Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3_6 - Nov 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_6 - Nov 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_6 - Nov 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3_5 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_5 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_5 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3_4 - Jul 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_4 - Jul 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_4 - Jul 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3_3 - May 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_3 - May 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_3 - May 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3_2 - Mar 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_2 - Mar 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_2 - Mar 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3_1 - Jan 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2_1 - Jan 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1_1 - Jan 1999
Selecting the target year
Thermal Analysis and Practical Construction Method for the Hydration-Induced Crack Control of Underground Concrete Box Structures
Oh, Byung-Hwan ; Yoo, Sung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 457~457
Recently, massive concrete structures are increasingly built in Korea. In such massive structures, the heat of hydration may cause cracking problems. The reinforced concrete box structures are classified in this category that needs much attention to control the hydration heat problem due to restraining effects on the boundaries. The present study focuses on the development of rational construction method to control the thermal stress problem of the box structures. The major variables for the analysis and test are the length (L) and height (H) of concrete wall for one-time placement and the cement content of concrete mixtures. The temperatures at various points of test walls are automatically measured according to the time after placement. The analysis results agree well with measured data. It is seen that the reduction of cement content exhibits more effects in reducing temperatures and thus thermal stresses. The ratio of L/H for concrete placement affects the thermal stresses, but the effect is rather small for L/H greater than certain values, i.e. 5. The present study indicates that the crack inducing joint should be deep enough to induce cracks appropriately. The results of present study may be efficiently used for the practical design and construction of reinforced concrete box structures, especially to countermeasure the hydration heat problem of mass concrete.
Ultimate Strength of RC Cooling Tower Shells Subjected to Temperature and Wind Loads
Choi, Chang-Koon ; Noh, Hyck-Chun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 469~469
In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete cooling tower shell is presented. In the analysis the geometrical and material nonlinearities are included. The smeared rotating crack model, which can handle the rotation of the crack direction, is adopted to investigate the crack propagation in the concrete shell. The biaxial stress state, which is the main stress state in the shell structure, is represented by the improved work-hardening plasticity concrete model. With this model the ductility increase effect in the biaxial stress state can be depicted appropriately to some extent. The deformation characteristics, stress field, occurrence and propagation of cracks in concrete and the steel yield patterns are investigated. The ultimate strength of the cooling tower shell under consideration is given, and is revealed to be affected by the inclusion of the large displacement effect, thermal loads and the refinement of the element meshes.
2D SUB-3D STM Approach for Design and Analysis of 3D Structural Concrete
Yun, Young-Mook ; Park, Jung-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 483~483
The 2D SUB-3D STM approach for analysis and design of three-dimensional structural concrete is presented in this paper. In the approach, several two-dimensional sub strut-tie models which represent the compressive and tensile stress flows of each projected plane of a three-dimensional structural concrete are utilized in the selection of a three-dimensional sout-tie model, in the evaluation of effective strengths of concrete struts, and in the verification of geometric compatibility condition and bearing capacity of critical nodal zones of the selected three-dimensional strut-tie model. To prove the validity and rationality of the suggested approach, the behavior and strength of a prestressed box girder diaphragm tested to failure are evaluated.
Longitudinal Behavior of Composite Bridge Decks
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Shim, Chang-Su ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 495~495
Analytical and Experimental Studies were carried out to estimate the longitudinal tensile stress in concrete slab of steel-concrete composite bridge. Using the analytical solution considering the linear distribution of temperature in concrete slab and reinforcements, longitudinal tensile stress due to temperature and shrinkage was estimated. Three-dimensional finite element models of composite bridges were made to investigate the tensile stress due to live load and parameter studies including the number of girder and girder space were done. Experiment of composite bridge with precast concrete slab was performed to evaluate the longitudinal tensile stress at the bottom of bridge deck.
