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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6D - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6C - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6B - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6A - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5D - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5C - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5B - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5A - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4D - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4C - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4B - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4A - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3D - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3C - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3B - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3A - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2D - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2C - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2B - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2A - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1D - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1C - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1B - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1A - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Prediction of Breakwater Static Failure Response Based on Wave Impact Pressure
Kim, Jang-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Kim, Jong-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 233~238
The most common failure of breakwater comes from impact wave pressure generated by intense storms. This impact pressure is 10 folds greater than the pressure generated by normal waves. Therefore, the precise knowledge of magnitude of impact wave pressure applied on breakwater and its structural response is crucial for the economical and safe design. However, presently, a precise analysis of breakwater is restricted by insufficient and incorrect consideration of the effect of fluid-soil-structure interaction. 3 major research areas included in this study are (1) theoretical analysis of impact wave pressure, (2) selection of breakwater structure model (3) soil-structure interaction analysis using limit analysis computer program. Based on this analysis, predicted static response of concrete breakwater and probable failure location under wave impact pressure are determined.
Damage Assessment of Structures by Modal Data of Lower Modes
Jeong, Youn-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 239~248
The localized damage of a structure is more sensitive at madal data of higher modes than lower modes. Therefore, damage assessment by modal data of higher modes has high accuracy and convergence because it expresses damage effects explicitly. But, damage assessment by madal data of lower modes is difficult to assess from starting point to optimal solution because it expresses damage effects implicitly and has many local solutions. In this study, global optimization technique combined multiple starting points and local optimization technique is applied to overcome these difficulties. At each iteration, multiple starting points corresponding to each unknown variables are generated by random number generator, and local optimization is performed to each starting point. Then, global optimization which uses only objective function value of local optimization is carried out. As a result, global optimization by multiple starting points improves the efficiency of optimization since it uses more information, and results in exact estimation of damage location and extent by modal data of lower modes.
Evaluation of Structural Behaviors Using Full Scale Measurements on the Seo Hae Cable-Stayed Bridge
Park, Jong-Chil ; Park, Chan-Min ; Song, Pil-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 249~257
This paper presents evaluation of structural behaviors using measured data of the Seo Hae cable-stayed bridge, on the basis of a monitoring system. Measurements analyzed in this paper are stiffening girder's displacements and steel strains, superstructure's thermal expansions, pylon's tilts, cable forces, and dynamic characteristics. From measured displacements and strains, only live load-induced components are extracted and compared to their design values and specifications. In order to confirm a thermal behavior of structure, correlation coefficients between temperatures and superstructure's expansions are obtained. Furthermore, parameters having an effect on thermal expansions are investigated. From measured pylon's tilts, deformed shape and function of pylon are derived reasonably. Cable tensions which are important factors in cable-stayed bridges are calculated using dynamic methods by the natural frequencies of cable. Finally, we know that dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies are changed as temperature varies. These results could provide useful information for engineers interested in design, construction and maintenance.
The Behavior of Concrete Confined by Carbon Fiber Sheet
Youm, Kwang-Soo ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Park, Young-Jun ; Lee, Hak-Eun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 259~265
This paper provides a framework for better understanding of the behavior of carbon fiber sheet (CFS) wrapped concrete structures and suggests the confinement relationship based on the test data. Results from a series of uniaxial compression tests on CFS wrapped concrete specimen are compared with the confinement models. To gain credibility of the proposed confinement model, another series of uniaxial compression test results is used to prove the proposed model.
An Assesment of fatigue Life Cycle for Buried Pipelines in Consideration for Corrosion and Frost Heave of a Geotechnical Medium -I. An Assesment of Physical Properties of a frozen Soil Medium -
Song, Weon-Keun ; Kim, Moon-Kyum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 267~275
The studies of the properties being associated with the behavior of a soil medium, and of the interaction between a frozen soil medium and a buried pipeline are requried for the assessment of the life cycle for buried pipelines. Magnitude of heaving, unfrozen water content and thermal conductivity for frozen granite soils of Korean Peninsula were measured for analyzing heat and mechanical properties in this paper. Laboratory measurements for determining Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were also conducted and functional relation of them for temperature and initial water content was illustrated. The analysis focused on the development of a computational scheme was initiated to determine the thermal expansion coefficient of the granite soil in the closed system by introducing the effective heat capacity concept. The prediction of it required the coupled solution of the unsteady state nonlinear heat and mass transfer equations for the three dimensional problem. The regression curves of the effective thermal expansion coefficients, respectively, within the frozen soil medium and the frozen fringe were proposed by generalizing the functional relation of temperature and initial water content. This study was fundamental work for predicting the effect of the various factors on the life cycle for buried pipelines.
