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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6D - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6C - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6B - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6A - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5D - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5C - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5B - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5A - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4D - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4C - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4B - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4A - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3D - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3C - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3B - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3A - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2D - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2C - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2B - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2A - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1D - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1C - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1B - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1A - Jan 2004
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Fracture Mechanics Based Bond-Slip Models for the Interface between FRP and Concrete
Cho, Keun-Hee ; Cho, Jeong-Rae ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 653~661
The behavior of silica coating and epoxy adhesive joints, which are used in interface between FRP plate and concrete, is investigated, and bond-slip model for each type of joint is presented. Each bond-slip model is obtained by the optimization method that minimizes the difference between the analytic solution of a bond-slip model based on fracture mechanics and experimental data. Multiobjective optimization problem is constructed by physical programming, and the optimized bond-slip model is found using genetic algorithm. The validity far the presented formulation and bond-slip model is verified comparing with experimental and numerical analysis results. Two bondiry methods considered in this study have almost equal bond performances, while their bond-slip models have different characteristics.
The Effect of Track Models on the Dynamic Response of a High-Speed Railway Bridges
Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Lee, Yong-Seon ; Jung, Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 663~671
The dynamic effect of railway track is usually neglected or merely simplified as a spring element because of complexity of its modeling, though it may not be ignored in dynamic analysis. In this study, therefore, the track system on railway is modeled using a three-dimensional discrete-support model. Then the results of analysis are compared to the ordinary model that does not consider the effects of the track system in order to evaluate the effects of railway track. 40m simply supported prestressed concrete box-girder systems are adopted for high-speed railway bridges for simulation. The train-models are composed of 20 cars for KTX(Korea Train eXpress). The dynamic responses of simulation show different results whether the effect of railway track is considered or not. With considering it, the dynamic response shows almost constant high value, without any extreme results. Without considering it, however, the maximum responses increase radically as the speed of the train becomes higher than 300 km/hr. On the contrary, the responses decrease as the speed of the train becomes higher than 250km/hr with considering the effect of railway track. Also, the vibration response of displacement shows noticeable decreasing curve when the railway track is considered. It is because the resonance effect decreases the vibration characteristic changes, though the resonance occurs at the highest speed of the train. Therefore, the effect of railway track should be considered for more reasonable analysis of the railway bridge, especially for KTX.
A Study on the Durability and Flexural Strengthening Capacity of Continuous Basalt Reinforcing Fibers
Sim, Jong-Sung ; Park, Seok-Kyun ; Moon, Do-Young ; Park, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 673~681
Basalt fibers are from basalt rocks through melting process. The basalt rocks can be so finely divided into small particles that it is possible to produce into a form of fibers. In addition, the basalt fibers do not contain any other additives in a single producing process so that also we cost effective than other fibers. The objective of this experimental research is to verify application of continuous basalt reinforcing fibers. Caustic resistance, weathering resistance, autoclave stability, and fire resistance test of Basalt, CFS, and GFRP have been performed. Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by the external bonding of continuous basalt reinforcing fibers were investigated. It was approved that basalt fiber has higher fire resistance but have inferior mechanical properties compare to other fibers.
Analysis of Plane Stress/Strain Problem using an Improved Enhanced Assumed Strain(EAS) Nine-Node Membrane Element
Park, Dae-Yong ; Yhim, Sung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 683~693
The isoparametric nine-node membrane element(EAS-QPM9) with 11-parameter enhanced assumed strain (EAS) field is used for analyzing two dimensional plane stress/strain problem with isotropic and anisotropic materials. The EAS method based on Hu-Washizu principle, recently proposed by Simo and Rifai(1990), contains the classical incompatible displacement method proposed by Wilson(1973) as special cases and is equivalent to assumed stress hybrid/miked method based on Hellinger-Reissner principle. The EAS-QPM9 element has no spurious locking, volumetric locking or Poisson's locking caused by nearly incompressible condition, and no membrane locking under in-plane loading. The EAS-QPM9 using Legendre Polynomials with orthogonality condition passes the patch test. The various numerical examples such as straight and curved geometry, isotropic and anisotropic materials are tested. The numerical results show that the EAS-QPM9 applied by a simple process in stresses calculation rapidly converges to exact solution without regard to severe distorted mesh and coarse mesh for not only nodal displacements but also stresses, and has considerable advantage for curved geometry in particular.
