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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6D - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6C - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6B - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6A - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5D - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5C - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5B - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5A - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4D - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4C - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4B - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4A - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3D - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3C - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3B - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3A - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2D - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2C - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2B - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2A - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1D - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1C - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1B - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1A - Jan 2003
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Determination of Strut-and-Tie Models using Evolutionary Structural Optimization
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Noh, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 1~11
This paper introduces a method to determine strut-tie models in reinforced concrete (RC) structures using the evolutionary structural optimization (ESO). Even though strut-tie models are broadly adapted in design of reinforced concrete members subjected to shear and torsion, conventional methods can hardly give correct models in RC members subjected to complex loadings and geometry conditions. In this paper, the basic idea of the ESO method is used to determine more rational strut-tie models. Since an optimum topology of structures, finally obtained by the ESO method, usually represents a truss-like structure, the ESO method can effectively be used in finding the best strut-tie model in RC structures. Several example structures are provided to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method in finding the best strut-tie model of each RC structure and to verify its efficiency in application to real design problems.
Long Term Behavior of External Prestressed Steel and Concrete Composite Bridges Considering of Increment of Prestressing force
Ryu, Hyung-Keun ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 13~20
Recently, as design of serviceability and durability is becoming the topics, usefulness of a prestressing method is being emphasized and a trial for applying external prestress to structure is increasing. However, in case of applying external prestress to a steel and concrete composite bridge, it is suspicious that the method is efficient because of prestress loss by the long-term behavior of concrete. However, studies on creep and shrinkage for external prestressed composite bridge are very few. Therefore, in this paper, an analytical method for the long-term behavior of an external prestressed composite bridge considering of increment of prestressing force was proposed. Also, estimation for prestress loss of external prestressed composite bridge was suggested. For the analysis, ARMM(Age-Adjusted Effective Modulus Method) proposed by Bazant was used and the long-term behavior of a full interact simple span composite bridge was observed using the relaxation approach.
Damage Curves of the Rigid-Plastic Model by Impact Loads
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kang, Young-Goo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 21~25
The safety criteria of the rigid-plastic model of the structures to the impulsive loads are established with the peak-load ratio to the step load and impulse ratio to the ideal impulse producing the critical displacement. It is shown that the impulse and the peak-load of the impulsive loads are the dominant factors for the damage of the structures. It is also shown that the damage curves with the peak-load and impulse ratio are useful method to estimate the damage of the structures due to the emphasis on the equivalent dynamic loads rather than the equivalent static loads in the process of deriving the curve.
Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Box Girder Bridge due to Riding Korean High-Speed Train
Kwark, Jong-Won ; Chin, Won-Jong ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 27~36
The dynamic behavior of bridges crossed by the Korean High Speed Train (KHST) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The bridge is a 2-span continuous concrete box bridge with spans of 40 m length. The KHST considered in this study is composed by two power cars, two motorized cars and sixteen passenger cars (2P+187). For the theoretical study, the KHST has been constituted by a system of articulated bogie coaches, differently from classical trains, and its equation of motion has been derived from the Lagrangian equation considering the motions of the car-body, the bogie frame or chassis, and the axle. The dynamic response of the bridge crossed by moving train has been obtained by iterative predictor-corrector method using Newmark- method. For the experimental study, large amount of sensors and data loggers have been installed on the Yeon-Jae bridge located in the experimental section of the KHST track and tests have been performed. The train adopted for tests is the TGVK imported from France. The basic dynamic characteristics of the train and bridge used in the experimental and theoretical studies are identical. Through this study, significantly amplified dynamic responses compared to static responses of the bridge crossed by trains running at speed close to the critical speed have been obtained. Because of such resonance phenomenon, attention shall be paid about the selection of adequate damping during dynamic analysis of bridges crossed by the KHST. The numerical method technique presented in this study shows reasonable results concerning the dynamic behavior analysis of bridges under trains running at high-speed. In the case of the KHST, train-bridge interaction effects related to the dynamic response of the bridge appeared to be significant at every speed.
