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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6D - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6C - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6B - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6A - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5D - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5C - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5B - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5A - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4D - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4C - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4B - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4A - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3D - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3C - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3B - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3A - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2D - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2C - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2B - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2A - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1D - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1C - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1B - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1A - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Distribution of Coastal Ground Water Discharge from Surficial Aquifers of Major River Districts
Han, Soo Young ; Hong, Sung Hun ; Park, Namsik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 1~6
Amount of coastal ground water discharge(CGD) of surficial aquifer via coastlines of Nakdong River watershed, Seomjin River watershed, Youngsan River watershed and Keum River watershed is estimated. Compared to other major hydrological components, such as evapo-transpiration and river discharge, CGD is not so large in the amount. However, it is important since coastal ground water can be developed relatively free of environmental impact on downstream area and since most of coastal areas currently suffers water shortage. Regional groundwater investigation data and assessment based on Darcy's law are used for estimating coastal groundwater discharge. In this work the amount of CGD across the coastlines of the four rivers is estimated as 1.8 billion cubic meter per year and that is about 2.3 percentage of total amount of annual precipitation. Nakdong River watershed is most appropriate region in view of developing groundwater.
Runoff Analysis Based on Rainfall Estimation Using Weather Radar
Kim, Jin Geuk ; Ahn, Sang Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 7~14
The radar relationship was estimated for the selected rainfall event at Yeongchun station within Chungjudam basin where the discharge record was the range of from 1,000 CMS to 9,000 CMS. By calibrating the rainfall coefficient parameter estimated by radar relationship in small hydrology basin, rainfall with the topography properties was calculated. Three different rainfall estimation methods were compared:(1) radar relationship method (2) Thiessen method (3) Isohyetal method (4) Inverse distance method. Basin model was built by applying HEC-GeoHMS which uses digital elevation model to extract hydrological characteristic and generate river network. The proposed basin model was used as an input to HEC-HMS to build a runoff model. The runoff estimation model applying radar data showed the good result. It is proposed that the radar data would produce more rapid and accurate runoff forecasting especially in the case of the partially concentrated rainfall due to the atmospheric change. The proposed radar relationship could efficiently estimate the rainfall on the study area(Chungjudam basin).
Runoff Analysis due to Moving Storms based on the Basin Shapes (I) - for the Symmetric Basin Shape -
Han, Kun Yeun ; Jeon, Min Woo ; Kim, Ji Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 15~25
Using kinematic wave equation, the influence of moving storms to runoff was analysised with a focus on watersheds. Watershed shapes used are the oblong, square and elongated shape, and the distribution types of moving storms used are uniform, advanced and intermediate type. The runoff hydrographs according to the rainfall distribution types were simulated and the characteristics were explored for the storms moving down, up and cross the watershed with various velocity. The shape, peak time and peak runoff of a runoff hydrograph are significantly influenced by spatial and temporal variability in rainfall and watershed shapes. A rain storm moving in the cross direction of channel flow produces a higher peak runoff than in the downstream direction and upstream direction. A peak runoff from a storm moving downstream exceeds that from a storm moving upstream. For storms moving downstream peak time was more delayed than for other storm direction in the case of elongated watershed. The runoff volume and time base of the hydrograph decreased with the increasing storm speed.
Parameter Calibration of Storage Function Model and Flood Forecasting (1) Calibration Methods and Evaluation of Simulated Flood Hydrograph
Song, Jae Hyun ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Hong, Il Pyo ; Kim, Sang Ug ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 27~38
The storage function model (SFM) has been used for the flood forecasting in Korea. The SFM has a simple calculation process and it is known that the model is more reasonable than linear model because it considers non-linearity of flood runoff. However, the determination of parameters is very difficult. In general, the trial and error method which is an manual calibration by the decision of a model manager. This study calibrated the parameters by the trial and error method and optimization technique. The calibrated parameters were compared with the representative parameters which are used in the Flood Control Centers in Korea. Also, the evaluation indexes on objective functions and calibration methods for the comparative analysis of simulation efficiency. As a result, the Genetic Algorithm showed the smallest variation in objective functions and, in this study, it is known that the objective function of SSR (Sum of Squared of Residual) is the best one for the flood forecasting.