Bridge / Train Interaction Analysis using 3-dimensional Articulated High-Speed Train Model
Kim, Sung-Il ; Kwark, Jong-Won ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 505~505
This paper presents the bridge/vehicle interaction analysis using 3-dimensional modelling of articulated train & bridge. A steel-concrete composite railway bridge composed of 2 main I-girders is idealized with combination of plate & space frame elements. The equations of motion of TGV-K which is articulated train system is derived from Lagrangian equation with considering all translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Dynamic response of bridge due to moving train are solved by
method with predictor-corrector iteration scheme. The effects of train modelling method, the braking action of train and the effects of surface irregularities are investigated in detail.
Improvement of Iteration Method for Solution of Eigenproblems of Non-Proportional Damping Systems
Kim, Man-Cheol ; Jung, Hyung-Jo ; Park, Sun-Kyu ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 517~517
A solution method is presented to solve the eigenproblem arising in the dynamic analysis of non-proportional damping systems with close or multiple eigenvalues. The proposed method is obtained by applying the modified Newton-Raphson technique and the orthonormal condition of the eigenvectors to the quadratic eigenproblem. Therefore, the proposed method retains the n order quadratic eigenproblem, without employing the method of matrix augmentation traditionally used to cast the problem as a linear eigenproblem of order 2n. Even though the starting value is close to the exact eigenvalue, the proposed method is numerically stable and converges fast; thus making it very economical for use in solving large problems. The proposed method preserves the sparseness and symmetry of the system matrices.
Material Nonlinear Analysis of RC Beams Considering Bond-Slip
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Kim, Ji-Eun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 525~525
Based on the moment-curvature relationship of RC(Reinforced Concrete) section, material nonlinear analyses of RC beams have been conducted. To reduce the numerical instability according to the used finite element mesh size, a relation simulating the tension stiffening effect has been used. To describe the bond-slip behavior in beam element in which the structural response is represented by two nodes at both ends, governing equations have been derived through the equilibrium at each node of element and the compatibility conditions between steel and concrete, and the developed algorithm has been reflected into the moment-curvature relationship of RC section. Besides, the plastic hinge length has been taken into consideration with the purpose of removing the imprecision in calculation of ultimate resisting capacity. Finally correlation studies between analytical and experimental results have been conducted with the objective to establish the validity of the proposed algorithms.
Evaluation of Economical Efficiency for Seismic-Isolated Bridges Based on Minimum Life-Cycle Cost
Koh, Hyun-Moo ; Song, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 539~539
An evaluation method for the economical efficiency of seismic-isolated bridges is developed, which is based on minimum life-cycle cost seismic design considering the properties of seismicity and failure probabilities of structural components. The input ground motion is modeled as the spectral density function compatible with response spectrum prescribed in the design codes, and the seismic isolated bridges are simplified to 2 DOF linear system. Limit states of base-isolated bridges are defined for superstructure, isolator, and pier respectively. Based on these, the failure probabilities are calculated by spectrum analysis. Total life-cycle cost function is defined for cost optimization and the optimal design procedure is suggested. The applicability of design procedure is verified and economical efficiency of seismic isolated bridges under various conditions is evaluated through numerical examples.
A Study on the Optimal Design of Breasting Dolphin considering Dynamic Behaviors and Construction Cost
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Kim, Dong-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 551~551
Much of the research in optimal design in the past has been devoted to minimizing weight for construction cost. Although primal designs were valid, they were not always the most efficient. Here, we simultaneously optimize the maximum response-ratio
of the breasting dolphin subjected to constraints of the actual commonly used Allowable Stress Design (ASD). Objective function is composed of two conflicting components, the maximum response-ratio and cost-ratio
. Design variables are the aspect of concrete platform and the diameter, the thickness and the angle of inclination of steel pipe pile. As a result, considering dynamic behaviors, natural frequency and construction cost simultaneously was suitable for the optimal research on the public structures.
