The order of heavy metal movements of the sample without pH adjustment was Cd >Cu >Pb >Cr For the pH adjusted sample (pH 7.0) Pb and Cr were not passed through the column, and Cu, and Cd were appeared in low concentrations. The column used for heavy metal movement test of underground soil without pH adjustment was continuously used to examine the desorption rates of the heavy metals. The desorption rates of heavy metals were low under 1%.
Systematic Approach for Contaminant Transport in Bank Filtration Using Numerical Analysis
Choi, Hee-Chul ; Chai, Jae-Sung ; Kim, In-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 75~75
A column experiment simulating bank filtration was conducted to evaluate characteristics of contaminant sorption and migration through a dune area of Nakdong river. Also a mathematical model based on the advective-dispersive transport equation, coupled with a linear sorption isotherm model, was developed to delineate results of column tests. Temporal and spatial distributions of phenol and trichloroethylene (TCE) were plotted as breakthrough curves (BTCs). BTC of TCE revealed more retardation in the column up to 3 pore volumes compared to the conservative substance. i.e., chloride ion. This phenomena was attributed to the higher affinity of TCE to the solid surface. Partitioning coefficients
of TCE and phenol were obtained from the curve fitting and their values are 1.1 and 0.35. respectively These values are lower than
obtained from sorption isotherm test as 1.76 and 1.34, respectively. It is considered that
values resulted from the column experiment are able to provide more realistitic results in predicting the contaminant fate and transport in bank filtration. Simulation results revealed that as Peclet number varies from 100 to 10, in other words, reducing pumping rate, relative concentration of TCE was lowed upto 58%. Therefore, it is concluded that bank filtration system may be able to be applicable as a substitute for a water intake system.
Practicability Evaluation of Waste Tires as Biofilm Media
Shin, Hang-Sik ; Yoo, Kyu-Seon ; Song, Young-Chae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 83~83
In Korea, the number of automobiles were over nine million and waste tires amount to about two hundred thousand tons by weight. Waste tires could be employed as media of biofilm reactor for the removal of 2,4-DCP and 4-CP, which are not easily degradable compounds. For this study, adsorption capacity and biomass attachment characteristics were investigated, first. Adsorption capacity of waste tires on 2,4-DCP and 4-CP was higher under the acidic condition than under the basic condition. However. it was nagligible to that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of waste tires was 3.16 and
after 14 and 37 days, respectively. It could be concluded that waste tires were useful biofilm media.
Biodegradation of 2,4-DCP Using Anaerobic-Aerobic Sequential Biofilm Reactors Packed with Waste Tires
Shin, Hang-Sik ; Yoo, Kyu-Seon ; Song, Young-Chae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 89~89
The production of synthetic organic chemicals has increased rapidly resulting in the improvement of human life, many of which are not readily biodegradable. Of these, 2,4-DCP used in pulp/paper industry and herbicide manufacturing is one of the major pollutants to the environments since it has low volatility and high solubility. In this study anaerobic-aerobic sequential biofilm reactors packed with waste tires were employed to remove not only 2,4-DCP but also its intermediates such as 4-CP. About 98% of influent 2,4-DCP (70mg/L) was removed in the anaerobic biofilm reactor and about 70% of 4-CP, which is an intermediate of 2,4-DCP, was removed in the aerobic biofilm reactor. It could be concluded that anaerobic-aerobic sequential biofilm reactor system packed with waste tires having the advantage of waste tire's recycling was an effective system to remove polychlorinated phenol.
Model Verification and Sensitivity Analysis for Predicting the Fate of Volatilie Organic Compounds in Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Yim, Seong-Keun ; Choung, Youn-Kyoo ; Ko, Kwang-Baik ; Choi, Kwang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 95~95
In previous study. models were developed based on the fugacity concept in order to predict the behavior of organic pollutants entered wastewater treatment facilities. It is necessary to verify whether the models describe the real situation well. Verification was conducted by comparison with the other existing models in previous study, but it is insufficient Therefore in this study. models were verified using the data of two existing wastewater treatment facilities. The simulation results of effluent VOC concentration. predicted and measured values were showed similarity . Therefore. it was proved that the models are valid and useful because Hey can predict volatilization. biodegradation and adsorption rate as well as effluent rate. In this case of volatile organic compounds, the outputs of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium model showed the similar trends. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to predict the effects of input variables on model output. As the results, for sorptive chemicals which have large octanol-water partition coefficient. equilibrium model overestimates the biodegradation rate and underestimates the adsorption rate of the chemical. Therefore. it was concluded that nonequilibrium model can provide more accurate prediction.
A Study on the Removal Mechanisms of Priority Pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Yim, Seong-Keun ; Choung, Youn-Kyoo ; Ko, Kwang-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 107~107
Organic compounds in wastewater treatment facilities are removed by adsorption, volatilization/stripping or biodegradation. and the remains are discharged with effluent In this study. it was studied that prediction of the fate and removal efficiency of organic priority pollutants in the treatment process by nonequilibrium model which was developed in previous study. Among priority pollutants which were regulated by EPA. some compounds were selected and classified as pesticides, PCBs, halogenated aliphatics. halogenated ethers, PAHs, monocyclic aromatics, phthalate esters, and nitrogen compounds. As the results of simulation. it was possible to recognize the relative importance of primary removal mechanisms and to predict total removal efficiency of each compounds. And it was concluded that the model developed in this study can be used useful tool for process estimation and development.
Aluminum Release by Sludge Acidification and Its Effects on Sludge Characteristics
Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Kweon, Young-Seok ; Chung, Youn-Kyu ; Ko, Kwang-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 18, issue 2_1, 1998, Pages 119~119
Sludge acidification using sulfuric acid was investigated in this study. For this purpose, sludge samples were taken from 8 different water treatment plants (6 plants in Seoul city 1 plant in Kyunggi province and 1 plant in Kyungnam province). Reaction kinetics for sludge acidification was found to be less than 10 min. The amount of aluminum (Al) recovered from sludge by acidification varied depending on sludge samples
. The more the coagulant dosage was used, the more the amount of Al was recovered. For each sludge. there was a relationship between the amount of Al recovered and sludge TS. The higher TS, the more the amount or Ah recovered. The amount of sulfuric acid varied depending on sludge samples
. but it was generally affected by sludge TS. The correlation coefficient
between the amount of sulfuric acid required to decrease sludge pH to 2 and sludge 75 was 0.83. The reason why more sulfuric acid was required than the theoretical amount was found to be related to Mg content in sludge. The maximum TOC concentration in recovered alum was 700mg/l for sludges taken from Seoul city plants. The maximum sludge volume reduction obtained by acidification was
for sludges taken from Seoul city plants. The more the sludge contained aluminum hydroxide precipitates. the more the volume reduction was. Deteriorated dewatering characteristics by sludge acidification could be recovered by raising pH. The use of NaOH failed to improve the dewatering characteristics while the use of lime or polymer successfully improved the dewatering characteristics.