Parameter Calibration of Storage Function Model and Flood Forecasting (2) Comparative Study on the Flood Forecasting Methods
Kim, Bum Jun ; Song, Jae Hyun ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Hong, Il Pyo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 39~50
The flood control offices of main rivers have used a storage function model to forecast flood stage in Korea and studies of flood forecasting actively have been done even now. On this account, the storage function model, which is used in flood control office, regression models and artificial neural network model are applied into flood forecasting of study watershed in this paper. The result obtained by each method are analyzed for the comparative study. In case of storage function model, this paper uses the representative parameters of the flood control offices and the optimized parameters. Regression coefficients are obtained by regression analysis and neural network is trained by backpropagation algorithm after selecting four events between 1995 to 2001. As a result of this study, it is shown that the optimized parameters are superior to the representative parameters for flood forecasting. The results obtained by multiple, robust, stepwise regression analysis, one of the regression methods, show very good forecasts. Although the artificial neural network model shows less exact results than the regression model, it can be efficient way to produce a good forecasts.
Effects of Water Quality Improvement by Porosity of Fill Materials in Mattress/Filter System
Ko, Jin Seok ; Lee, Sung Yun ; Heo, Chang Hwan ; Jee, Hong Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 51~60
Water quality improvement in mattress/filter system using porous material like slag from industrial activity and zeolite that has been studied for environment improvement and pollution abatement is very useful in polluted stagnant stream channel. Slag is consisted of CaO,
. Slag with large specific surface area of porosity has been used such as sludge settling and adsorptive materials. Because slag is porous, it can be used for purification filter. As slag is used as filled materials of mattress/filter system and the system has good advantages for the waste water treatment, water recycling, and the improvement of water quality at the same time and so on. Because zeolite has much advantage of cation exchange, adsorption, catalyst and dehydration characteristics, It is used for environment improvement of livestock farms, treatment of artificial sewage and waste water, improvement of drinking water quality, radioactive waste disposal and radioactive material pollution control. In this study, according to verifying effects of water quality improvement of fill materials by porosity that 38.6%, 45.8% and 49.8% respectively in the stagnant stream channel, water quality monitoring of inflow and outflow was conducted on pH, DO, BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P. Mattress/filter system was able to accelerate water quality improvement by biofilter as waste water flows through gap of mattress/filter fill materials and by contact catalysis, absorption, catabolism by biofilm. Mattress/filter system used slag and zeolite forms biofilm easily and accelerates adsorption of organic matter. As a result, mattress/filter system increases water self-purification and accelerates water quality improvement available for stream water clean-up.
Application of Self-Organizing Map for the Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics
Kim, Yong Gu ; Jin, Young Hoon ; Park, Sung Chun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 61~67
Various methods have been applied for the research to model the relationship between rainfall-runoff, which shows a strong nonlinearity. In particular, most researches to model the relationship between rainfall-runoff using artificial neural networks have used back propagation algorithm (BPA), Levenberg Marquardt (LV) and radial basis function (RBF). and They have been proved to be superior in representing the relationship between input and output showing strong nonlinearity and to be highly adaptable to rapid or significant changes in data. The theory of artificial neural networks is utilized not only for prediction but also for classifying the patterns of data and analyzing the characteristics of the patterns. Thus, the present study applied self?organizing map (SOM) based on Kohonen's network theory in order to classify the patterns of rainfall-runoff process and analyze the patterns. The results from the method proposed in the present study revealed that the method could classify the patterns of rainfall in consideration of irregular changes of temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall. In addition, according to the results from the analysis the patterns between rainfall-runoff, seven patterns of rainfall-runoff relationship with strong nonlinearity were identified by SOM.
Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Droughts in Korea: Construction of Drought Severity-Area-Duration Curves
Kim, Bo Kyung ; Kim, Sang Dan ; Lee, Jae Soo ; Kim, Hung Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 69~78
The rainfall depth-area-duration analysis which is used to characterize precipitation extremes for specification of so-called design storms, provides a basis for evaluation of drought severity when storm depth is replaced by an appropriate measure of drought severity. So we propose a method for constructing drought severity-area-duration curves in this study. Monthly precipitation data over the whole Korea are used to compute SPI. Such SPIs are abstracted to several independent spatial components from EOF analysis. Using Kriging method, these spatial components are used to constitute grid-based SPI data set over the whole Korea including Jeju island with
resolution. After identifying main drought events, the drought severity-area-duration curves for these events over 32-year period of record are finally constructed. As a result, such curves show the similar shape with storm-based curves in the sense that the drought severity (or rainfall depth) is inversely proportional to drought area from the curves, but drought-based curves are different from storm-based curves in the sense that the drought severity decreasing rate with respect to drought area is much less than depth decreasing rate.
Method for Flood Runoff Analysis of Main Channel Connected with Interior Floodplain : I. Application for Analysis of Inundation Area in Interior Floodplain
Jang, Su Hyung ; Yoon, Jae Young ; Yoon, Yong Nam ; Kim, Won Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 79~88
In this study, a methodology is developed for flood runoff analysis considering the interaction between interior floodplain and channel. Riparian lowland is modeled as storage areas by HEC-RAS and is connected with main channel through gravity drainage structure and pumping stations. As a result, we were able to compute the difference between runoff into the interior floodplain and delayed runoff to main channel from interior floodplain. This allowed us to compute the storage change in the interior floodplain and corresponding inundation areas. Furthermore, the levee is modeled as a lateral structure and the flood from the main channel to interior floodplain is modeled by installing a weir on top of it. In addition, levee breach is also modeled so that flooding from main channel to interior floodplain can be considered. Computed flooding depth in the storage areas are compared with elevation to identify the inundated areas and flood maps can then be produced for a desired time or for the extent of flooding given a flooding depth. Output from this modeling effort can provide many useful information for flood planning such as flow depth in main channel, flooding depth and area in interior floodplain. The method was applied to Sapgyo river basin and the comparison with observed flood events showed that it can reproduce the observation fairly well, hence proving the utility of the method.
Methods for Flood Runoff Analysis of Main Channel Connected with Interior Floodplain : II. Application for Analysis of Flood Runoff in Estuarine Lake
Jang, Su Hyung ; Yoon, Jae Young ; Yoon, Yong Nam ; Kim, Won Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 89~98
In this study, a method for flood runoff analysis in main channel connected with interior floodplain, is applied for evaluation of hydraulics of Sapgyo lake for the purpose of flood protection by considering tidal effect of West Sea and runoff from the watershed. Especially, operational condition of sluice gate was explicitly modeled in conjunction with various runoff scenarios from watershed. The change in hydraulics of main channel and interior floodplain was found to be predominantly affected by tidal effect, and explicit modeling of gate operation made possible the evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of different alternatives. Until now, such an analysis was not made due to the lack of models with such capability, however, with the proposed method, it is possible to perform such an analysis and is thought that the proposed method can be a valuable tool for flood protection planning.
