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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6D - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6C - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6B - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6A - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5D - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5C - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5B - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5A - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4D - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4C - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4B - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4A - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3D - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3C - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3B - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3A - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2D - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2C - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2B - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2A - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1D - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1C - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1B - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1A - Jan 2003
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p-Adaptive Mesh Refinement by a Posteriori Error Estimation
Woo, Kwang-Sung ; Jo, Jun-Hyung ; Ahn, Jae-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 177~185
An adaptive procedure in finite element analysis is presented by p-refinement of meshes in conjunction with a posteriori error estimator that is based on the recovery technique. In the case of recovery technique, the SPR(superconvergent patch recovery) approach has been modified for p-adaptive mesh refinement. The strategy for finding a nearly optimal distribution of polynomial degrees on a fixed finite element mesh is discussed such that a particular element has to be refined automatically to obtain an acceptable level of accuracy by increasing p-levels non-uniformly. To verify the proposed algorithm, the limit value approach is proposed which utilizes the exact strain energy computed from the extrapolation equation. A new pre-processor is developed for the p-version finite element program in which the vector graphic editor is used for the automatic generation of node connection and coordinate by halfedge solid data structure according to uniform or nonuniform p-distribution. The general 2-D algorithm is also developed to generate face modes and internal modes in accordance with different mesh types. The quality of the error estimator is investigated with the help of two numerical examples. The results show that the sequences of p-distribution obtained by the proposed error indicator closely follow the optimal trajectory.
A Comparative Study on Modal Parameter Identification Methods without Input Excitation Information
Yi, Jin-Hak ; Yun, Chung-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 187~201
In this paper, several modal identification techniques without using the input information are investigated. Generally, the power spectral method is most widely used, however, other methods may give better estimates. Example analyses were carried out on three different structures, and the estimated modal parameters by various methods are compared. It was concluded that those methods can be used complementarily, and also the frequency domain decomposition method can be a good alternative method to the conventional power spectral method for preliminary experiments and the stochastic subspace identification with balanced realization can be used to estimate more accurate modal parameters with reasonable computing time.
Dynamic Analysis of Cable-Damper System using Boundary Conditions
Ahn, Sang-Sup ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 203~209
This paper presents the dynamic analysis method of stay cables with damper. The discrete damper installed at the cable near the anchorage is considered in the boundary condition. Only the cable from the far end of anchorage to damper installation position is considered in the formulation and its dynamic behavior is represented by the superposition of the normal modes of taut cable. This makes it possible to get the dynamic solution of cable-damper system using considerably small numbers of normal modes. Cable from the near end of anchorage to damper installation position is assumed to add the equivalent static stiffness to cable-damper system at the damper installation position. Although these assumptions and modeling method may restrict the proposed method to cable sag and damper installation position, it is found that the present method can be applied to most stay cables of cable-stayed bridges with minor errors.
Estimation of Vibration Response for Aerial Gas Pipeline due to Vehicle Loads in Open Cut Construction Site
Park, Sun-Joon ; Kang, Sung-Hoo ; Park, Yeon-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 211~217
In this study, vibration response of aerial gas pipeline due to vehicle loads was quantitatively estimated through experiment and analysis in open cut construction site. The vehicle vibration of various construction vibrations causes serious effect to the aerial gas pipeline. According to the results, the vibration values of the aerial gas pipelines exceeded 2.0 kine-the vibration criteria of aerial gas pipelines. To analyze the vibration response of aerial gas pipeline, the section over 12m in length need to be idealized. The new vibration prediction equations presented in this study can estimate the vibration velocity response of the aerial gas pipeline. In the vibration prediction equations, the vehicle's weight and traveling velocity, which are the sources of vibration, are combined into the term called, "scaled weight". The equations are classified into three types with 50%, 10% and 0.l% failure probability at
Combined Load-Displacement Control Techniques for Material and Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis of Spatial Truss Structures
Kim, Byung-Hun ; Yun, Young-Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 219~229
The combined load-displacement control techniques for material and geometrical nonlinear analysis of spatial truss structures are proposed in this study. The nonlinear analysis results obtained by the conventional arc-length method and work incremental control method are utilized to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed numerical solution techniques in aspects of accuracy, convergence, and computing times. To consider the geometrical nonlinearity of spatial truss structures, the updated Lagrangian formulation implementing the current deformed shape, Cauchy stress, and Almansi strain is adopted. To consider the material nonlinearity of spatial truss structures, the linear-elastic constitutive model and elasto-plastic buckling models with/without considering residual deformation are employed. From the present study, it is concluded that the efficiency of combined load-displacement control techniques with the linear-elastic constitutive model is superior to that of the numerical solution techniques established previously in the pre- and post-buckled regions. The efficiency of combined load-displacement control techniques with the elasto-plastic buckling constitutive models is superior only in the pre-buckled region.
