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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6D - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6C - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6B - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6A - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5D - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5C - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5B - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5A - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4D - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4C - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4B - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4A - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3D - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3C - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3B - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3A - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2D - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2C - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2B - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2A - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1D - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1C - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1B - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1A - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Flexural Behaviors of the Reinforced Concrete Beam Strengthened by Composite Plate with Fiber Sheets on the Light Concrete Plate
Cho, Baik-Soon ; Ahn, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 375~383
Experimental and analytical studies are carried out to investigate the flexural behaviors of the strengthened reinforced concrete beams by the external bonding of the new reinforcement material, which is composed with fiber sheets attached on lightweight concrete precast plate. Since the flexural capacity of a strengthened beam depends on the mechanism of its constituents, it has been analyzed by three stages (pre-cracking stage, pre-yielding stage, post-yielding stage) according to the conditions of the constituents. The results obtained from flexural analysis of a strengthened beam developed in this study are compared with experimental ones. For the purpose of this 24 strengthened beams with various reinforcement systems are tested. The experiment is designed to allow a systematic look of yield load and ultimate load of strengthened beams. It reveals that the results obtained flexural analysis developed in this investigation are well agreed with the experimental results. In addition, the results indicate that the strengthened beams with new composite plate are structurally efficient.
Limited Ductile Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Spiral Bridge Columns under Simulated Seismic Loading
Lee, Jae-Hoon ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Bae, Sung-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 385~395
Nine high-strength concrete (60.2 MPa) spirally reinforced columns with aspect ratio of 3.5 were tested under repeated lateral loading to investigate seismic performance and to provide experimental results for developing limited ductility design method. Spacing and amount of confinement steel and axial load level were selected as experimental variables. The columns were constructed with 0.98, 0.44, and 0.22 times the current confinement steel requirement of the Korean Bridge Design Specification and tested under axial load levels of 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21. Failure behavior and ductility capacity were investigated and compared. The test results showed that the columns with the volumetric confinement steel ratio of 0.0039 (0.22 times the current confinement steel requirement of the Korean Bridge Design Specification) provided limited ductility such as failure drift from 3.8% to 4.8% and displacement ductility index from 2.9 to 4.9.
An Experimental Study on Performance Improvement Estimation of RC Beams Flexural Strengthened by FREP
Kang, Sung-Hoo ; Park, Sun-Joon ; Kim, Min-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 397~405
The FREP was recently invented in domestic and is widely used as reinforcement material. However, studies regarding quantitative analysis about FREP have not been throughly performed, and systematic methods of experiments are not even developed. In this study, experiments for FREP-reinforced beam specimens were classified into four categories. According to these four categories, flexural reinforcement effect, energy absorption ability and destruction pattern of the specimens were analyzed. We also want to suggest a more appropriate method of experiment for the better estimation of reinforcement effect. Among the four methods of experiment, the PRB method in which FREP is reinforced to the initially generated bending cracks while continuously maintaining loading situation) yielded the most accurate results regarding the estimation of reinforcement effect. According to the standard of this study regarding the experiments, FREP-reinforced beam specimens showed 38.6% of increment in flexural reinforcement effect when they are compared to beam specimens with no reinforcement. Results from all four experiment methods indicated that FREP increases flexural reinforcement effect but decreases the energy absorption ability when specimens reach the failing load. When failure occurs, FREP-reinforced RC beam showed the pattern of rip-off failure at the end portion of FREP reinforcement, and FREP reinforcement behaved together with RC beam until the RC beam reaches the failure.
The 2-Dimensional Analysis of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete
Koo, Min-Se ; Choi, In-Sik ; Jo, Bu-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 407~412
In this paper finite element analysis based on Fick's second law is conducted for prediction of time when chloride-induced corrosion on reinforcing steel bar is initiated. And the solution is compared with the closed solution prsented by Weyers to prove the validity of this solution. The analysis is conducted by using the constant chloride diffusion coefficient and time-dependent chloride diffusion coefficient presented by Mangat and Molly. After a concrete FE model contains reinforced bar is exposed to chloride environment for 20 years, the cloride concentration on the reinforcing steel bar by 2-dimensional analysis using constant diffusion coefficient is greater about 67% than that by 1-dimensional analysis. And the concetration on the reinforcing steel bar by 2-dimensional analysis using time-dependent diffusion coefficient is greater about 78.5% than that by 1-dimensional analysis.