Experimental Evaluation for Structural Performance of I-Grating Concrete Slab
Chung, Young-Soo ; Park, Chang-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Gon ; Kim, Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 37~45
Recently, there have been increased much concerns about repair and rehabilitation works for aged bridge concrete decks. Repeated heavy-weight vehicles have accelerated to deteriorate number of concrete bridge slabs, which are strongly needed to be constructed and rehabilitated by an innovative construction method. The objective of this research is to develop a new construction method of reinforced concrete (RC) slab in bridge superstructure, which can contribute to minimize a traffic congestion during repair and rehabilitation works of aged concrete slab, and can sufficiently assure the quality through the minimization of in-situ works at the site. I-beams with punch holes, which .we substituted for main reinforcing bars in concrete slabs, can be manufactured and be preassembled into the grating frames in the factory. After erecting the preassembled grating frames in the site, concrete will be poured. Then, structural properties of I-grating concrete slab have investigated through the static test and fatigue test, which can be utilized for the development of the new constructional method for concrete slab in bridge superstructure.
Ultimate Strength Testing of 3-D Steel frame Accounting for Local Buckling
Kim, Seung-Eock ; Kang, Kyung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 47~56
The ultimate strength testing of space steel frame accounting for local buckling was performed. Considering a majority of large-scale frame tests in the past, only two-dimensional frames were experimentally studied. Three two-story, single-bay, and sway allowed frames subjected to proportional vertical and horizontal loads were tested. The load-displacement curves of the test frames are provided. The experiment results are useful for verification of the three-dimensional numerical analysis. The results obtained from 3-D non-linear analysis using ABAQUS were compared with experimental data. It was observed that the load carrying capacities calculated by the AISC-LRFD method was
conservative when compared with those of the experiment. This difference is attributed to the fact that the AISC-LRFD approach does not consider the inelastic moment redistribution but experiment includes the inelastic redistribution effect.
An Stiffened Effect Study on the Elastic Buckling Behavior of Bracket under Inplane Load
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Son, Byung-Jik ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 57~64
The bracket which supports girders (beams) in the construction industry, does not have a good grasp of elastic buckling property and most of engineers have designed it empirically. Specially, there are scarcely prescriptions of the bracket in the specification except to connection of it. The present paper shows the general bucking behavior of the stiffended bracket as using FEM Program, LUSAS widely used for structural analysis. This paper deals with the buckling behavior under variation of the geometrical shape ratio in order to offer a effective, reliable design data. Based on this fact, it is considered to the properly applicable length of reinforced plates at the free edge and proposed to the good arrangement of the vertical stiffener at the web.
An Examination of Applying the Design Provisions of Punching Shear Strength for the Multi-girder Bridge Deck Slabs
Lee, Seong-Haeng ; Kang, Won-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 65~75
Since a design provision of punching shear strength is induced from the flat slab's test data, which have different stress state from the punching failure state of multi-girder bridge deck slab by wheel loads, it is questioned whether the design provisons can be used for the bridge deck. We compare the test data of flat slabs and bridge deck slabs with punching strength provisons of design specifications. From the comparison it is found that the test data of bridge deck have more than two times larger scatter compared with that of flat slab. We find that the scatter comes from the effective depth d and shear span ratio a/d, where the former is related with size effect and the latter with restraint effect. Since the test data of small scale model test of bridge deck, which have very small slab depth, show large scatter, we can conclude it inappropriate to use the test data for the estimation of punching shear strength of bridge deck. On the contrary, the test data of prototype bridge deck model show almost the same scatter as flat slab's, the design provisions can be used for bridge deck design.
The Development and Application of Concrete Diffusivity Measuring System
Oh, Byung-Hwan ; Lee, Myung-Kue ; Jung, Sang-Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 77~84
The carbonation of concrete is one of the most Important factors affecting the corrosion of steel. Because most of the mathematical models for predicting carbonation phenomenon follow the Fick's diffusion rule, the carbon-dioxide diffusion coefficient of concrete is important for those models. But, experimental studies for the
diffusivity are so insufficient that the development of measuring system for the gas diffusivity should be settled promptly. Therefore, the gas diffusivity measuring system has been developed through this study and the nitrogen permeability tests and the measurements of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient of concrete have been performed using this measuring system. From the
permeability tests for finding the influence of specimen's thickness, it is known that the overall average of permeability is not affected by the thickness. But, it is results that the nitrogen permeability shows relatively small variations for 3 cm thick specimens than the 1 cm thick specimen. In the measuring test of carbon-dioxide diffusion coefficient, the diffusion coefficient decreases with the increase of relative humidity at the same water/cement ratio. Also, in case of the concrete under the same relative humidity, the diffusion coefficient increases with the increase of water/cement ratio. Finally, it is expected that both experimental data in these tests and further study on the gas diffusivity will contribute to the progress of the concrete durability.