Analytical Study on the Buckling Behavior of Steel U-Shaped Girders
Park, Young-Suk ; Shim, Nak-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 231~238
Before the concrete deck cures, torsional stiffness of the steel U-shaped girders is small and the top flanges are in compression. Because of it, the top flanges are susceptible to lateral torsional buckling. Therefore, several bracing is necessary to avoid buckling. But, after the composition, the deck provides continuous lateral bracing for the top flanges and also closes the cross section, the compressive stress of the top flanges is small and the concrete deck is in most compression. Thus, the lateral and torsional bracing placed in the U-shaped girders for construction loadings is no longer required after the concrete has hardened. So that, it is necessary to minimize. In this study, an analytical research was performed to study the buckling behavior of U-shaped girders under uniform moment conditions. Based on torsional bracing theory, a simplified U-shaped girder finite element model was first developed to isolate factors affecting buckling behavior. A more complete U-shaped girder finite element model was then created to verify the simple model and study the differences between rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes. Finally, the analytical results were compared with design equations for I-shaped beams with continuous torsional bracing.
An Experimental and Analytical Study on Dynamic Interaction Between Vehicle and Bridge
Kwon, Soon-Duck ; Kim, Chul-Young ; Chang, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 239~247
In this paper, an experimental and analytical study is performed in order to investigate the effects of dynamic interaction between vehicle and bridge on modal properties of bridge. Based on ambient vibration test and vehicle impact test on a bridge, it is found that the natural frequencies of bridge are varied by vehicle passing. Parametric studies for the effects of vehicle position, speed, damping, mass ratio and frequency ratio on bridge-vehicle interaction are carried out using complex eigenvalue analysis and numerical integration in time domain. The results show that vehicle properties except speed cause significant change of natural frequency as well as damping of bridge.
Development of Live Load Model for RC Deck Slab of Girder Bridges (I) - Short-term Load Model -
Oh, Byung-Hwan ; Lew, Young ; Choi, Young-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 249~258
RC deck slab is considered to resist as a parallel beam after occurrence of transverse cracks due to the shrinkage and fatigue effects of passing vehicles. The behavior of deck slab in transverse direction is modeled as a continuous beam with elastic supports in this study. The concept of influence line is introduced to develop the analysis model. The influence line of load effect can be calculated at any locations of deck slab. To determine load effects of deck slab, characteristics of vehicles and traffic patterns have been incorporated to the analysis model. The main variables are configuration of vehicles, ratio of axle-weight, position of wheel track of vehicles, histogram of vehicle weight and etc. Using developed load model, simulation of load effects of an arbitrary vehicle is conducted with the concept of probability. The results of simulation are fitted to probabilistic distribution. Developed load model can represent the realistic load effects of deck slab considering actual characteristics of vehicles and traffic pattern effectively.
Viscoelastic Postbuckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells using an Assumed Strain Shell Element
Kim, Ki-Du ; Han, Sung-Cheon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 259~270
The nonlinear composite shell element is developed for the solution of stability problems of composite plates and shells. The finite element used in the current study is an eight-node shell element with six degrees of freedom per node. The nonlinear formulation of the element is based on the updated Lagrangian method. The composite shell element is free of both membrane and shear locking behavior by using the assumed strain method such that the element performs very well in the thin shells. The transverse shear stiffness is defined by an equilibrium approach instead of using the shear correction factor and is efficient for analyzing stability problems of thin and thick laminated plates and shells. The test results showed good agreement with analytical results of references. In addition the effect of the viscoelastic material is investigated on the behavior of postbuckling behavior of laminated composite shells. A quasi-elastic method is used for the solution of viscoelastic analysis of the laminated composite panels.
Variationally Coupled Meshfree-Finite Element Method for Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation (I) - On Theory and Static and Dynamic Solid Problems -
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 271~281
The final objective of this study is to develop a new numerical algorithm that analyses dynamic crack propagation problems by using the variationally coupled Meshfree-Finite Element Method. To do this final end, this paper in advance focuses on developing a numerical algorithm that analyses static and dynamic solid problems. The theory of Meshfree Method is briefly reviewed and a variational coupling procedure of Meshfree Method and FEM is proposed to enforce the essential boundary conditions. Also, a few types of transition functions are proposed to remedy the discontinuity of first derivatives of the shape function in transition region. A series of static and dynamic solid problems are analysed to illustrate the performance of the algorithm developed in this study. In advance, the numerical program passed the patch test, and then the numerical results showed that the algorithm has the good accuracy and applicability in comparison with analytic solutions in second and third examples for convergence study. The final example simulating 1-D wave propagation problem shows that the program is accurately and effectively applied for dynamic problem.
