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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6D - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6C - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6B - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 6A - Nov 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5D - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5C - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5B - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 5A - Sep 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4D - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4C - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4B - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 4A - Jul 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3D - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3C - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3B - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3A - May 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2D - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2C - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2B - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2A - Mar 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1D - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1C - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1B - Jan 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1A - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Mapping of Floodplain Boundaries Using High Spatial Resolution DEM
Lee, Joo-Heon ; Choi, Jong-Jin ; Lee, Hee-Chul ; Lee, Eun-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 471~478
The main objective of this study is to develope the Floodplain Simulation System for Yang Hwa river basin using the rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1), hydraulic channel routing model (HEC-Ras) and geographic information system (WMS). The basin digital elevation model is constructed by combine the high spatial and low spatial resolution DEM. The high spatial resolution DEM contain the specific and detailed information on the river (levee, floodplain..). So the developed system can simulate the flood inundation according to each river stage and also it can simulate the effect of levee on each riverside. Finally the developed system can produce precise floodplain boundaries and flooding depth according to each river stage. The results of this study can be effectively used at the field of Flood map and disaster prevention.
Nonlinear Prediction of Daily Streamflow with Chaotic Characteristics
Park, Dae-Kyu ; Cho, Won-Cheol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 479~487
This research is to compare the nonlinear prediction techniques which is based on the chaos theory. We confirmed a daily streamflow series of St. Johns river in Florida, USA has chaotic characteristics through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods. We used the local approximation and ANN-local approximation methods for the non linear prediction. From the analyses, it was difficult to decide which method is better in forecasting accuracy. However, we could know that the ANN-local approximation method showed better accuracy in nonlinear aspect and local approximation method showed the reasonable accuracy in short term prediction.
Numerical Simulations of Mixing of Heated Water Discharged from Surface and Submerged Outfalls in Ambient Water with Crossflow
Kim, Dae-Geun ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 489~497
This paper presents the simulation results of the mixing characteristics of heated water discharged from surface and submerged outfalls in ambient water with crossflow using the FLOW-3D model. The existing experimental data and numerical simulation data were used for the verification of the model. In the model verification, the simulation results on the jet centerline trajectory, dimensions of the recirculating zone and the dimensionless excess temperature distribution are in good agreement with the presented data. The model was applied to simulate the mixing of the heated water discharged form surface and submerged outfalls. In case of shallow water condition in which discharge momentum flux is big, the submerged discharge type is more profitable than the surface discharge type in the recirculating zone's scale and minimum dilution's viewpoint. But it is hard to get the advantages of the submerged discharge type in case discharge momentum flux is small
Development of Drought Forecasting and Warning Technique in Basin
Yi, Jae-Eung ; Yoo, Jae-Bok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 499~506
The purpose of drought forecasting and warning is to forecast and warn coming drought in advance and minimize damages from drought. Several indices have been utilized to show the drought severity. Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) is the most famous index among them. PDSI, however, has a number of disadvantages such as it is ineffective in regions of predominantly irrigated agriculture and it cannot reflect current state of drought very well. The objective of the study is to develop the drought forecasting and warning technique by River and Palmer Drought Severity Index (RPDSI) which can reflect the aspects of water resources like river discharge and reservoir storage. RPDSI considering PDSI, river discharge and reservoir storage is an effective index that can represent drought quantitively in Korea. Also, exceedance probabilities based on RPDSI and existing data are utilized as criteria for issuing drought watch, warning, and emergency. In this study, the drought forecasting and warning system is applied to Ansungcheon basin by establishing the standard for issuing drought warning. It is found that the drought forecasting and warning system is able to forecast the drought of Ansungcheon basin properly.
Forecasting the Water Quality of River Using GANN
Park, Sung-Chun ; Ha, Soo-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 507~514
In this study, a genetic algorithm that is one of conceptual models and a nerve-network theory was developed and applied to Youngsan river for predicting the water quality. Four water quality parameters were selected for the model application, which were DO, BOD, T-N, and T-P. The model was highly reliably correlated and the coefficients of correlation were up to 0.87 for all parameters. As a result, we concluded that the model is highly applicable for a nonlinear river as we finding out the related variables for predicting. Accordingly, I think that, if the model developed in this study is applied to a river and the construction of its daily or hourly data is preceded, a better model will be developed and the water quality of a river will be managed more actively.
