Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6D - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6C - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6B - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6A - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5D - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5C - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5B - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5A - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4D - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4C - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4B - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4A - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3D - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3C - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3B - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3A - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2D - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2C - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2B - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2A - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1D - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1C - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1B - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1A - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Wheel Load Distribution of 2-Span Continuous Prestressed Concrete Skew Bridges
Koo, Min-Se ; Yon, Jung-Heum ; Jeong, Jae-Woon ; Kang, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1057~1066
Wheel load distribution factors have been used to calculate the stresses and moments ,in the girders, produced by franc loading. Therefore these factors have to be exactly evaluated to calculate the stresses and moments of structural members. Because the design detail specified by AASHTO dose not account for the effect of skewness and continuity, it is extremely ineffective to evaluate the moment of the girders for bridges which is influenced by skewness and continuity. In this study, the distribution factor expressions are presented for wheel load distribution to interior and exterior girders of 2span continuous prestressed concrete bridges. For these expressions, the finite-element analysis is employed to carry out an extensive parametric study on more than 150 bridge cases, and the regression analysis is performed with the parameters that have an effect on distribution factors. The five major parameters under consideration are girder spacing, span length, skew angle, girder-to-slab stiffness ratio, and girder and diaphragm stiffness ratio. The span lengths are 25 m, 30 m, and 35 m, and girder spacings are 1.8 m,2.4 m, and 3.6 m, with constant slab width. The skew angles,
, are varied between
Flexural Behavior of GFRP Re-Bar Bundle Reinforced Concrete Beams
Yoon, Soon-Jong ; Kim, Byung-Suk ; Jeong, Sang-Kyoon ; Jung, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1067~1075
In recent years, there has been a greatly increased demand for the use of fiber-reinforced polymeric (FRP) re-bar in civil engineering fields due to their superior mechanical and physical properties such as high specific stiffness and strength, high corrosion resistance, high thermal stability, and electro-magnetic transparency. The design criteria for the FRP reinforced concrete flexural member have been established in many countries such as America, Japan, Europe, etc. This paper presents the analytical and experimental investigation pertainig to the flexural behavior of GFRP re-bar bundle reinforced concrete beams. These GFRP reinforced concrete beam specimens were tested under 4-point bending test set-up. In addition to the experimental investigation, theoretical evaluation is also conducted according to the ACI Committee 440. Both experimental and theoretical results such as load-deflection and load-re-bar strain are compared. Good agreements are observed.
Crack Propagation Analysis without Mesh-Dependency by Using Extended Finite Element Method
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Song, Jeong-Hoon ; Kim, Myoung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1077~1086
In this paper, a new algorithm for crack propagation analysis by using extended finite element method is proposed, and a program which can perform consecutive crack propagation analysis without mesh-dependency is developed. In this method, the singularity and the discontinuity of the crack are efficiently modeled by using initial mesh and modified approximation for displacement fields without refining mesh near crack tip. It enables the asymptotic stress field near crack tip and crack surface to successfully express. The crack propagation procedure is modeled by using linear elastic fracture mechanics the ory. The developed method is verified by evaluating crack tip stress profile and stress intensity factors of mode I, mode II and mixed-mode fracture problems and the results show the effectiveness and robustness for fracture problems.
Advanced Heat Transfer Analysis Model of LNG Storage Tank
Jeon, Se-Jin ; Chung, Chul-Hun ; Jin, Byeong-Moo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1087~1094
Several methodologies were devised to reasonably predict the temperature boundary condition of inner face of a concrete outer tank to set up heat transfer analysis model of a full containment above-ground LNG storage tank. In this model, outer tank is solely taken into account and the beneficial effect of suspended deck and insulation layers on the temperature distribution of outer tank is separately formulated according to the proposed procedures. The equilibrium condition of heat flow rate or heat flux in the steady-state was rigorously utilized, where various aspects of the heat transfer via conduction, convection and radiation were considered as necessary. According to the derived equations, thermal conditions of the outer tank were estimated rather differently from the conventional assumptions for the leakage case as well as the normal operation. Also, more effective design of the insulations can be achieved when the proposed procedures are used as a tool of preliminary analyses.