An Assesment of Fatigue Life Cycle for Buried Pipelines in Consideration for Corrosion and Frost Heave of a Geotechnical Medium : - II. An Interaction between a Soil Medium and a Buried Pipeline -
Song, Weon-Keun ; Kim, Moon-Kyum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 277~283
In previous work, the data of the granite soil for Korean Peninsula collected by testing the soil properties at subzero temperature were analyzed. The present study examined the problem of the interaction between the soil medium and the buried pipeline embedded in it that experienced frost heave in the closed system. The stress tendencies of the buried pipeline according to change of the applied loads and operating conditions were generalized by a functional relation for the DB system design. The results showed the effects of the applied loads and operating conditions on the fatigue life cycle of the buried pipeline in several regions of South Korea.
Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete Using Recycled PET
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Kwon, Byung-Yoon ; Park, Seung-Kook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 285~292
If the unsaturated polyester based on recycled PET is properly formulated, it can be mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete with very good mechanical properties and durability performance. However, despite of low manufacturing cost from plastic wastes, great needs for polymer concrete precast components are not popular in building panels, junction boxes, flow drains, trench lines, and transportation related components, because the time-dependent strength development mechanism and its mechanical properties are still far from being full understood. The objective of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties such as the compressive, the splitting tensile and the flexural strength of the polymer concrete using an unsaturated polyester resin based on recycled PET incorporating with the contents of a resin, a styrene monomer and a filler which play an important role to restrict the deformation of polymer concrete. As a result, excellent mechanical properties were proved and polymer concrete achieves
of its 7 day strength in one day. This early strength gain of the polymer concrete makes the material suitable for use in precast applications in the future.
Development of Fly-ash Artificial Lightweight Aggregate by Non-Sintering and An Experimental Study on Its Application of Concrete
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Kwon, Oh-Hyuk ; Park, Seung-Kook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 293~299
In this study, to recycle fly-ash as environment-friendly, artificial lightweight aggregates and solids were manufactured with fly-ash. In order to apply non-sintered fly-ash artificial lightweight aggregate to concrete, several experimental studies were performed. Thus, it can be noticed the optimal mix proportion, the curing method. basic characteristics, mechanical properties and environmental safety of non-sintered fly-ash solid and non-sintered fly-ash artificial lightweight aggregate. Also, the freezing-thawing test property of concrete using the non-sintered fly-ash artificial lightweight aggregate was investigated. As a result, the optimal mixing proportion of fly-ash solid to make non-sintered artificial lightweight aggregates was cement 10%, water glass 15%, NaOH 10%,
, and curing method was air curing after moist curing during 24 hours in
. Nonsintered fly-ash solid can achieve compressive strength of 33.9MPa, at 7-days. The use of non-sintered fly-ash artificial lightweight aggregate in concrete helps in reducing environmental pollution, solving some of the fly-ash waste problems.
Semi-analytic Acceleration-Time Model for The Analysis of a Car Impacting Against Rigid Wall
Ko, Man-Gi ; Kim, Kee-Dong ; Kim, Kyoung-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 301~309
To understand the behavior of a car impacting against rigid wall, acceleration-time history of the vehicle must be measured by tests or calculated from time consuming simulation work. The acceleration is then integrated numerically to produce velocity- and crush-time history. But, both the methods are not very effective in that they are either costly or time consuming. To overcome these problems, acceleration-time model has been developed. It represents the acceleration as an analytical time function which reflects crash test measurements somehow. To use this model effectively, three parameters must be decided through simple impact test. So, this model can be regarded as semi-analytic model which gives the acceleration time history through a rather simple test. This paper suggests a new method calculate the three parameters for acceleration-time model. Acceleration-time model using the parameters thus calculated from the suggested method has been verified to be effectively describing the crushing process. For the formula to calculate the three parameters and to validate the effectiveness of the method suggested, data from the computer simulation using 3D nonlinear dynamic analysis code LS-DYNA have been used.
