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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6D - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6C - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6B - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 6A - Nov 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5D - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5C - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5B - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5A - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4D - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4C - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4B - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4A - Jul 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3D - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3C - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3B - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3A - May 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2D - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2C - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2B - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2A - Mar 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1D - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1C - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1B - Jan 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1A - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Field Application and Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials Short-span Bridge Superstructure
Ji, Hyo-Seon ; Son, Byung-Jik ; Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Chang, Suk-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1137~1144
Recently, theoretical and experimental studies on advanced composite materials bridges have been performed in various fields over the worldwide. Compared with the concrete or steel bridge, an advanced composite materials bridge has more advantages of strength, stiffness, transportation, and installation. Many demonstration projects have shown around the U.S, Europe and they are presently being developed and tested in South Korea. This paper describes one of such field application of the first all advanced composite materials short-span bridge in South Korea on a public highway system. Field load testing was conducted under both symmetric and asymmetric vehicle loading and the bridge design, fabrication, installation are summarized. In order to verify the bridge design prior to the field application, a sub-scale bridge superstructure was built and tested in the laboratory. The field load test results were compared with those of the finite element analysis for the verification of validity. The analyzed results are hope to provide as a basic data for future design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite materials bridge for use in deteriorated bridge decks replacement. Although data on long-term performance are not enough, this study indicates that advanced composite materials are an innovative material for short-span bridges.
A Variation of Pore Structure of Concrete and its Relationship with Compressive Strength Cured with Various Temperatures
Lee, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Kyu-Dong ; Kokubu, Katsuro ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1145~1150
A variation of pore structure of concrete matrix was experimented by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry with experimental parameters of curing temperature and age, and the relation with compressive strength was also examined. The pore structure shifted from large size of pore to medium size of one, however, this variation was stopped at the time that position of peak in pore-size-distribution curves lowered down to about diameter of 50 nm, and only the pore smaller than about diameter of 50nm was varied with increasing the coring age. It was also confirmed that there was not difference on resonance in the function of the relationship with compressive strength and porosity.
Design Concept and Approach Proposed for Engineered Cementitious Composites(ECC) Link Slabs in a Jointless Bridge Deck System
Kim, Yun-Yong ; Park, Yon-Dong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1151~1158
This paper presents the design concept and approach for a link slab adapted with a ductile Engineered Cementitious Composite(ECC) in jointless bridge deck system. One of the solutions of the problem associated with mechanical expansion joints is the use of link slabs instead of expansion joints. The use of a ductile ECC material has been proposed for its ability to control crack width and to exhibit high ductile behavior. This paper discusses the reliable design concepts and approach for ECC link slabs in order to successfully perform the connection of simply supported bridge decks. Specifically, the focus is placed on review of the current design guideline for reinforced concrete link slabs and on potential improvements in design of ECC link slabs.
Shear Stud Failure and Rebar Pullout in a Ductile Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC)
Kim, Yun-Yong ; Kim, Joong-Koo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1159~1166
This paper presents an experimental study on the crucial performances of shear studs and reinforcements embedded in a ductile concrete. A series of pushout and pullout specimens were tested for the evaluation of failure mode, ultimate strength and development length by using a unique tensile strain hardening Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC). Normal concrete was adopted as the reference material. The experimental results show that the shear connection with ECC and rebar-pullout in ECC exhibit more ductile failure modes compared to those with/in normal concrete. The superior ductility of ECC was clearly reflected by microcrack development near shear stud and frictional pullout failure of reinforcement, suppressing localized fracture mode typically observed in concrete material. A special focus is placed on assessment of the validity of current design code (Korean highway design code and AASHTO code) for design ease of ECC link slabs, specifically for the design of shear studs and development length of rebar in ECC matrix. The significant enhancement of ductility in failure modes by the use of ECC matrix suggests that the adoption of the current codes leads to a sufficient safety margin.