Premature Failure Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened by Plates
Kim, Gyu-Seon ; Sim, Jong-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 561~561
In the case of RC beams strengthened with plates, the beams which have variables such as material type, strengthening length and thickness, happen to collapse before reaching the design expected failure load. Comprehensive experimental works related to the premature failure have been performed but the results are not sufficient yet. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to study the premature failure mechanism of RC beams strengthened by plates based on the test results of 22 specimems. From the experimental results of beams strengthened by steel plate, CFRP or GFRP, the premature failure mode of test beams strengthened with steel plate and CFRP is shown to be the rip-off failure, whereas the one of test beams strengthened with GFRP is shown to be interfacial debonding failure type.
Unseating Failure of Bridge Spans under Seismic Excitations Considering Inelastic Pier and Foundation Motions
Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Mha, Ho-Seong ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 571~571
The unseating failure of bridge spans is examined by using the simplified 3 degree-of-freedom system, which retains the characteristics of the bridge motions including the inelastic pier and foundation motions. The inelastic pier is modeled by adopting the hysteresis loop which is obtained from the force-displacement curve by the moment-curvature relation based on the pier sections. The foundation is assumed to move in two directions, which are translational and rotational. Various peak ground accelerations are applied to the bridge system to see the effects of the nonlinearity and foundation motions on the global response behaviors. The unseating failure is investigated in the stochastic perspective by examining the probabilistic properties of the maximum displacement from the ensemble consisting of 400 time histories of the bridge system responses. As the peak ground acceleration increases, the effect of foundation motions is found to increase. It is suggested that under strong earthquakes, foundation motions, particularly the rotational motion should be considered in determining the bridge responses. The unseating failure increases dramatically as the pier height increases, indicating that care should be taken in the decision of the support length against unseating events.
An Analytical Study for Design of Long-Span Prestressed Concrete Bridge I-Girder
Sim, Jong-Sung ; Bae, In-Hwan ; Kim, Jung-Ku ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 581~581
The purpose of this study is to analyze effects of design parameters on nonlinear flexural behavior of long-span prestressed concrete bridge I-girder (PSC I-girder). In this study, a nonlinear layered model which can consider nonlinear material properties of high strength concrete, rebar, and PS tendon is developed using the strain compatibility method. The stress-strain distribution considering tensile strain softening for high-strength concrete is assumed and bilinear elastic-plastic model for the reinforcement is applied; the Mattock's model for PS tendon is used. A reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the predictions is obtained. Using this model, the study on the design parameters such as the type of cross-section, the compressive strength of concrete, and the reinforcement ratio is performed. From the analytical results, the bulb tee type of section having high section modulus is more effective than other types for long span. The applied compressive strength of concrete has not effects on ultimate load and flexural rigidity, but on ductility of the member. The use of the compression and tension reinforcements increases ductility and ultimate loads of PSC member.
Feasibility Study of IE-SASW Method for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete
Kim, Dong-Soo ; Seo, Won-Seok ; Kim, Jee-Sang ; Lee, Kwang-Myong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 591~591
The Impact-Echo (IE) method has been used to evaluate the integrity of concrete structures. In this method, the P-wave velocity of concrete is a crucial parameter in determining the thickness of concrete lining, the location of cracks or other defects. In many field applications of the If method, the P-wave velocity is obtained by coring or testing a portion of a structure where the exact thickness is known. Occasionally, however, the core can not be obtained in specific structures and the P-wave velocity determined from core testing may not be a representative value of the structure. This study introduces an IE-SASW method that nay determine the P-wave velocity on a surface of each testing area using the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method. The IE-SASW method is performed on a slab and then core test is performed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method. Validity of IE-SASW method is also proved by performing tests in a cable tunnel.