An Experimental Study on the
Diffusivity of Concrete
Lee, Myung-Kue ; Jung, Sang-Hwa ; Kim, Do-Hyun ; Jang, Bong-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 413~420
Concrete carbonation is one of the most important factors of the corrosion of steel. The carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient is important in mathematical models predicting carbonation phenomenon. Nevertheless, experimental studies measuring the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient have not been carried out sufficiently. Therefore, the gas diffusivity measuring system has been developed through this study and the measurements of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient of concrete have been performed using this measuring system. It was found that the diffusion of carbon dioxide reached the steady state within about 5 hours after exposure and that the diffusion coefficient is measured from
. These are rational results when they are compared with the existing experiments. The test results indicate that the diffusion coefficient increase with the increase of water-cement ratio. The diffusion coefficient decreases with the increase of relative humidity at the same water-cement ratio. But, from RH 45% to 75%, the change of diffusivity becomes small and these results coincide with the Houst's experiment. On the other hand, the diffusivity of mortar is smaller than that of concrete. Finally, it is expected that these experimental data and further study on the carbon-dioxide diffusivity will contribute to the progress of carbonation studies.
Zigzag Model of Laminated Composite Beams using Trigonometric Functions
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Hong, Dae-Ki ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 421~428
The higher-order shear deformation theory has been applied in the analysis of laminated composite structure. In this paper, the zigzag model of composite laminated beams using the trigonometric function is presented. The lateral displacement and strain is assumed to the sin-function which embodies approximately layer-wise behaviors based in existing data. The higher terms are ignored in the transverse deformation and also, the shear strain and stress is supposed in the cos-function. Applying this model to composite laminated beams, the governing equations are induced and the boundary condition is assumed the simple support. According to symmetric or antisymmetric, the model having the various lenth-to-thickness ratio and layer of number is analyzed. The result in this paper is compared with the existing results for the accuracy of the model.
Sound Radiation from the Coupling Effect of Vibration Noise and Moving Vehicles Noise of Bridges
Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Lee, Yong-Seon ; Jang, Won-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 429~438
An acoustic finite element model of a bridge is developed to evaluate the noise generated by the traffic-induced vibration of the bridge. The dynamic response of a multi-girder bridge, modeled by a 3-dimensional frame element model, is analyzed with a 3-axle (8DOF) truck model and a 5-axle (13DOF) semi-trailer. The flat plate element is used to analyze the acoustic pressure due to the fluid-structure interactions between the vibrating surface and contiguous acoustic fluid medium. The radiation fields of noise with a specified distribution of vibrating velocity and pressure on the structural surface are also computed using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral. Among the diverse parameters affecting the dynamic response of bridge, the vehicle velocity, the vehicle weight and the spatial distribution of the road surface roughness are found to be the main factors that increase the level of vibration noise. In an attempt to illustrate the influence of the structural vibration noise of a bridge to total noise level around the bridge, the random function is used to generate the vehicle noise source including the engine noise and the rolling noise interacting between the road and tire. The results show that the low-frequency noise produced by the vibrating bridge members amplifies the high-frequency vehicle noise by
. In addition, the amplification rate of noise increases with the traveling speed and the vehicle weight.
Viscoelastic Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Structures Composed of Composite Materials using a 3-node Cable Element
Han, Sung-Cheon ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 439~447
A finite element formulation is presented for the nonlinear analysis of cable structures. In the total Lagrangian mode of description, a 3-node curved element is directly degenerated from the three dimensional field equations considering only the axial deformation effect. The cable equations of motion are discretized by the Galerkin weighted residual method to result in a system of nonlinear algebraic equation which are solved by the Newton-Raphson iteration technique. Results from several numerical examples show a good and consistent performance of the 3-node element for a simple cable system under the influence of its own dead weight. A quasi-elastic method is used for the solution of viscoelastic analysis of the spatial net cable structures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present strategies, numerical example of cable net system is given and compared with solution using other method.