An Analysis of Axisymmetric Circular Plate on an Elastic Foundation by the Leading Matrix Method
Lee, Kwan-Hee ; Park, Joon-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 695~701
Generally, the exact solution of an axisymmetrically loaded circular plate on an elastic foundation is to evaluate by the theory of a differential equation based on Winker model, converges to a solution which is exact, by increasing the terms of the Bessel functions. But the mathematical solutions of an circular plate on an elastic foundation is very complicated or tedious to solve it. The aim of this study is focused on getting an solution which is the simplicity and exactness of an axisymmetrically loaded circular plate on an elastic foundation. This method replaces the finite element method which is a very powerful tool for analysis of any kind of structure which has an arbitrary shape, but is still a numerical analysis. Instead, this study uses the method of distribution of end actions which is a kind of iteration technique to implement the leading matrix method.
Compressive Strength and Durability Characteristics of Fly Ash Concrete
Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Jang, Seung-Yup ; Lee, Kwang-Myong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 703~711
Due to the increased cost of cement industries, the use of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete such as fly ash, has increased in the past decades. Fly ash concrete could be applied to various structures to reduce the heat of hydration and to improve the durability. Therefore, the understanding on the effect of fly ash on concrete durability is essential to its appropriate and economical application. In the present study, the durability characteristics of fly ash concrete including chloride diffusion, rebar corrosion, and freezing-thawing action, were investigated as well as the compressive strength. The effect of the water-binder ratio (W/B) and the fly ash content on such durability characteristics of concrete was evaluated. The pore distribution influencing the freezing-thawing resistance was also investigated using digital image analyzer. It was found that the resistance against the chloride attack and freezing-thawing of fly ash concrete is generally better than that of normal concrete without fly ash, and the more fly ash content, the more improvement of the concrete durability.
Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete for Dam Using Fly Ash
Won, Jong-Pil ; Yoon, Jong-Hwan ; Park, Chan-Gi ; Kim, Wan-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 713~719
Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dams emerged as a viable new type of dam that combines advantages of earthfill dam and concrete dam in construction. They have gained acceptance worldwide in a relatively short time due to their low cost, which is derived in part from their rapid method of construction. Also, RCC has recently emerged as an economically attractive material for dam construction, replacing the use of conventional concrete and even challenging the economics of earthfill and rockfill embankment dams. In this study, the properties of RCC using fly ash was evaluated. It was conducted with experiments of mechanical, physical and durability characteristics. Laboratory test results describe that 30% of fly ash replacement show most outstanding capacity.
Development of Web-based Application Module by Using Database of Steel Bridge Information
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Jeong, Yeon-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 721~730
This study intends to overcome some problems revealed during transferring and sharing data by developing an information model which can represent shape, structural analysis and design information of steel bridges based on open standards. The information model representing structural design information was developed by referencing building product models and it can describe shape information based on integrated resources and application protocol of existing open standards. A system architecture which is composed of information model, data repository, application module and programming interface for a development of application module is also proposed on the basis of the information model and web technology. It is proven that a prototype system implemented by applying system architecture to application fields can build integrated computational environment.
A Study on the Thickness of Long Span Decks Considering Orthotropy
Lee, Han-Joo ; Chung, Chul-Hun ; Lee, Yong-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 731~737
Recently, the steel-concrete composite two-girders bridges, which have PSC long span decks, have been regarded as one of the economical as well as durable bridge types. Usually, prestressing forces are introduced in the transverse direction of the long span deck. However, for the design of long span deck a question is raised whether the current design provision is applicable in the respect of minimum thicknesses and bending moments. In this study, 3-D finite element analyses were performed to derive actually required thickness of the long span deck. The orthotropy induced by concrete cracks in transverse direction is considered into the analyses, because bridge decks tend to easily crack due to shrinkage of concrete and repetition of wheel loading. From the analytical studies, the decks with proposed thickness showed fatigue lift higher than expected. Also, the code-specified minimum thicknesses can be reduced at least to 12 m-span decks.