A Study on the Time and Space Weighting Factors in the Muskingum-Cunge Flood Routing Method
Kim, Dae-Geun ; Lee, Jae-Hyung ; Seo, Il-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 515~520
This paper is about the simulation of diffusion wave using the numerical diffusion of Muskingum-Cunge flood routing method. From the modified equation of the Muskingum-Cunge method applied to the diffusion wave, a criteria to remove errors due to numerical diffusion and oscillation are investigated. Through numerical experiments on imaginary flood waves and measured flood data in natural channels, we find that Muskingum-Cunge method with negative weighting factors shows the best simulation results in case of the wave with big hydraulic diffusion. The hydraulic diffusion coefficients of the flood wave in the natural channels are estimated using the simulation results.
A Study on Rainfall-Runoff Models for Improving Ensemble Streamflow Prediction - I. Rainfall-runoff Models Using Artificial Neural Networks -
Jeong, Dae-Il ; Kim, Young-Oh ; Cho, Sung-Zoon ; Shin, Hyun-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 521~530
The previous ESP (Ensemble Streamflow Prediction) studies conducted in Korea reported that the modeling error is a major source of the ESP forecast error in winter and spring (i.e. dry seasons), and thus suggested that improving the rainfall-runoff model would be critical to obtain more accurate probabilistic forecasts with ESP. This study used two types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), such as a Single Neural Network (SNN) and an Ensemble Neural Networks (ENN), to improve the simulation capability of the rainfall-runoff model of the ESP forecasting system for the monthly inflow to the Daecheong dam. Applied for the first time to Korean hydrology, ENN combines the outputs of member models so that it can control the generalization error better than SNN. Because the dry and the flood season in Korea shows considerably different streamflow characteristics, this study calibrated the rainfall-runoff model separately for each season. Therefore, four rainfall-runoff models were developed according to the ANN types and the seasons. This study compared the ANN models with a conceptual rainfall-runoff model called TANK and verified that the ANN models were superior to TANK. Among the ANN models, ENN was more accurate than SNN. The ANN model performance was improved when the model was calibrated separately for the dry and the flood season. The best ANN model developed in this article will be incorporated into the ESP system to increase the forecast capability of ESP for the monthly inflow to the Daecheong dam.
A Study on Rainfall-Runoff Models for Improving Ensemble Streamflow Prediction - II. Combining Rainfall-Runoff Models -
Jeong, Dae-Il ; Kim, Young-Oh ; Ko, Ick-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 531~540
Alternative approach that can improve the simulation capability of rainfall-runoff models by combining the simulated streamflows was proposed. A conceptual rainfall-runoff model called TANK and an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model called
developed from the preceding article were combined to improve the accuracy of Daechung dam monthly inflow simulation. The combining methods tested were Simple Average, Variance-Covariance, Constant Coefficient Regression, Switching Regression, Sum of Squared Error (SSE), ANN error correction method, and ANN combining method. We found that the combining methods could reduce the RMSE of the streamflows simulated by both the TANK and
models. Among the combining methods, SSE performed the best. SSE considerably reduced the RMSE in the summer and winter but it was not superior to
in the winter. It is expected that the improvement in the simulation capability made in this study will increase the accuracy of the probabilistic forecasts using ensemble stream flow prediction.
Hydrodynamic Flood Forecasting using Kalman Filtering: - I. Model Development -
Kim, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 541~549
Kalman Filtering technique was used for real-time update in the hydraulic flood routing model. Optimal updating estimates were obtained by combining the results of hydraulic flood routing model with real time data using Kalman Filter gain factor. The study area was the main Han River which is from Paldang Dam to the river mouth and the 6 flood/non-flood events were applied for Kalman Filtering technique. The results showed that RMS error has been improved 52.76% at Jamsu bridge, 55.03% at Hangang bridge on average. The rivetted of the main Han River was simplified to reduce running time used for using Kalman Filtering technique and the improvement rate of simulation time was represented as 76.6% approximately. It could be concluded that the combination of Kalman Filtering technique and hydraulic flood routing model could improve the accuracy of real-time flood forecasting.