An Experimental Study on the Surface Scaling Resistance of Pavement Concretes Reinforced by Polypropylene Fibers
Yun, Kyong-Ku ; Lee, Joo-Hyung ; Yong, Suk-Ung ; Jung, Young-Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 603~603
Pavement concrete exposed to severe freeze-thaw cycles with deicing chemicals may be vulnerable to frost attack and result in surface distresses such as scaling, cracking, or spatting. This study focused on the investigation of durability characteristics of pavement concretes incorporating polypropylene fibers and application feasibility of these into the pavements of local roads and highway. A series of laboratory tests were performed with main experimental variable such as fiber types, fiber contents and type of concrete mix. A test of compressive strength was executed as primary tests, before deicing salt scaling resistance test. Scaling resistance tests of concrete surface exposed to deicing salt were done by recycling freezing and thawing in the presence of a 4% calcium chloride solution. The deteriorated surfaces were rated by visual inspection and the losses of weight were measured at every 5 cycles. The compressive strength of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete increased by
compared to the unreinforced. The increase of the reinforced by mono- filament type fibers was a little larger than that by bundle type fibers. The visual rating of scaled surface of the reinforced concrete by fibers after 50 freezing/thawing cycles were rated as 0 or 1 indicating no scaling or very little, however, this of the unreinforced were rated as 4 or 3 indicating moderate to severe scaling. The losses of weight at the reinforced decreased by
compared to those of plain concrete as the fiber contents increased in all kinds of concrete mix. The deicing salt scaling resistance of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete increased as the fiber contents increased in the all concrete mix. From the results of strength and durability of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete, it was concluded that the effect of reinforcing on compressive strength increase and surface scaling resistance were largest at 0.10% of fiber reinforcement at both fiber types. The pavement concrete reinforced by polypropylene may be applied to the pavement of local roads and highway due to their excellent durability characteristics superior to those of plain concrete.
Ultimate Limit State of Stud Shear Connection in Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges
Chang, Sung-Pil ; Shim, Chung-Su ; Youn, Seok-Goo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 613~613
This paper deals with the researches on the ultimate limit state of stud shear connection which is commonly used in steel-concrete composite bridges. Failure types of shear connection are classified and shear failure of stud is selected as the ultimate limit state of shear connection. Database of the experimetal results, which can be used as ultimate limit state of shear connection, is constructed. The equation for the nominal strength of stud shear connector including main factors is proposed by the regression analysis of the experimental results. Based on the suggested equation, the resistance factor is estimated through the reliability theory considering the error of design model and using the research results on the material properties and fabrication error.
A Study on Damage Detection in Continuum Structures by Plastic System Identification Technique with Static Responses
Park, Hyun-Woo ; Lee, Hae-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 623~623
The paper presents a system identification scheme based on elasto-plastic behaviors of solids for damage detection in continuous structures. The proposed algorithm is based on the minimization of the least squared errors between the measured displacement field and calculated displacement field by a finite element model. The initial yield stresses of finite elements are selected as system parameters. An adaptive parameter grouping scheme is employed to overcome the sparseness of the measurement data. The constitutive relation of an elasto-plastic material is linearized by the consistent tangent moduli. The first-order sensitivity of displacement is calculated by the direct differentiation of the variational statement of the equation of motion. The recursive quadratic programming technique with Fletcher's active set algorithm is adopted for optimization. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, and to compare results by the proposed plastic SI with those by elastic SI.
A Regularized System Identification Scheme for Detecting Cracks in Finite Bodies Using Boundary Parameterization
Park, Cheon-Jong ; Lee, Hae-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 19, issue 1_4, 1999, Pages 635~635
This paper presents a system identification scheme to detect internal cracks in finite bodies using the boundary parameterization method. The unknown boundaries of cracks are represented by a set of line segments defined by control nodes on the crack surface. The coordinates of the control nodes are determined by a system identification scheme based on the minimization of least squared errors between measured displacements on the exterior boundary of a finite body and calculated displacements by a boundary element model. To stabilize illposed properties of inverse problems, a regularization technique is introduced. The squared length of the unknown boundary curve is employed as a regularization function, and a gradient-controlled regularization factor determination scheme is proposed. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by two numerical examples.