Development of Anti-Bacteria Mortar and Concrete using Microcapsule
Park, Seok-Kyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 739~746
In this study, we encapsulate the core materials which have long term resisting properties to the bacteria(mold). We also try to apply those capsules to the mortar and concrete which of using for the structures and ornament materials. Various membrane structures of microcapsule are tested and material properties of the mortar and concrete which contain microcapsules are examined. The capsuled are confirmed by SEM and optical microscope. The damages and survival of the capsules are confirmed by chemical HPLC methods. Finally the microcapsules with anti-bacteria(mold) which can be used for mortar and concrete are developed through the various experiments and mock-up tests.
Material Discontinuity and Nodal Integration in Natural Element Method
Lee, Tae-Yeol ; Lee, Wan-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 747~759
A method is presented for application of the Natural Element Method (NEM) to solid mechanics problems containing material discontinuities. By using the Stabilized Conforming Nodal Integration (SCNI) technique, the behavior of NEM is dramatically improved. Furthermore, a revised algorithm for automatic Delaunay triangulation of arbitrary planar domains is newly suggested and successfully used not only in calculating shape functions but also in partitioning the nodal domains. The separation of the body into its homogeneous parts is accomplished through the nodal domains obtained by the revised algorithm for automatic Delaunay triangulation presented in this study. A series of numerical problems are analyzed to illustrate the performance of the presented method. A significant gain in computational accuracy is achieved in comparison with NEM using Gauss integration. The performance of the proposed method is shown to be quite robust in dealing with material discontinuity.
Semiactive Neuro-control for Seismically Excited Structure Considering Dynamics of MR Fluid Damper
Lee, Heon-Jae ; Jung, Hyung-Jo ; Yoon, Woo-Hyun ; Lee, In-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 761~767
A new semiactive control strategy fur seismic response reduction using a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper controlled by a neuro-controller is proposed. The improved neuro-controller, which was developed by employing the training algorithm based on a cost function and the sensitivity evaluation algorithm replacing an emulator neural network, produces the desired active control force, and then by using the clipped algorithm the appropriate command voltage is selected in order to cause the MR fluid damper to generate the desired control force. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed semiactive neuro-control algorithm is quite effective to reduce seismic responses. In addition, the semiactive control system using MR fluid dampers has many attractive features, such as bounded-input, bounded-output stability and small energy requirements. The results of this investigation, therefore, indicate that the proposed semiactive neuro-control strategy using MR fluid dampers could be effective used for control seismically excited structures.
Assumed Natural Strain 9-node Shell Element for Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells
Han, Sung-Cheon ; Choi, Sam-Uel ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 769~778
The new strain-displacement relationship of the shell is accounted for in the finite element formulation. The finite element formulation of an improved 9-node shell element is presented for the solution of geometrically nonlinear problems of isotropic and laminated composite plates and shells. The effect of new additional terms between the bending strain and displacement has been investigated in the torsion problem. Natural co-ordinate-based strains, stresses and constitutive equations are used throughout the Element-based Lagrangian formulation of the present shell element. The element is free of both membrane and shear locking behavior by using the assumed natural strain method. The arc-length control method is used to trace complex load-displacement paths. Several numerical examples are presented and discussed in order to investigate the capabilities of the present shell element. The results showed very good agreement.