Study of Seismic Strengthening Effect of Existing Circular Bridge Pier Concerning FRP Retrofit Method
Choi, Young-Min ; Hwang, Yoon-Koog ; Kwon, Tae-Gyu ; Kim, Jung-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1167~1172
The new concrete bridge piers are constructed in accordance with seismic design criteria. However, the existing piers built up before establishing seismic design criteria need seismic retrofit. The bridge columns under service suffered a brittle failure due to the deterioration of lap-spliced longitudinal reinforcement without developing its flexural capacity or ductility. An earthquake induced lateral force results in tension which causes bond-slip failure at lap-spliced region in circular bridge piers. In this case, such a brittle failure can be controlled by the seismic retrofit using FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) wrapping. The retrofitted columns using FRP wrapping showed significant improvement in seismic performance due to the confinement effect of FRP, This paper presents the experimental results on the seismic strengthening effect of circular reinforced concrete bridge piers with poor lap-splice details and strengthened with FRP wrapping. For estimating actual seismic retrofit effect, a quasistatic experiment for real size specimens are made. From the experimental result, the FRP wrapping induces the flexural failure instead of a bond-slip failure of the circular reinforced concrete columns under earthquake and increases the deformation energy as well as displacement ductility. Seismic performance varies according to FRP wrapping method, such as gap lengths between footing and FRP, fiber orientations, and thicknesses of FRP wrapping. So there is the need for appropriate seismic retrofit design with various FRP wrapping method.
A Comparative Study on Static Behavior of Simply Supported Shear Deformable Anisotropic Skew Plates Considering Higher-order Shear Deformation Theory
Park, Weon-Tae ; Son, Byung-Jik ; Chun, Kyoung-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1173~1182
An isoparametric quadrilateral 9-node Lagrange finite element are formulated and used to analysis of laminated composite skew plates including the transverse shear deformation. The presented finite elements with the first, third and higher-order shear deformation theories are applied the assumed natural strains to circumvent the locking phenomena and spurious zeroenergy mode. The '9QUAD45' and '9QUAD81' finite element models are those in which the in-plane displacements are expanded up to first and third powers of the thickness coordinate, respectively. And the transverse displacement gives a state of constant through the thickness of the plate. In the '9QUAD99' and '9QUAD108' finite element models, it is considered not only the in-plane displacements but also the transverse displacements are expanded up to quadratic and third powers of the thickness coordinate. In this paper, parametric studies are carried out by geometric shape variations; such as side-to-thickness ratio and skew angle and also by material property variations; such as laminates scheme, elasticity ratio, and fiber-reinforced angle in the laminated composite skew plates.
Evaluation of the Horizontal Bond Strength at the Interface between Precast Decks and PSC Girders
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Shim, Chang-Su ; Kim, In-Gyu ; Park, Se-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1183~1191
The full-width, full-depth precast panel system is very efficient for the rehabilitation of deteriorated decks as well as for new bridge construction. The horizontal bond strength at the interface between the two interconnected elements is of primary importance in order to achieve composite action. The strength of the bond between the two precast members should be high enough to prevent any progressive slip from taking place. However, the case when both of the interconnected elements are precast members bonded by means of grout, is not currently addressed by KBDC or AASHTO. This is the main impetus for this study. A total 43 push-off tests were performed to evaluate the horizontal bond strength and to recommend the best practice for the system. Test parameters included different interface surface conditions, different amount and different types of shear connectors. The presence of the shear keys at the top surface of the beam increased the interface bond capacity compared to the bond capacity with a different surface conditions.
Additional Strength Reduction Factor for Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Sheets
Jung, Woo-Tai ; Park, Jong-Sup ; You, Young-Jun ; Park, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1193~1201
Recently, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) sheets are widely used to strengthen the deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Although many tests were carried out to verify the flexural capacity of RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets, the behavior and flexural strength of strengthened RC beams are not clearly investigated yet. The purpose of this study is to develop a new equation with additional strength reduction factor that can predict the flexural strengthening effect of RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets. The previous experimental data were collected and analyzed to investigate the effect of various variables on the flexural behaviors. An additional strength reduction factor whose main variables are strengthening length and sectional area of CFRP sheets was proposed. The regression factors of this proposed formula were determined through the multiple linear regression analysis. It is shown that the proposed formula agrees well with the experimental data compared to other previous formulas.
A Study on Distortional Analysis and Practical Formula for
Ratio of Curved Box Girder Bridges
Kim, Yong-Hee ; Lee, Yoon-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1203~1210
This paper deals with the distortional analysis and a formula for ratio of curved box girder bridges. And yielded results that were consistent with those of the parameter analysis using the transfer matrix method. The proposed methods are shown to be in good agreement with the finite difference method and energy method. From analyzed the results of variation in the distortional stress due to parametric studies (effects of length/diaphragm spacing ratio, effects of central angle, effects of length/width ratio), Practical formula to presents the
ratio for determination of diaphragm spacing.