Evaluation of Repeated Number of Equivalent Axle Load of Bridge Decks
Youn, Seok-Goo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 311~319
Based on the fatigue life curves of reinforced concrete bridge decks and the surveyed axle load data, repeated number of equivalent axle load, Neq is calculated, which is essential to evaluate fatigue life of bridge decks. According to the number of axles and the axle load of trucks, trucks are classified as 6 categories, and the axle load distribution of the trucks are modeled as log-normal distributions. The variations of maximum axle loads for several design life of bridge decks are evaluated by probability, and these values are compared to the surveyed data and the applicability of them is discussed. By using a fatigue life curve of reinforced concrete bridge decks subjected to moving wheel machine and Miner's rule, Neq for assumed 50 years design life of bridge decks are evaluated, and compared to the fatigue regulations of the current steel bridge design codes.
Evaluation of Present Design Method for Encased-Concrete Corrugated Steel Plate Structures
Choi, Dong-Ho ; Park, Sang-Il ; Yoon, Hee-Doo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 321~333
This paper evaluates the present design method of CHBDC (2000) and CAN/CSA S16.1 Code (2000) for encased-concrete corrugated steel plate structures. The location and the loading condition for maximum thrust and maximum moment in corrugated steel plate structures, span of which are from 10 to 25 meters, are determined from the finite element analysis considering design variables, such as span length, structure shapes and cover depth which affect the magnitude of thrust and moment during the three construction stages, such as backfill to the crown, backfill to the soil cover, and live loads. These maximum thrust and maximum moment are compared with section forces from design equations. In addition, buckling stability, stability of connection point and stability during construction are evaluated by applying the stability estimation of design method to values of section forces from finite element analysis and design equations.
Eight and Nine-Node Reissner-Mindlin Plate Element with Substitute Shear Strain Field for Laminated Composite Plates
Park, Dae-Yong ; Park, Jong-Myen ; You, Sung-Kun ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 335~344
In this paper,
continuity eight and nine-node Reissner-Mindlin plate element (QTP8 and QTP9) is used for analyzing laminated composite plates. The transverse shear deformation is formulated by using first-order shear deformation theory. Commonly, transverse shear locking phenomenon is possible for the application of the eight and nine-node Ressiner-Mindlin plate element especially in the case of having slender thickness of plate. The reduced integration strategy for solving these phenomenon brings about spurious zero energy modes. Substitute shear strain field directly derived by Jacobian Matrix is used to avoid the locking and spurious zero energy modes. The numerical results as variation of thickness ratio, aspect ratio, support condition, fibre-angle, and lamination sequence for laminated composite plates are presented. For strain energy normal integration (
) by substitute shear strain can eliminate not only the spurious zero energy modes but also shear locking. It is shown that the numerical results of QTP8 and QTP9 element using substitute shear strain provide reliable and more accurate solutions when comparing to results of other researchers.
Effect of Curvature on Fatigue Growth Behavior of Welded Joints Using Strain Energy Density Factor Approach
Choi, Dong-Ho ; Choi, Hang-Yong ; Jung, Jae-Dong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 345~351
In this study, the effect of curvature on fatigue growth behaviour of out-of-plane gusset welded joints has been studied by using the strain energy density factor approach. Fatigue tests on two types of high strength steel (POSTEN80) specimen, i.e., with curvature of
in out-of-plane gusset welded joints, are performed in order to estimate fatigue strength under tension. The strain energy density factor approach has been used to show the effect of initial crack shape, initial crack length and stress ratio in fatigue crack growth analysis. Consequently, fatigue propagation life of
specimen is larger than that of
specimen and both specimens show safety behavior beyond fatigue resistance specified in AASHTO. The results of analysis for the propagation of fatigue cracks agree with experimental datas and the fatigue life increases as the stress ratio decreases.