Flexural Design of I-beam Composite Hollow Slab
Shim, Chang-Su ; Chung, Young-Soo ; Park, Chang-Kyu ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1095~1103
I-beam composite hollow slab has several advantages due to its relatively higher stiffness and strength. Modified composite hollow slab was proposed and design recommendations for the flexural design were suggested through static tests. The flexural stiffness of the composite slabs before cracking showed a good agreement with that of uncracked section analysis while after cracking it showed higher stiffness than that of cracked section analysis. For the flexural design allowing cracking, it is more economical to evaluate the stiffness of the composite slab considering tension stiffening. An empirical equation for the crack width according to the stress at the bottom flange of the I-beam was suggested. Because the failure mode of the composite slab was flexural failure, current one-way slab design considering unit width is appropriate
Experimental Research on I-beam Composite Hollow Slabs
Chung, Young-Soo ; Shim, Chang-Su ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1105~1112
For the replacement of deteriorated concrete decks or long-span slab, composite slab could be very attractive due to higher stiffness and strength. Based on the previous research, a modified I-beam composite hollow slab was suggested. In order to investigate the static flexural behavior of the proposed composite slab and to suggest its flexural design method, experiments were performed. Judging from the tests, a composite slab with I-beam having semi-circle detail showed better structural performance. The effect of web details on the flexural stiffness was negligible and flexural stiffness, ultimate strength and ductility of the composite slabs were significantly greater than the RC slab due to composite action. While the failure of the RC slab was punching shear failure, the composite hollow slab showed flexural cracking and failure by yielding of the I-beams and crushing of concrete. Therefore, the current one-way design concept is appropriate for the design of I-beam composite hollow slab.
Strengthening Effect of the Type of Anchorage in R.C Beams Bonded with CFRP Plate
Park, Sang-Yeol ; Kim, Tae-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1113~1121
This paper presents the debonding failure mechanism and the effect of web anchorage with FRP sheet in RC beams strengthened with CFRP plate. Parameters involved in this experimental study are the location of web anchorage, the length of web anchorage, the amount of web anchorage, and the direction of web anchorage of CFRP sheet. Strengthened beams with no web anchorage and with a little amount of web anchorage suddenly were delaminated by interfacial concrete shear failure from the loading point. Strengthened beams with a large amount of web anchorage finally failed by concrete crushing at the top compression Bone. Generally in interfacial debonding shear failure mode, web anchorage have the considerable effect near the loading point but no effect near the supports. Web anchorage with FRP sheet increased both the ultimate load and the ductility. However the increasing effect of the ductility is much more than that of the ultimate load.
Reliability Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Containment Building
Lee, Seong-Lo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1123~1132
The reliability assessment of reinforced concrete building subjected to earthquake load includes the structural analysis considering random variables such as load, resistance and analysis, the definition of limit states and the reliability analysis. The reliability analysis procedure requires much time and labor and also needs to get the high confidence in results. In this study, random vibration analysis of containments was performed with random variables as earthquake load, concrete compressive strength, modal damping ratio and the seismic responses of critical elements of structure were approximated at the Most Probable Failure Point (MPFP) by response surface method. And the limit state was defined as the failure surface of concrete under multi-axial stress, finally the reliable limit state probability of failure could be obtained easily by Level II method.
Shrinkage Properties of High Performance Concrete Incorporating Mineral Admixtures
Koh, Kyoung-Taek ; Park, Jung-Jun ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Kim, Sung-Wook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1133~1141
Generally, high performance concrete has characteristics such as low water-cementitious material ratio, lots of unit binder powder, thus the drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage are tend to be increased. And the mineral admixtures such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume have been applied extensively in view of the improvement of workability, reduction of heat of hydration, qualities and economic in the high performance concrete. Howerver, few studies have been systematically investigated on the drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete using mineral admixtures. Therefore, we investigated the properties of drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete incorporating mineral admixtures. Test results showed that fly ash increased the drying shrinkage, but blast furnace slag and silica fume had not effects on the drying shrinkage. And fly ash decreased the autogenous shrinkage but blast furance slag and silica fume increased the autogenous shrinkage.
Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Link Slabs for Jointless Bridge Deck System
Kim, Yun-Yong ; Li, Victor C. ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1143~1154
This paper presents an experimental study on the monotonic and fatigue performances of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) link slabs introduced for maintenance free jointless bridge deck system. The property requirements of the link slab material are considered. Special focus is placed on the tensile strain capacity, multiple cracking and tight crack width of ECC material. Experimental results of pre-loading and subsequent cyclic tests of full-scale ECC link slabs are compared with those of ordinary concrete link slab. The mode of deformation, and especially the development of crack width important for durability against steel reinforcement corrosion, will be discussed. The significant enhancements of movement accommodation capacity and tight crack with control in ECC link slab suggest that the use of ECC material can be effective in extending the service life of jointless bridge deck system.
Seismic Safety Evaluation and Retrofit of Flexure-Shear RC Bridge Piers with Lap Spliced Longitudinal Steels
Chung, Young-Soo ; Song, Ho-Jin ; Lee, Dae-Hyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1155~1163
Lap splices of longitudinal reinforcement steels were practically located in the potential plastic hinge region of most bridge columns which were designed before the implementation of the 1992 seismic design provision of Roadway Bridge Design Specification in Korea. The objective of this research is to evaluate the seismic performance of flexure-shear reinforced concrete bridge piers with poor detailing of the starter bars in the plastic hinge region, and to develop the enhancement scheme of their seismic capacity by retrofitting with fiber composites. Six test specimens in the aspect ratio of 2.5 were made with the confinement ratio, lap splice, and retrofit fiber. Quasi-static test was conducted in a displacement-controlled mode. A significant reduction of displacement ductility ratios were observed for test columns with lap splices of longitudinal steels, but an enhancement of seismic performance was revealed for retrofitted specimens with composite material.
Dynamic Behavior of Composite Girder with Applying External Straighted Post-prestressing Strengthen Method
Park, Young-Hoon ; Jeon, Jun-Chang ; Park, Yong-Gul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1165~1173
An experimental and analytical study are carried out to investigate the effect of external straighted post-prestressing strengthen method on the dynamic behavior of composite girder. From the impact test, it is analyzed that the external straighted post-prestressing strengthen method made increase of natural frequency. The damping ratio decrease with the increase of natural frequency is also analyzed. Because the external straighted post-prestressing method reduce dynamic maxium displacement, in considering prestressed compression stress of lower flange, the increase of fatigue safety is predicted by adoting external straighted post-prestressing strengthen method. From the dynamic test results of the servicing steel plate girder bridge, it is investigated that the change degree of natural frequency is very low with applying the external straighted post-prestressing strengthen method
Practical Utilization of Strut-Tie Models for the Design of Anchorage Zones in PSC Box Girder Bridges
Lee, Joo-Ha ; Yoon, Young-Soo ; Lee, Man-Seop ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1175~1182
As prestressed concrete (PSC) box girders are widely used in domestic bridges, overpass, etc., the design and construction technique is being developed day by day. However, the design for anchorage zone in PSC box girder has depended on common sense and empirical results. And it is the current situation that the designer has difficulty due to inadequacy of provisions in the design code and lack of understanding for behavior of anchorage zone. Besides, the design based on Leonhardt's method is being done in general, but the design may be various even for the same structure because of the difference in a way of applying the method. In this paper, therefore, anchorage zone in PSC box girder bridge is analyzed and designed by using strut-and-tie model. Adequacy for the application of strut-and-tie model is verified by comparison with the way used in current design practice, and this study presents that strut-and-tie model can be a rational and an economical design than current design methods. As the result of this paper, required reinforcements calculated by the design using a strut-and-tie model showed a decrease of
compared with the current practical design. Consequently, it is proved that the existing design methods is too conservative and can't reflect accurately the behavior of anchorage Bone. And it is expected that more rational and economical design can be carried out by using proposed design examples and procedure for typical structure shape of anchorage zone in PSC box girder bridges.