A SFEM Formulation for Uncertain Response of Plates Considering Inter-correlations in Stochastic Material Properties
Noh, Hyuk-Chun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 779~788
The stochastic finite element analysis enables us to obtain the structural response variability due to the uncertain material and/or geometrical parameters. The majority of works, however, put their focus on the analysis taking into account of only one random parameter, e.g., elastic modulus. Furthermore, the complexity in the formulation makes it hard to attain efficient numerical schemes to consider multiple random parameters and their correlation. In this paper, a new formulation to analyze the response variability due to randomness in material constants such as the elastic modulus and the Poisson's ratio and to the correlation between these constants is presented. To accomplish this, the constitutive matrix is stochastically rearranged into several sub-matrices taking into consideration of the polynomial expansion of the coefficients of constitutive matrix. In the formulation, the power stochastic field functions appear, which are transformed into modified auto- or cross-correlation functions by way of general formula for expectation on random variables in multiplied form. To illustrate the accuracy and efficacy of the proposed formulation, a plate structure with various support conditions is examined. The results given by the proposed formulation are compared with those obtained by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation.
Nonlinear Models for FRP Concrete Structural Members with Considering Three Dimensional Constitutive Laws
Cho, Chang-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 789~796
This study is focused on modeling to predict the flexural behaviors of FRP-confined concrete structural members. For compressive behaviors of confined concrete by FRP jackets, the hypoelasticity-based constitutive law of concrete has been presented under the basis of three-dimensional stress states. The strength enhancement of concrete wrapped by FRP jackets has been determined by the failure surface of concrete in tri-axial states, and its corresponding peak strain is computed by the strain enhancement factor that is proposed in the present study. The behavior of FRP jackets has been modeled using the mechanics of orthotropic laminated composite materials in two-dimensional stress states. To compare the previous models, the newly proposed model is a nonlinear load path-dependent confinement model of FRP-confined concrete. To be based on the three-dimensional constitutive law, an algorithm for the prediction of flexural bending behaviors of FRP-confined concrete structural member has been presented using the nonlinear fiber cross-sectional approach. The predicted models have been compared with several bending tests. It shows that the proposed model is able to adequately capture the flexural behavior of FRP-confined concrete structural members as well as the estimations of the axial and lateral responses of the sections.
Time-dependent Behavior considering Work Sequence in Bridge Construction Using by Movable Scaffolding System
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Son, Je-Kuk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 797~806
This paper introduces the simple, but effective, equations to calculate the dead load and cantilever tendon moments in reinforced concrete (RC) bridges constructed using the movable scaffolding system (MSS). Through time-dependent analyses of RC bridges considering the work sequence and creep deformation of concrete, structural responses related to the member forces are reviewed. On the basis of the compatibility condition and equilibrium equation at every construction stage, basic equations which can describe the moment variation with time in movable scaffolding system are derived. These are then extended to take into account the moment variation according to changes in the construction steps. By using the introduced relations, the design moment and its variation over time can easily be obtained with only the elastic analysis results, and without additional time-dependent analyses considering the work sequences. In addition, the design moments determined by the introduced equations are compared with the results from a rigorous numerical analysis with the objective of establishing the relative efficiencies of the introduced equations.
Experiments on Circular Steel Tubes and Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tubes in Bending
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Jin, Byeong-Moo ; Kim, In-Gyu ; Kim, Seong-Woon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 807~816
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural behaviour of circular concrete filled steel tube (CFT) beams subjected to pure bending where D/t=30 to 60. Extending the study, the behavior of the beams is discussed once more in terms of the load-deformation responses and strain distributions along the cross-sections. In this study, ultimate bending strength of CFTs with various different thickness and diameters was measured and compared with behaviors of bare tubes. It was found that both strength and ductility increase significantly. The failure modes of hollow and CFT members under pure bending are compared. The brittle characteristics related to the concrete are totally eliminated due to the confinement of the steel section. This paper presents a simple concrete-filled model that can predict the nonlinear behaviour of CFT structural section beams.