Assumed Strain Quadrilateral
, 9-Node Finite Elements Based on Reddy's Higher-Order Theory for the Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates
Chun, Kyoung-Sik ; Park, Won-Tae ; Hong, Sa-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1211~1221
The TSDT model, based on the Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory, requires a
continuous element. They used Hermite interpolation functions for the transverse displacement and Lagrange interpolation functions for the other displacements. To avoid the difficulties associated with these elements, the displacement model has been slightly modified, so that a
continuous element would be sufficient. To remove shear locking phenomena and spurious zero energy modes, the assumed strain method as suggested by earlier investigators has been implemented in the present formulation. A assumed strain quadrilateral
4-node, 9-node finite elements of Reddy's higher-order theory are developed to determine the static displacements and natural frequencies of laminated composite plates. Thus, the newly developed 4-node, 9-node element has been designated as 'AIR4P', 'AIR9P', respectively. In order to check the reliability and accuracy of the present element, a large number of composite plates with different stacking sequence, side-to-thickness, and elasticity ratio are taken up. The results are compared with the analytical and other available numerical values. The present element formulation confirms its applicability of a wide variety of laminated composite plates.
Cracking Behavior of RC Panels Subject to Biaxial Tensile Stresses
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Kim, Do-Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1223~1233
An analytical model which can simulate the post-cracking nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members such as bars and panels subject to uniaxial and biaxial stresses is presented. The proposed model includes the description of biaxial failure criteria and the average stress-strain relation of reinforcing steel. Based on strain distribution functions of steel and concrete after cracking, a criterion to consider the tension-stiffening effect is proposed using the concept of average stresses and strains. The validity of the introduced model is established by comparing the analytical predictions for reinforced concrete uniaxial tension members with results from experimental studies. In advance, correlation studies between analytical results and experimental data we also extended to RC panels subject to biaxial tensile stresses to verify the efficiency of the proposed model and to identify the significance of various effects on the response of biaxially loaded reinforced concrete panels.
An Analysis of Cylindrical Tank Resting on Elastic Foundation by the Leading Matrix Method
Lee, Kwan-Hee ; Park, Joon-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1235~1244
The exact solution of an axisymmetrically loaded cylindrical tank monolithically connected to a circular plate base and resting on an elastic foundation is not only very difficult but also impossible to evaluate. However, when considering the longitudinal strip of the cylinder as a beam on an elastic foundation while the circular plate resting on an elastic foundation is expanded by Bessel functions, the tank resting on an elastic foundation converges to a solution which is almost, but not precisely, exact, by increasing the terms of the Bessel functions. The aim of this study is focused on getting an almost exact solution of a tank resting on an elastic foundation. This method replaces the finite element method which is a very powerful tool for analysis of any kind of structure which has an arbitrary shape, but is still a numerical analysis. Instead, this study uses the method of distribution of end actions which is a kind of iteration technique to implement the leading matrix method.
Dynamic Response Analysis and the Algorithm Development of the Cable Stayed Bridge Using the Stochastic Finite Element Method
Han, Sung-Ho ; Jung, In-Su ; Shin, Jae-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1245~1254
The analysis of the structure using the existing deterministic method is difficult to grasp clearly not only the mechanical characteristic of the structure but also the effect about the design variables. And it is also difficult to understand the safety of structures by using safety factors based on the experience. Therefore, in this study, the program is developed by formulating the stochastic finite element analysis about the Cable stayed Bridge suffering the seismic loads and based on this program, the characteristic of dynamic responses can be analyzed quantitatively as well as it can be examined to the average, the standard deviation and the fluctuating coefficient about the displacement, the resistance and the tension of cable according to the random variables more efficiently. Also, as a result of analysis of the random variable effects according to the type of the cable stayed bridge, we can obtain that the dynamic response of Fan type cable stayed bridge is more stable.
Torsional Analysis of Thin-Walled Laminated Composite Closed Box Beam
Park, Seol-A ; Shin, Dong-Ku ; Park, Young-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1255~1266
Torsional behavior of laminated composite thin-walled closed section box beam is analyzed by the Vlasov-type anisotropic thin-walled beam theory. Single-and double cell box sections are considered and thin-walled elements of the cross section are assumed to be symmetrically laminated about its mid-plane. The expressions for calculating various section properties of laminated composite box sections are derived using the definitions in the thin-walled beam theory. The coupled differential equations governing the torsional behavior of an anisotropic thin-walled beam are solved in an analytical method. Present analytical solutions are shown to compare well with the finite element solutions obtained by using three dimensional model. The coupling phenomenon between lateral displacement and sectional rotation is seen for the two-cell box beams with bending-twisting coupling stiffnesses. The lateral displacement, however, is shown to be very small when compared with the section rotation and can be neglected. Simple formulas for calculating the rotation of cross section are proposed based on the present numerical results. Effects of lamination scheme and boundary condition are also analyzed.