Substitute Shear Strain and Nonconforming Four-Node Isoparametric Plate Element for Laminated Composite Plates
Park, Dae-Yong ; Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1183~1192
In this paper, four-node Ressiner-Mindlin plate element with substitute shear strain and nonconforming displacement mode is used for analyzing laminated composite plates. The transverse shear deformation is formulated by using the first-order shear deformation theory. Commonly, transverse shear locking phenomenon is possible for the application of the four-node Ressiner-Mindlin plate element especially in the case of having slender thickness of plate. The reduced integration strategy for solving the transverse shear locking brings about spurious zero energy modes. Substitute strain field is used to avoid the locking and spurious zero energy modes. Nonconforming displacement modes are also employed to improve in-plane and out-of-plane behaviors of the plate element. The numerical results as variation of thickness ratio, aspect ratio, support condition, fibre-angle, and stacking sequence for laminated composite plates are presented. It is shown that the results using substitute shear strain and nonconforming displacement modes provide reliable and more accurate solutions when comparing to results of other researchers.
Vehicle-Barrier Collision Analysis and Design Method Using One Degree of Freedom System
Ko, Man-Gi ; Kim, Kee-Dong ; Jang, Dae-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1193~1204
This work aims to develop a design method using the response spectrum of deceleration and deflection made from single degree of freedom system representing vehicle-barrier crash. The method of representing barrier and vehicle crashing by means of single degree of freedom system is discussed. For the proposed model, many crash test data are needed to investigate the trend of deceleration. In this study, the deceleration data obtained by the computer simulation using BARRIER VII program is used instead of crash test data. The median barrier with thrie beam section and concrete filled circular steel post is chosen as a sample structure. The deceleration data by the computer simulations are analysed and it is shown that the deceleration vs. deformation graph can be approximated with an one way linear spring and the stiffness, which is the slope of the graph, is independent of impact velocity. Thus, for the structure with a specific structural stiffness, the maximum deflection and the maximum deceleration can be calculated analytically with respect to various impact speeds. The maximum deceleration and deformation with respect to the system stiffness for different impact velocities are two response spectra which lead to an effective system design at the development stage.
Low-velocity Impact Dynamic Behavior of Laminated Composite Folded Plate Structures
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1205~1214
In the present paper, the higher-order shear deformation theory is used to study the impact response of Graphite/Epoxy laminated composite non-prismatic folded plates. The impact response of laminated composite plates by a metallic impactor is studied by means of the finite-element method. The modified Hertzian contact law incorporated with the Newton Raphson method is used to calculate the contact force between the impactor and the laminated plates. The Newmark direct integration was adopted to perform time integration from step to step. The results obtained from the present investigation are found to compare well with those in the literature. Numerical results are presented to study the effects of span to thickness ratio, fiber orientation, stacking sequence and crank angle for laminated plate during impact were studied.
Evaluation of Residual Stresses on Welded Steel Plate Girders Subjected to Pre-deflection Load
Kim, Nam-Sik ; Jung, Dae-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1215~1225
The residual stresses would cause welded steel bridges to deteriorate overall flexural stiffness and fatigue strength. This paper describes the evaluation of residual stresses on fillet welded steel plate girders as a preflex beam experimentally and analytically. In field tests, the residual stresses and deflections of welded steel plate girders subjected to two cyclic Pre-deflection loads are measured in a static manner. Further, it is shown from the results of thermal elasto-plastic finite element analysis considering conventional welding conditions that the residual stresses due to welding are dramatically reduced by using a pre-deflection load. Thus, these results are compared with experimental ones obtained from field test specimens. From the results, residual deflections of the test specimens correspond to about 10% of elastic deflection obtained from the Timoshenko beam theory considering shear deformation effect. For a practical design, it can be recommended that welded steel plate girders should consider shear deformation effect according to the depth-to-span ratios in order to predict the residual deflections.