A Experimental Study on the Durability of Recycled Concrete
Lee, Myung-Kue ; Jung, Sang-Hwa ; Yun, Geon-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 85~93
Various tests are performed for the durability of the concrete using domestic recycled coarse aggregate including drying shrinkage, permeability, freezing-thawing resistance and
diffusivity. The basic data obtained from the presented test could be accumulated for the utilization of recycled concrete in structure. Compressive strength and elastic modulus decrease a little extent with increasing substitution ratio of recycled aggregate, but split tensile strength, flexural strength and poisson's ratio is constant with increasing substitution ratio of recycled aggregate. Tests of freezing-thawing resistance, chloride ion Permeability and
diffusivity of recycled concrete show favorable results. But, the maximum drying shrinkage ratio to normal concrete is increased 24% with increasing substitution ratio of recycled aggregate. Therefore, for the use of recycled concrete in structures, the preventive measures of both drying shrinkage and decreasing work-ability is necessary in the mix design. The proper substitution ratio of recycled aggregate should be proposed.
Shear Lag Stress Evaluation Procedure of Beam-to-Column Connections for Steel frame Piers
Kim, Young-Pil ; Hwang, Won-Sup ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 95~101
This paper presents shear lag parameter of beam-to-column connections for steel box piers. In existing research, simple beam model is introduced to get shear lag parameter, but that have a difference with design assumption. Therefore, this paper estimate the effective width of cantilever beam depending on width-span length ratio(L/b) and sectional area ratio S, and examine the problems of existing research. Also, shear lag parameter of cantilever beam apply additional moment with stress function was compared with one of effective width. Finally, as comparing with test results, evaluation procedure of shear lag stress was suggested.
Numerical Prediction of the Ultimate Load of Reinforced Concrete Slabs by p-version of FEM
Woo, Kwang-Sung ; Park, Jin-Hwan ; Hong, Chong-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 103~111
A new p-version finite element model is proposed to estimate the ultimate load of reinforced concrete slabs. In the non-linear formulation of this model, the total Lagrangian formulation is adopted with large deflections and moderate rotations being accounted for in the sense of von Karman hypothesis. The material model is based on the Kuper's yield criterion, hardening rule, and crushing condition. In addition, the smeared crack model is considered as well as the ten-sion stiffening effect after crack initiation. The integrals of Legendre polynomials are used for shape functions with p-level varying from 1 to 10. Gauss-Lobatto numerical quadrature is used to calculate the stresses at the nodal points instead of Gauss points. The validity of the proposed p-version finite element model is demonstrated through several numerical examples for the load-deflection curve, the ultimate load, the convergence characteristics of reinforced concrete slabs compared with available experimental and numerical results.
Free Vibrations of Horizontally Curved Beams Considering Both Rotatory and Torsional Inertias
Lee, Byoung-Koo ; Lee, Tae-Eun ; Lee, Jong-Kook ; Ahn, Dae-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 113~119
The ordinary differential equations governing the free vibrations of the elastic horizontally curved beams were derived, in which the effects of rotatory and torsional inertias were included. Frequencies and mode shapes were computed numerically for parabolic curved beams with both hinged ends, hinged-clamped ends, and both clamped ends. Comparisons of the natural frequencies between this study and ADINA were made to validate the theories and numerical methods developed herein. The lowest three natural frequency parameters are reported, with and without rotatory and torsional inertias, as functions of three non-dimensional system parameters: the horizontal rise to chord length ratio, the span length to chord length ratio, and the slenderness ratio. In addition, typical mode shapes of vertical displacement are presented.
Shear Buckling Coefficients of Singly Symmetric Girder Web with the Same flange Width
Gil, Heung-Bae ; Kim, Kyu-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 121~128
The web of plate girders can fail by bend and shear buckling because it is subjected to bending moment and shear. To increase buckling strength, the thickness of the web is increased, and longitudinal and transverse stiffeners are attached. The joint between the web and flanges have partial rigidity due to torsional stiffness of flanges. However, most of design guidelines neglect torsional stiffness of flanges and assume that the web is simply supported at web-flanges joints. Understanding of shear of the web is necessary for safe and economics design of structures. This paper deals with research performed to define shear buckling coefficients of singly symmetric plate design with the same flange width.