Numerical Spring Model of Passive Earth Pressure According to Abutment Deformation in Integral Abutment Bridge
You, Sung-Kun ; Jung, Jae-Ho ; Hong, Jung-Hee ; Yoon, Soon-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 449~455
A structural spring model of integral abutment bridge is proposed to account for the passive earth pressure at the integral backwall. This passive earth pressure of integral abutment bridge is caused by the length change of superstructure due to temperature variation. It is true that the passive earth pressure mainly depends on the shape and amount of abutment displacement caused by the thermal expansion of superstructure. The proposed spring model is developed based on the possible two types of abutment displacement; RB (rotation about the bottom of abutment) mode and RBT (rotation and translation about the bottom of abutment) mode, and correspoding change of earth pressure. A direct stiffness method is used as the basic analysis tool for the integral bridge model and rational earth pressure coefficient is also found based on the constitutive relationship based on soil-structure interaction. The results of spring model analysis is compared with those of conventional design method. The study shows that it may be possible to obtain more rational and economical flexural design of integral abutment bridge by applying the proposed structural spring model.
Aseismic Performance Evaluation of Base Isolation Systems for a Bridge
Park, Kyu-Sik ; Jung, Hyung-Jo ; Kim, Woon-Hak ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 457~469
Base isolation systems are systematically evaluated for aseismic performances of a bridge structure. The pure-friction, laminated rubber bearing, lead rubber bearing, resilient-friction base isolator and electricite de France systems are considered. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to recommend the appropriate ranges of the design parameters such as the natural period of isolated bridge and the friction coefficient of devices. The design parameters are determined by the reciprocal relationship between displacement and bending moment of the bridge in the recommended ranges. Then the relative effectiveness of the bearings is described for the selected design parameters under the three historical earthquake excitations. The peak responses of the bridge with the friction-type bearing, such as the pure-friction, resilient-friction base isolator and electricite de France systems, are less sensitive to substantial variations in the frequency range and the intensity of the ground excitation than those with the rubber-type bearing such as the laminated rubber bearing and lead rubber bearing systems. Furthermore, bridge with the resilient-friction base isolator system shows the smallest peak displacement of deck whereas bridge with the electricite de France system shows the smallest peak bending moment of the lower end of pier.
Evaluation of Design Base Shear Force for Seismically Isolated Bridge in Cold Temperature
Kim, Dae-Kon ; Kim, Seok-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 471~478
This study is to evaluate design base shear force applied on the isolated slab-on-steel girder bridge under cold climate conditions. To this end, comparative test results are presented of laminated elastomeric and lead-rubber seismic isolators in warm and cold temperature conditions. At extremely cold temperatures, rubber "glass-harden" and as a result rubber-based seismic isolators that may be used for seating bridges behave in a significantly non-linear fashion. From the nonlinear time history analysis of the isolated slab-on-steel girder bridge, larger forces are transferred to the substructures, however smaller displacement at superstructure is obtained under cold climate conditions. The winter temperature at the selected bridge site for analytical studies is about
. At this temperature level, the evaluated design base shear force is about 5% larger than that of the bridge at warm temperature. This increment seems to be not large. However, the increment for bridges located at some area where the temperature is expected going down under
may not be disregarded. Therefore this effect need to be considered in the design of seismically isolated bridge under
Experimental Works on the Flexural Behavior of Precast Reinforced Concrete Decks with Loop Joints
Ryu, Hyung-Keun ; Chang, Sung-Pil ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 479~486
Generally, the type of precast decks can be classified by the type of joints which were female-to-female joints and loop joints representatively. In this paper, the flexural behavior of precast RC decks with loop joints was observed through 4-point loading tests in order to develop precast decks with loop joints. The test variables were diameter of loop bars and loop joint span. From the test results, cracking behavior of beams were observed by cracking load, crack width and crack distribution. Also, the ultimate behavior was observed by yielding load, ultimate load and ductility. These were compared with the results of RC decks without joints.
Control of Aerodynamic Instability by Tuned Mass Dampers
Kwon, Soon-Duk ; Park, Kwan-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 487~494
In order to enhance the robustness of tuned mass dampers (TMDs) against frequency drift caused by wind-bridge interaction, this study presents design methodologies of TMDs for control of bridge flutter considering uncertainty of aerodynamic data. Two types of multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) are introduced, i.e., the frequencies of each TMD are equally or unequally spaced. The design parameters of two MTMDs are optimized in the way of maximizing the minimum flutter velocity defined. Optimization procedure for MTMD with unequal frequency interval, named genetic-MTMD (GMTMD), is proposed based on a genetic algorithm. The proposed TMDs are applied to a cable stayed bridge and a suspension bridge and numerical simulations are performed in order to prove the validity of the methods. From the results of numerical simulation, GMTMD that is designed based on genetic algorithm shows remarkable control efficiency compared with conventional single-TMD (STMD) and MTMD.