Substitute Shear Strain and Nonconforming Four-Node Mindlin Flat Shell Element for Laminated Composite Shells
Park, Dae-Yong ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ; You, Sung-Kun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1227~1237
In this paper, a four-node Mindlin flat shell element with substitute shear strain and nonconforming displacement modes is used for analyzing laminated composite shells. The transverse shear deformation is included by using the first-order shear deformation theory. Commonly, transverse shear locking phenomenon is possible for the application of the four-node Mindlin flat shell element especially for thin shell. The reduced integration strategy adopted for solving the transverse shear locking problem results spurious zero energy modes. The substitute shear strain field can be used to avoid the locking and spurious zero energy modes. Nonconforming displacement modes are considered to improve in-plane and out-of-plane behaviors of the shell element. In the process of transforming local stiffness into global stiffness, the drilling rotational stiffness can occur. To avoid numerical difficulties associated with the drilling rotational stiffness, the artificial drilling rotational stiffness proposed by Zienkiewicz and Taylor (1989) is used. Various examples are considered by using the flat shell element proposed in the present study. It is shown that the results obtained by the substitute shear strain and nonconforming displacement modes provide more reliable and accurate solutions comparing with other research results.
Tensile Behaviors of Corrugated Steel Plates in the Wave-Direction
Hwang, Won-Sup ; Wi, Young-Min ; Jung, Dae-An ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1239~1245
In this study, tensile test in wave-direction was performed for the standard and deep types of corrugated plates fabricated in the nation to recognize tensile behaviors. Under tension force, compressive strains were developed in crest part and tensile strains was developed in valley one, and yield stress increased according to increase of thickness. Yield stress of deep corrugated type was reduced due to decrease of valley depth. In case of uniform wave form, by increasing thickness, the yield load of corrugated steel plate increases. Corrugate plate yields when the ratio of out of plain displacement to thickness reaches about 1.0. In addition the effect of valley depth causes the yield load of deep corrugated type to decrease, the strength behavior is more stable than that of standard type after yielding. This study proposes yield stress, yield load, and stiffness, by thickness, of corrugated steel plates based on results of those experiment.
Non-Bernoulli-Compatibility Truss Model for RC Members Subjected to Combined Action of Flexure and Shear (I) - Its Derivation of Theoretical Concept -
Kim, Woo ; Jeong, Jae-Pyong ; Kim, Dae-Joong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1247~1256
Based on the mechanical interpretation of the well-known relationship between shear and the rate of change of bending moment in a reinforced concrete beam subjected to combined shear and moment loads, a new truss modeling technique is developed to overcome the shortcomings of the Bernoulli-compatibility truss model that underestimate the concrete contribution to the beam shear resistance. The core of the model is that a new perspective on the shear resistance can be gained by considering the variation of the internal arm length along the span, so that the shear resistance mechanism can be divided into two base components; arch action and beam action. The arch action can be described as a tied-arch consisting of a curved compression chord and a tension tie of the longitudinal steel, while the beam action between the two chords can be modeled as a membrane shearing element with forming a smeared truss action. The compatibility of deformation associated to the two actions is taken into account by employing the warping influence factor which is an empirically determined coefficient. Then the base equation of V=dM/dx can be numerically duplicated to provide a comprehensive description for the behavior related to beams under combined action of flexure and shear.
Non-Bernoulli-Compatibility Truss Model for RC Members Subjected to Combined Action of Flexure and Shear (II) - Its Practical Solution -
Kim, Woo ; Jeong, Jae-Pyong ; Park, Dae-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1257~1266
This paper as Part II of the present study deals with a practical formulation of Non-Bernoulli Compatibility Truss Model that has been conceptually derived and described in Part 1. Since the model involves five unknowns, the equilibrium conditions as well as some approximations and empirical coefficients are utilized to evaluate those unknowns. By replacing Bernoulli compatibility condition with an assumption of constant contribution ratio along the shear span, the relationship between
and z can be simply defined as an arch shape function. It is also approximated that
is an experimental coefficient of
for practical purpose. The whole warping influence factor-
chart is made utilizing a nonlinear finite element analysis, so that the new model can be statically determined and solved by simple application of equilibrium conditions. Then, the new model is examined by Stuttgart beam test results, and the predicted values are shown to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results.