Variationally Coupled Meshfree-Finite Element Method for Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation (II) : - On Dynamic Fracture Mechanics and Applications -
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 283~293
The objective of this study is to develop a new numerical algorithm that analyzes dynamic crack propagation problems by using the variationally coupled Meshfree-Finite Element method. ID achieve this objective, This study describes linear dynamic fracture theory required to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors that predict whether or not to propagate and direction of crack propagation. Then, a numerical algorithm analyzing the dynamic crack propagtion in arbitrary directions by means of explicit time integration is also presented on the basis of the numerical program developed to analyze static and dynamic solid problems in the previous study. A series of dynamic fracture examples is analyzed to illustrate the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the algorithm not only has the good accuracy through comparing the numerical results with analytical solutions in the first and second examples, but also accurately and effectively simulates the dynamic arbitrary crack growth by comparing numerical results with experimental results in the third example.
Redistribution of Support Reactions in Skew Bridges by the Stiffness Adjustment of Bearings
Moon, Seong-Kwon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 295~304
Bearings at the obtuse comer are subjected to much larger vertical reactions than other bearings because of the geometric shape of skew bridges. The current relevant specifications require that additional bars should be disposed at the bottom of concrete deck slabs to deal with the large vertical reaction on bearings at the obtuse corner. In this study, new methods of reducing the magnitude of the vertical reaction on bearings at the obtuse corner by the stiffness adjustment of bearings were proposed. The basic concept of proposed methods was to redistribute support reactions by reducing the vertical stiffness of bearings at the obtuse corner showing a relatively large vertical reaction. For 45 simply supported skew bridges designed according to the current relevant specifications, the redistribution effect of vertical reactions by the stiffness adjustment of bearings was investigated. Parameters such as skew angle, girder spacing, and deck aspect ratio that affect the distribution of support reactions were considered. The results of the analyses show that the magnitude of the vertical reaction on bearings at the obtuse comer can be reduced to the levels of straight bridges by replacing the existing bearings at the obtuse comer with new ones having the value of 1/10 or 1/20 of the vertical stiffness of the existing bearings. The reduction effect of the vortical reaction on bearings at the obtuse comer increases as the girder spacing decreases and it is more pronounced when the deck aspect ratio is 2.0.
The Time-dependent Analysis of Restraint Moment in Continuous PSC Girder Bridge
Koo, Min-Se ; Yoon, Woo-Hyun ; Choi, In-Sik ; Park, Chan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 305~310
It is very important to know the magnitude of the restraint moment which is appeared at the inner-support of the continuous PSC girder because there are maximum moment area generally. The main purpose of this paper is ensuring the safety of structure by analyzing the time-dependent stress acting on the concrete. The Age-adjusted Effective Modulus Method (AEMM) is used to get the magnitude of the restraint moment for the purpose of the time-dependent analysis of the concrete. The important factors for computing the restraint moment, the creep coefficient and the shrinkage strain are computed by comparing Korean specification with ACI209. In result, there are created the positive restraint moment by using the creep coefficient and the shrinkage strain in Korean specification, and the negative restraint moment in ACI.
A Study on the Effect of Embedded Type Sacrificial Anode System for the Steel Corrosion Control in Concrete
Moon, Han-Young ; Kim, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Hong-Sam ; Kim, Jong-Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 311~317
In order to verify the effect of embedded type sacrificial anode system, accelerated tests in the presence or absence of some chloride content and cracks were carried out. The half-cell potential, potential-decay and corrosion ratio of reinforcing steel in concrete specimen were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. From the test results, the application of the system led to the satisfaction on NACE's criterion in all mixtures of concrete. Additionally it was found that only 10% of steel bar area was corroded due to the application of the system, while comparable 30% of steel bar area was corroded in concrete with no protection system. Based on the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that the criterion of potential-decay is more effective standard than that of protection potential, when the embedded sacrificial anode system is applied on marine concrete structures.
Simulation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces on Oscillating Structure by Varying Boundary Conditions
Jeong, Un-Yong ; Kwon, Soon-Duck ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 319~324
In this paper, a new computational fluid dynamics procedure which can model the aeroelastic behavior of the structures without imposing mesh motion is presented. The proposed method based on quasi-steady theory has merits in computation time and it's simplicity in solution procedures compared with previous one of moving-mesh method. The proposed method is estimated to be properly applied to the many aeroelastic problems with restricted body-motion such as evaluation of unsteady aerodynamic forces under restricted small amplitude oscillation. To verify the proposed method, analyses of vortex shedding and lock-in phenomena around circular cylinders is conducted. The resulted vortex shedding frequency and lock-in phenomena are well predicted and well coincided with experiments.