Derivation of Downstream Hydraulic Geometry Equations for Alluvial Rivers
Lee, Jong-Seok ; Julien, Pierre Y. ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 551~559
This study analyzed downstream hydraulic geometry equations for alluvial channels using the flow rate, flow resistance, secondary motion, and particle mobility. The data set used to test these equations consists of 1,485 measurements: 1,125 field measurements for calibration and verification,360 field and laboratory measurements for validation. The data set covers a wide range of rivers including meandering and braiding rivers with sand-bed, gravel-bed, and cobble-bed substrate. The regression equations define bankfull conditions for five dependent variables as a function of three independent variables. The calculated downstream hydraulic geometry from these equations is in excellent agreement with the field and laboratory measurements of channel width, average flow depth, mean flow velocity, channel slope, and Shields parameter. These equations can be used to predict the downstream hydraulic geometry of sand-bed to cobble-bed channels with a range of channel width 1.0
Study on Refuge Behavior and Its Critical Inundation Depth in Low Area
Kang, Sang-Hyeok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 561~565
It is necessary to build countermeasure for the reduction of flood damage in low area, such as the analysis of shelter activities of local residents and the publishment of flood informations. The control factors for mental refuge activity by the questionnaire survey were classified and estimated into two categories: internal and external ones. Furthermore, the optimal time for refuse activities related to flood risk was verified by hydraulic simulation. The shelter activities considering inundation depth will serve citizen's consensus by exercise, it would aid to minimize flooding victim.
Reliability Analysis of Run-up on Sloped Coastal Structures
Lee, Cheol-Eung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 567~574
A reliability model for run-up on the sloped-coastal structures is developed in order to inform the basis of a probabilistic approaches such as the reliability based-design method taken into consideration of uncertainties, by which the optimal height of those structures may be designed effectively. A empirical formulae evaluating the run-up level of exceedance x% is used for formulation of reliability function. The probabilities of failure with respect to run-up level obtained from the present reliability model are also compared with results from a probabilistic model considering the run-up distribution function, so that the applicability of the probabilistic model can be assessed directly. It is concluded that the probabilistic model of run-up distribution may only be applicable to exceedance 2% run-up level, but overestimate for the significant run-up level. Additionally, it is found from the sensitivity analyses that the probability of failure for the run-up on the sloped-coastal structures are more dependent on the wave height distribution than other random variables such as empirical coefficient and structure slope in the reliability function. However, the run-up levels are little sensitive to the wave steepness.
Investigation on the Wave Pressure Acting on the Frontal Slope of Rubble Mound Breakwater - I. Application of Numerical Wave Flume -
Seong, Sang-Bong ; Chun, In-Sik ; Lee, Dal-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 575~579
The analysis of the stability of rubble-mound breakwaters needs the information of dynamic pressures occurring at the frontal slope exposed to wave incidence. The CADMAS-SURF program based on VOF method which is the direct solution method of Navier-Stokes equation was applied to reproduce the nonlinear wave field occurring on the slope. The purpose of study is to provide a basis for proposal of an empirical Formula on the wave pressure acting at the frontal slope of rubble-mound breakwater. Both amplitude and phase of the dynamic pressure on the slope were calculated and compared with the results of existing hydraulic experiment. It was appeared that they showed quite a good agreement.
Investigation on the Wave Pressure Acting on the Frontal Slope of Rubble Mound Breakwater - II. Proposal of an Empirical Formula -
Seong, Sang-Bong ; Chun, In-Sik ; Lee, Dal-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 581~585
In the present study, a numerical analysis based on the VOF method was performed to describe the wave field of rubble mound breakwaters. The results were then used for proposing an empirical formula for the wave pressures occurring along the frontal slope of breakwater. It was found that there is a linear relationship between the maximum pressure at still water level and the surf similarity parameter. The relationship was demonstrated in the form of regressive formula. It was also appeared that the maximum pressures along the slope were all considerably less than the values calculated by Goda's formula.