A Study on Dynamic Characteristic and Behaviors of Tainter Gate by Model Tests
Lee, Seong-Haeng ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 129~138
A model test is performed to investigate the dynamic behavior of a fainter gate. The gate model scaled with the ratio of 1:25 is made of acryl panel dimensioned 0.66 m in width, 0.5 m in height in the concrete test flume. Natural frequencies of the model gate are measured and compared with the numerical results for the calibration. The amplitudes of the vibration are measured in order to investigate the dynamic response of the well-calibrated model due to water level and opening hight in the direction of sea flow and inner flow respectively. Also 5 gate models with bottom width increased 0.5 cm each are tested and the results are analyzed to study the characteristics of the gate vibration. Test results verify well why the gate vibrations occur and indicate how to reduce them effectively. This study presents the dynamic characteristics of the gate and, as a result, a design method of tainter gate to reduce the gate vibration.
Shape function of 4-Node Cylindrical Shell Element including Curvature Effect in Displacement field
Choi, Jin-Yu ; Kang, Young-Jong ; Yoon, Ki-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 139~148
Various types of shell elements have been developed, but most of the shell elements do not show good performance in analyzing severely curved structures. This is primarily due to the polynomial representation of the displacement field. The polynomials cannot accurately represent the coupling effect between membrane and bending action, which becomes important in severely curved structures. Developed in the present study is a four-node cylindrical shell element including the initial curvature effect in the displacement field. The displacement field on middle surface of shell is derived from the classical thin shell theory. In order to discretize a displacement and surface force on the middle surface of shell, shape functions are formulated from the product of the homogeneous solutions of governing differential equations of straight and curved beam, respectively. The element stiffness matrix and the force vector are formulated by using the shape functions. In order to verify the validity of the element, a series of examples were analyzed and compared with the results in literature. From the results, it was observed that the cylindrical shell element developed in this study has shown extremely good convergence and sufficient accuracy.
Torsional and Distortional Behaviors of a Thin-Walled Multicell Box Girder - I. Distortional Phenomenon and Distortional Section Properties -
Park, Nam-Hoi ; Han, Keum-Ho ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 149~156
During the past few decades, a number of box girder structures with a multicell cross section have been constructed due to their high torsional rigidities and aesthetic considerations. However, the multicell box girder has the shortcoming in that the cross section distorts under an eccentric loading and warps out of the section plane. Nevertheless, this distortional phenomenon of the multicell box girder system has not been investigated clearly until now. The objective of this study is to investigate theoretically the distortional phenomenon, of the multicell box girder with a rectangular cross section and to derive the expressions for sectional properties related to the distortional phenomenon. The validity of this study is demonstrated by comparing the stresses calculated using the obtained expressions to the numerically computed stresses using a shell finite element. The results of the beam and shell analyses have shown in good agreement. This indicates strongly the accuracy of the obtained expressions.
Torsional and Distortional Behaviors of a Thin-Walled Multicell Box Girder - II. Development of a Beam Element and Numerical Validation -
Park, Nam-Hoi ; Lim, Nam-Hyoung ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 157~164
A thin-walled multicell box beam element, which can be applied to linear static analysis of multicell straight box girder bridges with symmetric section, was developed. This box beam element was formulated based on the Dabrowski's methodology for single-cell distortion. The developed beam element has nine degrees of freedom per node, which describes major three actions of box girder system such as torsional and distortional deformations as well as flexural deformation, and may be applied to various loading and boundary conditions without any hard tasks. Also, since shape functions corresponding to the three actions were derived from homogenous solutions of governing differential equation, the box beam element developed has shown good convergence. The validity of the present beam element was strictly verified from comparative studies through conventional shell element and other beam elements. From the comparative studies, accuracy of the present box beam was shown to be excellent.
Approximate force Equations for Soil-Steel Bridges
Choi, Dong-Ho ; Park, Sang-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 1A, 2003, Pages 165~176
This paper proposes force equations (thrust, moment) of soil-steel bridges through the finite element analysis. The conditions for maximum thrust and maximum moment are determined from the analysis of soil-structure interaction during the three construction stages, such as backfill to the crown, backfill to the soil cover, and live loads. The proposed form of thrust and moment equations are deduced from the analysis of behaviour. Finally, the coefficients used in the proposed equations are determined from a large number of analyses for the various geometries and the soil-structure relative stiffness under the conditions of maximum thrust and maximum moment. These coefficients are compared with those of Duncan method.