Stability Assessment of Laminated Composite Structures with Centrally Located Circular Cutout
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ; Shin, Wook-Beom ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1267~1275
A formulation of an isoparametric quadrilateral four-noded element is presented and formulated element is employed in the buckling analysis of composite laminates with centrally located circular cutout including transverse shear deformation. To circumvent the shear locking phenomena and pseudo zero-energy mode, the substitute shear strain fields are incoporated. To improve the behavior of the element, non-conforming modes are added. Several numerical examples are presented and results are validated by comparing results with some of those available in the literature. New results show the effects of variations in the hole diameter; the aspect ratio of plate; the laminate stacking sequence, and the fiber orientations. In addition, the effect of the viscoelastic material on buckling behavior of composite laminates with cutout is investigated. A quasi-elastic method is used for the solution of viscoelastic analysis. The critical buckling loads and mode shapes analyzed here may serve as a benchmark for future investigations.
Simplified Response Analysis for the Inelastic Behavior of a RC Bridge under Seismic Loading(I): - Verification of the Model -
Lee, Do-Hyung ; Jeon, Jong-Su ; Park, Tae-Hyo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1277~1285
Hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete members subjected to cyclic loading is investigated in this work. In order to achieve the objective of the current research, flexure and shear hysteretic models are developed and verified using a lumped spring hinge representation. The proposed model allows the interactive response between flexure and shear to be evaluated. The analytical predictions including the current developments show a good correlation with experimental results. In addition, comparison of hysteretic response between cases with and without shear proves an importance of shear and stresses the salient feature of the current approaches.
Simplified Response Analysis for the Inelastic Behavior of a RC Bridge under Seismic Loading(II): - Application of the Model -
Lee, Do-Hyung ; Jeon, Jong-Su ; Park, Tae-Hyo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1287~1294
In this paper, the effect of flexure and shear coupled with axial force variation on the inelastic seismic response of reinforced concrete bridge piers is investigated. For the purpose of this, flexure-axial and shear-axial interaction models are developed and implemented into nonlinear structural analysis program. Seismic analysis of a reinforced concrete bridge damaged by the Northridge earthquake of 1994 demonstrated the importance of the current developments. The contribution of shear deformation to total deformation was significant, which leads to an increase of ductility demand and stiffness degradation. In addition, axial force variation coupled with shear can considerably affect strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity of reinforced concrete bridge piers. Therefore, flexure-shear-axial interaction has to be taken into account in assessing the seismic capacities of reinforced concrete bridge piers.
Experimental Study on the Ultimate Behavior of Steel Box Girder Webs
Lee, Sung-Chul ; Yoon, Dong-Yong ; Jeong, Un-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1295~1302
Numerous works have been presented over the years on the ultimate shear behavior including the post buckling strength of plate girder web panels. Among these studies, Easier (1963) and Porter et al. (1975) have been adopted in AASHO (1973) and BS5400 (1982) respectively, and the design rules are permitted for the box girder web panels. Recent studies by Lee et al. (1996) and Lee and Yoo (1998) proposed a set of new design equations through the parametric study of the data generated by the nonlinear finite element analyses. These proposed equations resulted in better correlation with test values by Zureick et al. (2002) and Lee and Yoo (1999) for plate girders than other equations. However, Lee and Yoo (1998) reported that the stiffness of the flanges is not related to the shear post-buckling strength. This finding states that even the box girder with flexible flanges may exert the post-buckling strength equivalent to that of the plate girder web panel. In this paper, finite element analysis and experimental study are conducted to investigate the ultimate strength behavior of the box girder web panels. The results show that the proposed equations by Lee and Yoo (1998) are also applicable for the design of the steel box girder web panels.