Statistical Analysis of Water Quality of Domestic Acid Mine Drainage(AMD)
Oh, Je-Ill ; Shim, Yon-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 587~596
The analysis of water quality properties in domestic acid mine drainage (coal mine and metal mine) was conducted by using mine drainage database based on the data of existing water quality. The purpose of analysis is to find the relationship between pH and variable cation and anion. Collected data were expressed in terms of mg/L, mole/L, and eq/L unit, and carried out a statistical analysis. In comparison of water contamination level of coal mine and metal mine, Fe, Al, Pb, and Cd exceeded two standards ('clean' region and 'Ka/Na' region) of water quality. Mn, As exceeded 'Clean' region and only
was under the range of two standards. Using pC-pH diagram, pH of drainage was distributed over the strong acid range (pH 2.47-4.52) at both coal mine and metal mine. Also, Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, Mg,
were representative ions in the coal mine, and Fe, Al, Mn,
were in the metal mine. In the analysis using a charge balance of ions, the effect of Mn ion was relatively less significant than the effect of Fe and Al in the coal mine and the metal mine, but coal mine was influenced substantially by Ca and Mg. The governing degree of each cation arranged Ca>Mg>Al>Fe>H>Mn in the coal mine and Fe>Al>H>Mn in the metal mine. The total ion concentration of the coal mine was much higher than that of the metal mine, and the rate of (total cation)/(total anion) in the coal mine and the metal mine was 94% and 75% respectively.
Pollution Origins and Characteristics of Combined Sewer Overflows from Urban Area
Lee, Doo-Jin ; Yoon, Hyun-Sik ; Shin, Eung-Bai ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 597~606
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) have been considered as a major cause of water quality deterioration of natural water-courses in the vicinity of the heavily urbanized areas. The factors defining the magnitude and occurrence of CSOs are site-specific. It is important to know exact properties of pollutants contained in CSOs to address water quality impacts that are caused by CSOs inputs to the receiving waters. This should be accompanied with an integrated analysis, evaluation programs, thus allowing us to devise an appropriate technology to alleviate the impacts. Pollutant concentrations measured during the storm events are generally higher, especially than those of dry weather conditions except for T-N parameter much highere at the initial phase of CSOs. Based on the rough estimation by the proposed pollutant mass balance, it is found that a main part of wet weather pollutional loads originated from the resuspension of sewer bottom sediments. The dimensionless L(V) curves for determining whether first flush phenomenon occurred or not are well described the pollutant flushing. These results showed that a given fraction of volume contained a load of SS higher than COD, T-P, T-N in the initial phase of wet weather runoff.
Behavior of Extended Boussinesq Equations on Variations of Bottom Topography
Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Cho, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 607~613
In this study, investigations are made on how to consider the variation of bottom topography during the derivation of the extended Boussinesq equations of Wei et al. (1995). It is assumed that the bottom is varying vertically in order of the water depth at a distance of one wavelength, and thus the bottom should be varying mildly. Therefore, in the governing equations the squared bottom slope term is neglected and the bottom curvature, the bottom's third-order spatial derivative and higher terms are included partially. Using the linear extended Boussinesq equations of Wei et al. numerical experiments are conducted for two cases: waves reflecting from the Booij's (1983) plane slope and the Bragg reflection of waves on the Davies and Heathershaw's (1984) ripples. Numerical results show that the linear Boussinesq equations are accurate for waves on the mild slope and also on the ripples. However, the equations are not accurate any more for waves on the steep slope.
Refraction of Irregular Water Waves
Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Jung, Jae-Sang ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 23, issue 6B, 2003, Pages 615~619
Investigations are made to see any difference in the refraction of irregular waves with different wave periods which come from deep water in the same directions. The component of longer wave period is refracted more significantly and thus arrives at the coast faster than the component of shorter period. Even starting with the same directions in deep water, there exist various components with different directions in shallow water because the component of longer period is at an angle almost normal to the coastal line while the component of shorter period is at an angle almost the same as in deep water.