Estimation of Cable Characteristics Using Extended Kalman Filter
Yi, Jin-Hak ; Koo, Ki-Young ; Kim, Nam-Sik ; Yun, Chung-Bang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1267~1274
In order to design the optimal cable damper for cable-stayed bridges, it is necessary to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the existing cables including damping ratios. In this study, forced excitation signals were utilized to extract the dynamic properties, and two different identification methods were employed to estimate damping ratios and resonant frequencies. One is the conventional method combined logarithmic decrement and FFT analysis and the other is extended Kalman filter which is more promising to extract the time varying dynamic characteristics. The performance of two methods were investigated through verification studies for model cable and cable for a real cable-stayed bridge. And the performance of the Extended Kalman Filter was verified to be an appropriate method for the identification of time-varying cable dynamics.
Buffeting Analysis of a 700 m Steel Cable-Stayed Bridge for the Design of Pylon Foundation
Kim, Ho-Kyung ; Choi, Sung-Won ; Yoo, Won-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1275~1281
A buffeting analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of aerodynamic turbulences on the design of the pylon foundation of a 700 m steel cable-stayed bridge. Both completed and in construction structures are investigated in evaluating the along-bridge-axis bending moment at the tower leg and caisson. Based on current investigations, expected aerodynamic member forces are found to reach several times compared to gust-factored static wind results. The maximum bending moment in construction particularly exceeds a design value invoking to find out a measure for suppressing wind-induced vibrations. This study examined a possibility of using buffeting cables as one of feasible measures leaving couple of open questions in details.
Application of Energy-Dissipating Sacrificial Device (EDSD) for Enhancing Seismic Performance of Bridges
Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Young-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1283~1291
An Energy-Dissipating Sacrificial Device (EDSD) is proposed, which can effectively dissipate excessive energy during ground motions. A mathematical bridge model is developed to represent the behavior of the EDSD installed in a bridge. To certify the performance of EDSD under seismic excitations, various seismic responses of the bridge system with the EDSD are analyzed in terms of energy, deformation, and damage index. The results from this study show that the proposed EDSD under seismic excitations can significantly decrease the hysteresis energy of the piers and reduce the relative motions in bridges. The estimated damage index indicates that the seismic performance of piers under moderate seismic excitation can be greatly improved using the proposed EDSD. In addition, the EDSD is found to function as a structural fuse under strong ground motions, sacrificing itself to absorb the excessive energy. The employment of EDSD can be a possible solution for economical enhancement of seismic performance.
A Study on the Classification of Vulnerable Bridges to flood Using Quantification Theory Type II
Park, Byung-Cheol ; Lee, Jae-Joon ; Park, Seung-Bum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1293~1300
A large number of stream-crossing bridges are damaged each year by flood. In this study, the vulnerability and the damage factors for stream-crossing bridges against flood are surveyed and analyzed based on the field survey data. To analyze the important factors affecting damage of bridge, seven independent variables were selected and canonical correlation analysis is conducted using quantification theory type II. Using the analysis result, a classification formula for the vulnerable bridges to flood is proposed. According to the importance analysis based on the size of range of the items, the most important factor affecting bridge damages by flood is construction year. Installation of scour protection measures, satisfaction of clearhead, existence in joining of streams, existence in channel band, pier type, and minimum span length are also affecting factors for the damage of bridges. The proposed classification formula is found to be fit and can be used for the classification method to identify the vulnerable bridges to flood.
Autogenous Shrinkage Model of High Performance Concrete with Shrinkage Reduction Additive and Expansive Producing Admixture
Yoo, Sung-Won ; Kim, Do-Gyum ; Kho, Kyung-Taek ; Jung, Sang-Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1301~1307
The autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete is important in that it can lead the early cracks in concrete structures. The purpose of the present study is to explore the autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete with shrinkage reduction additivet and expansive producing admixture and to derive a realistic equation to estimate the autogenous shrinkage model of that. For this purpose, comprehensive experimental program has been set up to observe the autogenous shrinkage for various test series. Major test variables were the contents of shrinkage reduction additive and expansive producing admixture, and water-cement ratio was fixed with 30%. The flow rate, compressive strength, surface tension and autogenous shrinkage were measured for the specimens. The test results indicate that the test specimens have the properties of high-performance concrete. The autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete (HPC) is found to decrease with increasing shrinkage reduction additive and expansive producing admixture. In case of combined use, the autogenous shrinkage is more reduction than in case of separate use. A prediction equation to estimate the autogenous shrinkage of HPC with shrinkage reduction additive and expansive producing admixture was derived and proposed in this study. The proposed equation show reasonably good correlation with test data on autogenous shrinkage of HPC with shrinkage reduction additive and expansive producing admixture.