Frequency Analysis of Extreme High Water Level Considering Tide/Surge Characteristic Changes
Kang, Ju Whan ; Moon, Seung Rok ; Park, Seon Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 99~106
Due to both global warming and constructions of seadike/seawalls, continuously or abruptly rising tendencies of extreme high water levels have been detected at Kunsan and Mokpo harbors. This paper deals firstly with the separation of each effect, namely global warming effect and construction effect, on increases of water level quantitatively by a linear regression method. And then, it can be explained why and how the extreme high water levels had been risen just after constructions at both harbors. A numerical simulation of
tidal constituent at Mokpo coastal zone shows that the tidal amplification by constructions is mainly due to the extinguishment of TCE at Mokpogu. The tidal flat effect makes the amplification more deepen at spring tide or extreme high tide, which results in the increase of inundation risk at Mokpo harbor. A frequency analysis method is applied, which is shown to be effective at such a site of having non-homogeneous tidal data due to constructions as Mokpo harbor.
On the Crystalline Structures of Iron Oxides formed During Removal Process of Iron in Water
Cho, Bong-Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 107~111
The samples collected from two reactors are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and M
ssbauer spectroscopy in this study. It is concluded that the iron oxide crystal attached on anthracite media which possesses catalytic ability is identified to be Ferrihydrite, regardless of the value of pH from the analysis of the iron oxide. Iron oxide in Batch reactor is identified to be Microcrystalline goethite.
Cost Estimation of Intermittent Aerobic Digestion
Kim, Woon Joong ; Kim, Seong Hong ; Kim, Hee Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 113~118
Cost estimation of an intermittent aerobic digestion technology was carried out in this study. Aeration ratio is one of the most important design factors and it affects installation and power consumption cost. For the purpose, digestion efficiency was fixed at 35% of SS reduction and the reactor type was assumed a 2-chamber sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Installation cost and power consumption cost were evaluated and converted in terms of present value that could reflect the rate of discount and the rate of economic growth. The lower aeration ratio needs higher installation cost but lower power consumption cost. From the point of only installation cost, conventional aerobic digestion is cheaper than intermittent aerobic digestion. But intermittent aerobic digestion is better economical for more than 10 years of estimated service life. The optimal aeration ratio was dependent on the service life and it was lower as the estimated service life increased. For the 45 years as the service life, the optimal aeration ratio was estimated 0.3 and the total cost was 64% of the conventional aerobic digestion.
Comparison of Pollutants Removal between the Intermittently Aerated Bioreactor(IABR) and Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor(IAMBR)
Choi, Chang Gyoo ; Lee, Kwang Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 119~124
The purpose of this study was the comparison of pollutants removal and the track study of the nitrogen and phosphorus, the estimation of the nitrification and denitrification rate, and the investigation of the nitrogen mass balance between intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor(IAMBR) and intermittently aerated bioreactor(IABR), thus it verified the validity of the membrane submergence. As a result, it had no difference of organic matter removal, however, IAMBR showed better efficiency than IABR in the nutrients. Also,
-N concentration at the anoxic state in the reactor was lower in IAMBR, and the denitrified nitrogen of IAMBR was 40.9%, that of IABR was 10.7%, thus it found out that the denitrification capability of IAMBR was higher than IABR above fourfold. Therefore, it seems resonable to conclude that the membrane helps to improve the removal of pollutants, because of the high MLSS concentration and the available method of intermittent inflow/outflow.
Sand Capping for Controlling Phosphorus Release from Lake Sediments
Kim, Geonha ; Jeong, Woohyeok ; Choe, Seunghee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 1B, 2006, Pages 125~130
In this research, possibility of sand capping was experimentally evaluated to control phosphorus release from lake sediment into water body. Three acrylic columns without and with 40 and 80 mm of sand capping were prepared. Phosphorus concentrations of overlying water in these columns were measured. Performances of sand capping were evaluated for 0, 40, and 80 mm of capping thickness by measuring DO, ORP, TP, and
-P. For the case without capping, the releasing rate of total phosphorus was higher and dissolved oxygen decreased faster, comparing with those of columns with capping. Total phosphorus concentrations in overlying water were inversely proportional to capping thickness, while phosphate concentration showed no significant differences between both cases. The experiment results suggested that sand capping is effective to retard total phosphorus release from sediment.