A Study on the Analysis of Compressive Failure in Concrete due to Strain Localization
Bang, Choon-Seok ; Song, Ha-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 495~502
In this paper, three dimensional compressive failure of plain concrete is analyzed by adopting the so-called homogenized crack model in finite element method. Since quasi-brittle materials like concrete show strain localization behavior accompanied by strain softening, pathological phenomenon such as mesh sensitivity is appeared in the numerical analysis. Recently, regularization methods are introduced to overcome this problem. In this study, homogenized crack model which considers rate discontinuity in the constitutive equation is proposed for a cracking and its propagation in strain softening regime in concrete under compressive load. A constitutive equation of proposed crack model is derived in the general three-dimensional space and finite Element analysis is carried out for the concrete under uniaxial compression. Results from the numerical analysis are compared with experimental data. The comparison shows that the mesh sensitivity in the analysis is successfully overcome and compressive failure of concrete is well simulated.
Experimental Evaluation of RC Beams Strengthened with External Tendons using Jacket-Base Anchorage System
Kim, Hyung-Gyu ; Yang, Dong-Suk ; Park, Sun-Kyu ; Eom, Jun-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 503~511
This paper presents the result of a study on flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external tendons using Jacket-Base anchorage system. External prestressing is a post-tensioning method that is becoming popular not only in new bridge construction but also as a strengthening method for existing concrete structures. In an externally prestressed structure, the tendons are placed on the outside of concrete sections to which they are in contact only at anchorages. However strengthening with external prestressing method, there are many faults to install anchorage system. Therefore, this study proposes Jacket-base anchorage system without any damage to the structure and investigates feasibility of it. A total five concrete beams were constructed, tested and the response of the beams in terms of deflections, strains and modes of failure were examined. Test variables included the type of anchorage system and amount of pre-stressing, and the effects according to each test variables were analysed. The experimental results showed that the proposed anchorage system can increase the flexural capacity such as strength, stiffness of the beam and the increase ranged between 34 and 73% of the load carrying capacity of the control beams.
FEM Models of Multiple-Cell Steel Box Girder Bridges for Design Practice
Jo, Jae-Byung ; Song, Jae-Joon ; Lee, So-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 513~520
Recently, it became a common practice to use FEM analysis for structure designs. Since beam elements are simple and easy to use in FEM model, steel box girders of a bridge are normally modeled with beam elements. In this study, a multi-cell steel box girder composite bridge was analyzed with different FEM models, i.e. Shell-Element-Model which is supposed to give the best results and Beam-Element-Model which is commonly used in the practice. And also proposed is an improved Beam-Element-Model, which is also easy to build up, but supposed to give almost as good results as Shell-Element-Model. The FEM analysis results of the models were compared each other. The Beam-Element-Models showed no big differences to the Shell-Element-Model in stresses and deflections. However, the use of the Improved Beam-Element-Model is required to get appropriate values of reaction forces of the supports.
Elastic Buckling of Continuously Braced Arches
Lim, Nam-Hyoung ; Park, Nam-Hoi ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 521~526
Arches are often connected to other members that influence the structural behavior of the arch. Braces are provided specially for the purpose of increasing the buckling resistance. This paper uses the minimum of total potential energy method to study the elastic buckling of continuously braced arches of doubly symmetric cross section in uniform bending or in uniform compression. Closed form solutions for the torsional buckling moment and torsional buckling axial load of arches braced along the shear center axis by the lateral-translational bracing are obtained. The closed form solutions for the flexural buckling moment and flexural buckling axial load for arches braced by the torsional bracing are also obtained.