Formulation of Plastic Hysteresis Constitutive Equation for Steel Materials and Evaluation on Deformation Capacity of Steel Pipe-Section Piers under Cyclic Loading
Chang, Kyong-Ho ; Jang, Gab-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1309~1316
Large deformation and cyclic plastic behavior of steel members are generated by non-proportional cyclic loading, i.e. earthquake, and cause to decrease a deformation capacity. In this paper, in order to predict the large deformation and cyclic plastic behavior of steel pipe-section piers, 3-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis used finite deformation theory and plastic hysteresis constitutive equation are developed. The validity of the proposed analytical method are confirmed by experimental results and the good agreement between analysis results and experimental results is shown. Also, deformation capacity of steel pipe-section piers are evaluated by using proposed analytical 3-dimensional finite deformation analysis in parameter of steel type and diameter-thickness ratio.
Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete using Multi-scale Modeling
Lee, Kwang-Myong ; Park, Jang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1317~1322
Elastic modulus of concrete, which governs the behavior of concrete structures, is mostly estimated by empirical formula derived from experimental results. However, these formula contain many uncertainties, and have difficulty in reflecting various material properties. Therefore, a numerical method to estimate appropriately elastic modulus of concrete is needed. In addition, the interfacial transition zone should be considered in the method for the better estimation. This paper presents a numerical integration method, which can accurately calculate the stiffness of finite elements with material discontinuity. Applying the proposed method, concrete with complex interfacial zone was modeled into uniform finite elements, and the elastic modulus of concrete was calculated using the force-displacement relationship. The proposed method has the advantages such as the rapid mesh generation of 3-D concrete model and the elimination of element distortion. The validity of the proposed method was verified by comparing calculated results with experimental results, and the effect of the interfacial transition zone on elastic modulus of concrete was also investigated.
Strengthening Method of PSC Box Girder for Deformation Protection Subjected to Eccentric Load in I.L.M
Choi, Wae-Ho ; Sung, Myung-Mo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1323~1332
In PSC box girder bridges built by incremental launching method(I.L.M.), distortion displacement and distortion stress, warping stress are insidious phenomenons that should be evaluated in design and prevented during construction. An eccentric load applied to the box girder produces bending and torsion, and it also produces distortion stress and warping stress. if warping deformation is restrained. Moreover, an eccentric load causes distortion, if the cross section of the beam is not rigid in its plane. In launched bridges, diaphragms are generally placed at the permanent support positions. But they cannot prevent distortion effectively during construction. Therefore, PSC box girder bridges by I.L.M subjected to eccentric load, require effectively and economically strengthening method. Using deformation minimization management curve by distortion displacement, we can decide zones of requiring reinforcement and reasonable intervals of stiffening member, so we can reduce distortion displacement and distortion stress, warping stress effectively. In order to acquire this curve, we suggest BEF analogy model that permits an analysis of this phenomenon and the optimization of the interaction between torsion and distortion. This results in a more agile and faster analysis than finite element analysis.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Nuclear Containment Wall Panel Subjected to Biaxial Tensile Load
Lee, Hong-Pyo ; Choun, Young-Sun ; Seo, Jeong-Moon ; Shin, Jae-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 24, issue 6A, 2004, Pages 1333~1343
This paper is mainly focused to develop shell finite element program with 8-node using assumed strain method to analysis reinforced concrete containment wall panel subjected to biaxial tensile load. Generally, Shell FE is adapted to the degenerated solid method with Reissner-Mindlin assumptions and assumed strain method to avoid locking phenomenon. RC material models such as crack criteria, tension stiffening effect and steel model obtained from empirical results are employed in the program. Nonlinear finite element analysis subject to biaxial tensile loads are carried out by the developed program with new material models above mentioned to evaluate their performance. From the FE analysis results, concrete tensile strength corresponds to initial cracking stress based on the experiment results flirty predicted crack opening point. Also, the exponential form of tension stiffening model together with the use of apparent yield stress model for the steel embedded in the concrete performed well in the panel analysis and it produced a good agreement with experiment results.