Effect of Preloading on Lateral Free Vibration of Arches
Youm, Eung-Jun ; Han, Taek-Hee ; Lim, Nam-Hyoung ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 353~358
Arches are used as main structural members because of their high in-plane stiffness and strength. But the out-of-plane resistance of an arch due to in-plane load may be reduced by its in-plane curvature. Thus, out-of-plane free vibration of arches may be sensitive to the in-plane preloading. In this study, a free vibration analysis and its process are presented for an arch losing its stiffness by the preloading. To perform this processing a FE analysis tool is developed on Kang and Yoo's curved beam theory. Three load cases (uniform compression, negative and positive in-plane bending moments) are considered, and two parameters (axial length related to slenderness and subtended angle are selected. Natural frequency analyses are performed for various arches under preloading in the range of zero to the buckling load. The result shows that the natural frequency is very sensitive to the change of preloading. A relationship between the preloading and the natural frequency is proposed for the case of uniform compression and negative in-plane bending moments.
Characterization of Crack Formation at the Aggregate-Matrix Interface in Concrete Using Computer Vision
Choi, Sok-Hwan ; Hong, Sok-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 359~368
Recent advances in concrete technology requires more understanding in the mechanical aspects of concrete. The initiation and growth of cracks are directly connected to the formation of major cracks, and fracture mechanics approach has been evolved related to this topic. Since multiple cracks developed under compressive load and propagate complex, it is difficult to measure and identify the inter-related behaviors between cracks. Crack measurement system based on digital image correlation was built up in this research in order to detect and evaluate micro-cracks formed at low load levels. The effect of various aggregate contents, aggregate stiffness, and the strength of cement paste to the crack formation and propagation is examined.
Development of a New Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis Model of High-speed Railway Bridges
Song, Myung-Kwan ; Han, In-Seon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 369~379
In this study, a new three-dimensional finite element analysis model of high-speed railway bridges considering train-bridge interaction, in which various improved finite elements are used for modeling structural members, is proposed. The box-type bridge deck of a railway bridge is modeled by the NFS(Nonconforming Flat Shell) elements with 6 degrees of freedom. Track structures are idealized using the beam finite elements with the offset of beam nodes and those on Winkler foundation with two parameters. And, the vehicle model devised for a high-speed train is employed, which has an articulated bogie system. By Lagrange's equations of motion, the equations of motion of a bridge-train system can be formulated. Finally, by deriving the equations of the forces acting on a bridge considering bridge-train interaction, the complete system matrices of total bridge-train system can be constructed. As numerical examples of this study, a 2-span PC box-girder bridge is analyzed and analysis results are compared with experimental results.
Moisture Sensitivity and Aging Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bar for Concrete Structures
Won, Jong-Pil ; Park, Chan-Gi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 381~390
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bar (rebar) consisting of glass, carbon, or aramid fibers embedded in a resin such as vinyl ester, epoxy, or polyester has emerged as one of the most promising and affordable solutions to the corrosion problems of steel reinforcement in structural concrete. FRP rebar offers excellent corrosion resistance, as well as the advantages of high stiffness to weight ratio when compared to conventional steel rebar. Other advantages of FRP rebar include good fatigue properties, damage tolerance, non-magnetic properties, ease of transportation and handling, low energy consumption during fabrication of raw materials. This study aims at evaluation of the water absorption, moisture sensitivity and accelerated aging performance of FRP rebar. Two types of CFRP-, GFRP rebar and one type of AFRP rebar were evaluated. The effect of moisture and weathering on performance of FRP rebars were investigated through accelerated tests simulating the effects of wet-dry and freeze-thaw cycles as well as warm water and oven dry. The water absorption behavior was observed by means of simple gravimetric measurements in order to study the diffusion of the deionized water and alkaline solution. Also, the accelerated aging performance was investigated through the tensile, compressive, and short beam tests. They were shown to possess acceptable moisture sensitivity, water absorption and aging performance.
PDF Interpolation Technique for Seismic Fragility Analysis
Yi, Jin-Hak ; Kim, Sang-Hoon ; Yun, Chung-Bang ; Kushiyama, Shigeru ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 391~399
This study proposes the Probability Density Function (PDF) interpolation technique to evaluate the seismic fragility curves as a function of the return period. Seismic fragility curves have been developed as a function of seismic intensities such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and pseudo-velocity spectrum. The return period of design earthquakes, however, can be more useful among those seismic intensity measurements, because the seismic hazard curves are generally represented with a return period of design earthquakes and the seismic design codes also require to consider the return period of design earthquake spectrum for a specific site. In this respect, the PDF interpolation technique is proposed to evaluate the seismic fragility curves as a function of return period. Seismic fragility curves based on the return period are compared with ones based on the peak ground acceleration for the bridge model.