Stability of Anisotropic Non-prismatic Folded Plates with Arbitrary Crank Angles Using a Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory
Yoo, Yong-Min ; Lee, Sang-Youl ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 527~535
Stability of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plate configurations has been analyzed. A higher-order shear deformation theory, which assumes a realistic cross section deformation pattern and eliminates the use of shear correction coefficients, and the finite element method using Lagrangian and Hermite interpolation functions are applied to analyze elastic stability of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plates. A
transformation matrix is driven to transform the system element matrices before assembly. The 7 degrees of freedom per node are appended with an additional drilling degree of freedom in order to fit the transformation. It is known to be very difficult to predict stability of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plates. However in this paper, solutions are obtained using a higher-order shear deformation theory and drilling degrees of freedom. These solutions are more accurate than those by the classical plate theory or the first-order shear deformation theory. The effects of number of layers, lay-up sequences and fiber angles by crank angle variations are studied for the stability of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plates. Various results of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plates with arbitrary crank angles show the structural behavior characteristics of anisotropic non-prismatic folded plates.
Analysis of Early-age Concrete Behavior Considering Thermal Deformation and Autogenous Shrinkage
Cho, Ho-Jin ; Song, Ha-Won ; Byun, Keun-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 537~547
Early-age defects in concrete due to thermal and autogenous deformation shorten the life span of concrete structures. For the construction of durable concrete structures, it is necessary to examine the behavior of early-age concrete during the stages of construction planning, and then to ensure cracking resistance of the structures during construction in their examination by modifying material designs or construction methods or structural details. For that purpose, it is necessary to find an analytical technique to analyze the early-age behavior of concrete structures quantitatively under construction conditions in advance. In this paper, we proposed analytical models for early-age behaviors considering thermal deformation, autogenous shrinkage, mechanical properties development and stress relaxation. Then, an unified FE program which combines the proposed behavior models for the analysis of early-age concrete behavior was developed. The unified FE program along with the models was verified through the comparison with experimental data.
Development of Analytical Model on Setting Characteristics of Early-age Concrete
Cho, Ho-Jin ; Song, Ha-Won ; Byun, Keun-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 549~557
In the analysis of early-age concrete behavior, we consider the fresh concrete as a structural element immediately after mixing. But for the activation of real structural behavior in the fresh concrete, it takes some time, which is the so-called setting time, after the beginning of hydration. Since the early-age deformations due to hydration heat and shrinkage which occur before the setting do not produce restraint stresses, it is necessary to develop an analytical model for the setting behavior for analysis on early-age concrete behavior. In this paper, we defined the setting as a micro-structure development process due to birth, growth and linkage of hydration products and proposed an analytical model on the setting characteristic based on the percolation theory and expansion cluster model. Through the comparison of test results with analytical result on final setting time, a critical volume ratio with which the fresh concrete starts to develop strength was determined. An experimental investigation was also performed to assess the influence of curing temperature, mineral admixtures (fly ash, ground-granulated blast-furnace slag and silica fume) and chemical admixture (superplasticizer) on setting behavior of early-age concrete. The investigation shows that high curing temperature accelerates the setting time and mineral additives generally delay the setting time due to decreasel amount of the cement. Superplasticizer was the most effective retarder. The experimental results were compared with the analytical results from the proposed analytical model for the sake of verification. From the comparison, the validity of proposed model is verified.
Seismic Damage Risk and Failure Cost Based Methodology for Retrofit Prioritization of Bridges
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Mha, Ho-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 3A, 2003, Pages 559~569
This paper proposes a quantitative methodology for determining the retrofit priority of bridges based on the seismic damage risk and failure cost of structural components and whole bridges. Seismic damage risk is evaluated in the probabilistic perspectives with a simplified bridge model developed to consider various phenomena involved in the realistic seismic behaviors of girder-type bridges. Weighting factors based on the failure costs of structural components or a whole bridge are developed. Finally, the ranking index and retrofit priority of bridges are estimated from the evaluated overall damage risk and weighting factors. At this stage, the vulnerable components in need of seismic retrofit are selected accordingly. To verify the validity of the methodology Proposed in this study, the results are compared with those from the existing methodology applied in Korea. The simulated results of both methodologies show a similar trend. However, the proposed methodology is found to subdivide the retrofit priority of bridges in details because the damage possibility of vulnerable components and the weighting factors based on the failure cost are reasonably considered. Consequently, the proposed methodology can give more realistic results in determining the priority of bridges for seismic retrofit.