A 4-node Co-Rotational Resultant Shell Element for Nonlinear Analysis of Isotropic and Composite Laminates
Kim, Ki-Du ; Han, Sung-Cheon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 817~827
The 4-node assumed natural strain formulation of a resultant shell element is presented for the solution of nonlinear static problems of isotropic and composite plates and shells. The formulation of the geometrical stiffness presented here is defined on the mid-surface by using the second order kinematic relations and is efficient for analyzing thick plates and shells by incorporating bending moment and transverse shear resultant forces. The composite element is free from shear locking behavior by using the ANS(Assumed Natural Strain) method such that the element performs very well as thin shells. The transverse shear stiffness is defined by an equilibrium approach instead of using the shear correction factor. The proposed formulation is computationally efficient and the test results showed good agreement. The advanced arc-length control method is used to trace complex load-displacement paths of isotropic and composite laminates.
Experimental Study on the U-Shaped Steel Box Girders Using 1/4 Scale Test Specimen - I : Lateral-Torsional Buckling Behavior -
Shim, Nak-Hoon ; Oh, Kwi-Hwan ; Park, Young-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 829~836
The objective of the present study is to understand the lateral torsional buckling behavior of the U-type girder system by structural tests before it is combined with concrete slab. In the present study, the test result for the U-shaped girders with upright webs reveals that both the buckling load and its mode are influenced by the geometrical type of the web system and by the initial geometrical imperfection. The pure bending tests to observe the lateral torsional buckling behavior are performed for the U-shaped girder stiffened by upper lateral bracings without vertical stiffeners on webs. It is observed that the W-type bracing system is more efficient than the X-type bracing system when the same volume of steel is used.
Experimental Study on the U-Shaped Steel Box Girders Using 1/4 Scale Test Specimen - II : Torsional Behavior -
Shim, Nak-Hoon ; Oh, Kwi-Hwan ; Park, Young-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 837~843
The objective of the present study is to understand the lateral torsional buckling behavior of the U-type girder system by structural tests and by the finite element analysis before it is combined with concrete slab. The pure torsional test also indicates that the W-type bracing system is more efficient in torsional resistance than the X-type bracing system. The equivalent plate thickness of the upper flange and the torsional stiffness of the U-shaped girder obtained by the finite element analysis compares well with those by the pure torsion test, which implies that the finite element method can be applied to obtain the equivalent plate thickness without performing rather expensive structural tests in the design stage of U-shaped girder system.
Proposal of Concrete Pull off Bond Strength Measurement Method for Field Application
Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, Ju-Hyung ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Yun, Kyong-Ku ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 845~852
The development and maintenance of a sound bond are an essential requirements of concrete repair and replacement. The bond property of a bonded overlay to its substrate concrete during the lifetime is one of the most important performance requirements which should be quantified. A standard or a verified bond strength measurement method is required at field for screening, selecting materials and quality control for overlay or repair materials, but no test method have been adopted as a standard. In this research, a concrete pull off bond strength measurement method for field application is proposed and evaluated. The stress concentration, which is one of non-uniform stress distribution and arises from specimen geometry, should be minimized in order to measure the bond strength correctly. Finite element analysis is carried out in order to investigate the effects of those above into the stress concentration at concrete interface. From a series of finite element analysis, a fine concrete pull-off bond strength test method is proposed for field application. The proposed method from finite element analysis is evaluated from a series of experiments. The test results show that the repeatability of the core pull off test are comparable and relatively good in terms of standard deviation, compared from those of flexure beam test method and nipple pipe direct tensile test method.
Optimization of Prestressed Concrete Girders for Standard Sections
Cho, Sun-Kyu ; Youn, Seok-Goo ; Park, Young-Ha ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 4A, 2004, Pages 853~859
The prestressed concrete girder (P.S.C girder) bridges have been used widely at the domestic national road and highway because it is great in the functional and economical efficiency. It has also the advantage of convenience of design and construction due to using standard sections. However it could be easily verified that previous standard section of P.S.C girder is excessively designed, which has much more redundancy than is necessary against design loads. Therefore it would greatly influence on economic efficiency for domestic demands, if a section of P.S.C girder became more economical with satisfying all design criteria. Thus the design sensitivity analysis for the section of P.S.C girder using an optimum design has been performed to examine more effective and economic section than previous standard one. From the results of the analysis it is suggested to denote the optimum section which satisfies the structural safety and economical efficiency all together.