Experimental Study for Ultimate Strength Behavior of Steel Box Girder Compression Flanges
Lee, Sung-Chul ; Yoon, Dong-Yong ; Jeong, Un-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1303~1310
AASHTO LRFD (1994) considers the elastic buckling as a flexural strength limit state for slender compression flanges of steel box girders. Yoon et al. (2003a, b) showed that the compression panels are capable to develop a considerable postbuckling strength if the longitudinal stiffeners are rigid enough to keep the nodal line after buckling. In this study, an experiment with fifteen open-top steel box girder specimens was carried out focusing on the postbuckling capability of the sub panels and ultimate optimum rigidity of longitudinal stiffener. Test results showed good agreements with the proposed equations by Yoon et al. (2003a, b) relatively. However, all the specimens were able to carry bending moments not only greater than those obtained from the AASHTO LRFD (1994) but even greater than those predicted the equation by Yoon et al. (2003, b). This observation implies that a compression flange failure was not followed by an immediate failure of a whole box girder section. It is believed that the remaining section composed only of the webs and tension flanges was able to resist the additional bonding moment even after the compression flange reached the ultimate strength including the post buckling reserve strength.
Displacement Shape Comparison of Anisotropic Folded Plates with Arbitrary Crank Angles
Yoo, Yong-Min ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1311~1319
Classical laminated plate theory does not consider shear deformation, and first-order shear deformation theory assumes a linear shear deformation and uses shear correction coefficients. However, higher-order shear deformation theory assumes a realistic shear deformation and eliminates the use of shear correction coefficients. The behaviors of the anisotropic folded plates are well known to happen the different behaviors compared with the isotropic folded plates. This study presents the deformed shapes of the anisotropic folded plates with any arbitrary crank angle. In order to predict the inherent characteristics of anisotropic folded plates different from those of the classical folded plates, the finite element has developed considering higher-order shear deformation theory and drilling degree of freedom rather than the classical laminated plate theory and the first-order shear deformation. The deformed configurations are obtained according to the variation of number of layers. lay-up sequences by crank angle and fiber angle variations. The various results of anisotropic folded plates with arbitrary crank angles show the different structural behavioral characteristics of anisotropic folded plates compared with those of isotropic folded plates.
A Hybrid Algorithm for Finite Element Reliability Analysis of Real Structures
Huh, Jung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1321~1329
A hybrid structural reliability analysis method that integrates a commercial finite element program and a reliability analysis algorithm is proposed to estimate the safety of real structures in this paper. Since finite element method (FEM) is most commonly and widely used in the analysis and design practice of real structures, it appears to be necessary to use a general FEM program in the structural reliability analysis. In this case, simple conventional reliability methods cannot be used because the limit state function can only be expressed in an algorithmic form. The response surface method(RSM)-based reliability algorithm with the first-order reliability method (FORM) found to be ideal in this respect and is used in this paper. The intention of use of RSM is to develop, albeit approximately, an explicit expression of the limit state function for real structures. The explicit limit state function for a statically indeterminate three bar truss structure is used in the first numerical example to verify both accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and its application potential to the variety of engineering problems. The applicability of the proposed method to complex real structures is examined with help of the second example in consideration of a concrete dam. Both the strength and serviceability limit states are considered in this example.
A Study on the Improvement of Design Criteria for Cast-In-Place Anchor
Jang, Jung-Bum ; Suh, Yong-Pyo ; Lee, Jong-Rim ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6A, 2003, Pages 1331~1338
Actual model tests are carried out to examine the appropriateness of design criteria that are available for the anchorage design in this study. These tests are intended for the cast-in-place anchor that is widely used for the fastening of equipment in Korean nuclear power plants. Thirty five test specimens taking account of seven test conditions are manufactured on a basis of ASTM E488 under non-cracked and plain concrete. As principal test variables, effective anchor embedment depth, anchor with edge effects, and anchor with overlapping failure volume etc. are chosen. In order to apply the tensile force, 100 tonf-capacity actuator is used with displacement control of 0.5 mm/min. It is proved that ACI 349-01 and CCD procedure of CEB-FIP Code are very conservative compared with test results. An improved design criterion is proposed on a basis of test results in order to increase the economical efficiency of nuclear power plants in this study.