Determination of Span Ratio in Bridges Constructed by Free Cantilever Method
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Son, Je-Kuk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 325~334
This paper introduces a relation to determine the span ratio between exterior and interior spans, which is strongly required in the preliminary design stage of bridges constructe by Free Cantilever Method (FCM). A relation for the initial tendon force is derived on the basis of an assumption that no vertical deflection occurs at the far end of a cantilever beam due to the balanced condition between the self-weight and the cantilever tendons. In advance, the span ratio can be determined by using an assumption that the negative maximum moment must be the same with the positive maximum moment along the entire spans to be a rational bridge design. Finally, many rigorous time-dependent analyses are conducted to establish the validity of the introduced relations. The obtained numerical results show that the rational design of FCM bridges may be achieved when the span length ratio of the exterior span to the interior span ranges about 0.75 to 0.8.
Spatial Buckling and Elastic Analysis of Thin-walled Timoshenko Beam-Columns Using Exact Static Element Stiffness Matrices
Kim, Nam-Il ; Lee, Byoung-Ju ; Kim, Moon-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 335~344
A simple but efficient method to evaluate exact static stiffness matrices is developed in order to perform the spatial buckling and elastic analysis of uniform Timoshenko beam-columns having nonsymmetric thin-walled sections. This numerical technique is accomplished via a generalized eigenvalue problem associated with 14 displacement parameters which produces both complex eigenvalues and multiple zero eigenvalues. Next polynomial expressions are assumed as trial solutions for displacement parameters and eigenmodes containing undetermined parameters equal to the number of zero eigenvalues are determined by invoking the identity condition to governing equations. And then the exact displacement functions are constructed by combining eigenvectors and polynomial solutions corresponding to nonzero and zero eigenvalues, respectively. Consequently exact static stiffness matrices are evaluated by applying member force-displacement relationships to these displacement functions. The buckling loads and displacements of thin-walled beam-columns are evaluated and compared with analytic solutions and the results by straight beam element and ABAQUS's shell element.
A Consideration on Intermediate Diaphragm Spacing of Horizontally Curved Steel Box Girders
Choi, Young-Joon ; Park, Nam-Hoi ; Hong, Sung-Soo ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 345~353
Curved box girder bridges have been constructed due to the use of the smooth dissemination of the metropolitan congested traffic and of the highway interchange system. Also, a cross sectional type of these bridges has been selected as a closed box section owing to the highly bending and torsional rigidities and aesthetic considerations. However, unless distortion of the box girders is appropriately restricted, the box girder bridges may undergo the significant problems, which are the excessive warping and transverse bending of a cross section. The objectives of the present study were to develop a curved box beam finite element and to propose design charts on the spacing of intermediate diaphragms from parametric studies in continuous span bridges with a single-cell curved box section. The developed beam element having nine degrees of freedom per node was strictly verified from comparative studies through the conventional shell element.
An Estimation of Ultimate Strength of Continuous Composite Box-Girder Bridge with Precast Decks
Ryu, Hyung-Keun ; Chang, Sung-Pil ; Shim, Chang-Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 355~362
The most important problem in steel and concrete composite bridge with precast decks is to control cracks occurring at transverse joint under service load. Especially, those cracks at transverse joint due to tensile stress in negative moment region of continuous composite beam should not be occurred. In order to estimate the ultimate strength of a box girder bridge with precast decks, experimental and analytical study on a continuous box girder bridge model satisfying the serviceability conditions were conducted. The static test for a two span (10+10) continuous bridge model was conducted and finite element analysis taking into account material non-linearity (EFACB; Elastic-Plastic Analysis for Composite Beams)was used. Also results of test and analysis were compared with simple plastic analysis and EUROCODE.
Seismic Performance of MR Fluid Dampers in Base-Isolated Structures
Doh, Hark-Yong ; Lee, Jong-Seh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 2A, 2003, Pages 363~374
The design concepts using vibration reduction techniques, or structural control, have become popular recently as a means to protect infrastructure against earthquakes. The magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is one of the most promising new devices for structural vibration reduction because of its mechanical simplicity, high dynamic range, low power requirement, large force capacity and robustness. In this study, the seismic performance of MR devices are compared with that of NZ systems as an attempt to provide some data for improving seismic design techniques applied to structures. A six-story building model is considered as a numerical example and nonlinear time domain analysis is performed on the base isolation system. The ground acceleration data of El Centre 1940, Mexico City 1985 and Kobe 1995 earthquakes are used as seismic excitations. The results show that MR damper systems outperform NZ systems in wide-ranging seismic excitations with respect to intensity and period characteristics.