An Enhanced 8-Node Serendipity finite Element for the Analysis of Isotropic and Laminated Composite Plates
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 401~407
This paper presents a improved 8-node finite element for the analysis of isotropic and laminated composite plates. We derive explicit expressions of shape functions for the 8-node serendipity element with bilinear element geometry, which is modified so that it can represent any quadratic fields in Cartesian coordinates. The problem is then discretized using bubble functions for the rotational degrees of freedom and functions linking the transverse displacement to the rotations. The finite element, based on a first-order shear deformation theory, is further improved by the combined use of assumed natural strain, and EAS approach. Thus, the newly developed element has been designated as 'MAR-8P'. Numerical results are included to show the effectiveness of our modification. The improved 8-node serendipity element proposed has been found to be more accruate solutions when comparing to results of other researchers.
Experimental Study on Shear Behavior of Trapezoidally Corrugated Steel Web
Moon, Ji-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Rok ; Gill, Heung-Bae ; Lee, Hak-Eun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 409~416
Trapezoidally corrugated plates have been used as the web in hybrid bridges such as prestressed concrete bridges and are expected to be used in plate girder bridges. Past research has shown that the corrugated webs can fail by local, global and interactive buckling modes. Different strength and design equations for each mode have been suggested and used for the design of hybrid bridges. However, the comparison of different equations showed the differences between equations. In this paper, a series of experiments have been performed to better define the buckling strength of corrugated webs. Non-linear finite element analysis, which consider both geometric and material non-linearity, was also performed before the tests and after the tests. The test and analysis results are compared and show that the finite element model used for the analysis is able to depict the test results to a good degree of accuracy. The results show that buckling stress depends on the ratio of local and global buckling stress.
A Study on Performance of Devices for Measuring the Sea-Salt Flying to the Concrete Structures in the Seashore
Moon, Han-Young ; Lee, Jong-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 417~422
When the concrete structures are in contact with seawater, concentration of chloride for estimating chloride diffusion coefficient can be defined as the chloride concentration of sea water. However, in case the concrete structures, constructed in the seashore, aren't directly in contact with seawater, it is difficult to establish the interface concentration of chloride. Therefore, as the concrete structures are easily damaged by sea-salt aerosols, the device for measuring and quantitative evaluation method of sea-salt aerosols are needed. Nevertheless, the device for measuring sea-salt aerosols hasn't been developed, they used to employ the JIS device of Japan, raising questions on performance. Therefore, we developed a quantitative measurement device of sea salt aerosols as well as a device for testing the performance of measurement device. Results indicated that the performance of newly developed K3 device was superior to the other types with respect to wind speed, sea-salt quantities and time. From field measuring performance and tests to distance from sea, sea-salt quantities and measuring capacity, we found that K3 device have higher performance and capacity than other types.
Modeling and Analysis of Laminated Composite Umbrella-type Shell Roofs
Son, Byung-Jik ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 423~429
In this study, laminated composite umbrella-type roof structures such as stadium, exhibition, auditorium and museum are analyzed. These structures have not been dealt with so far because of the difficulty in modeling. These have been analyzed mostly by a simplified method or a grid analysis in design. In this study, better results can be obtained by using shell element, and the umbrella-type modeling can be easily executed by the algorithm proposed in this study. The behavior of umbrella-type shell roof is analyzed for various parameters such as the variation slope of roof, number of conical segment, subtended angle in one segment, and fiber orientation.
A Study on the Design Bending Moments of Long Span Decks
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Lee, Han-Joo ; Hwang, Hoon-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 2A, 2004, Pages 431~437
Recently, the steel-concrete composite bridges with two-or three-girders, which have long span decks, have been regarded as one of the economical as well as durable bridge types. However, there is little experience on the design and construction of the bridge system in Korea. For the design of long span decks a question is raised whether the current design provision is applicable in the respect of minimum thicknesses and bending moments. In this study, 3-D finite element analyses were performed to derive design bending moment formulae of the long span decks. The proposed formulae considering effects of relative stiffness ratio and front and middle axle loads give larger bending moments than the ordinary design values in the current specification. Also, design method for distribution reinforcement in the current specification can underestimate distribution reinforcement in the long span decks.